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Darwin Correspondence Project

Satire of FitzRoy's Narrative of the Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, by John Clunies Ross. Transcription by Katharine Anderson

[f.146r Title page]


of the

Adventure and Beagle

Supplement / to the 2nd 3rd and Appendix Volumes of the First / Edition

Written / for and in the name of the Author of those / Volumes


J.C. Ross. / Sometime Master of a Merchant Ship.

[blank page] [f.147r p.1]


To part II or that intended for No II of the foresaid works. By Captain Robert Fitzroy R.N.

In the first Edition Mr Colburn who (as is the worst of all great Bibliophiles) prefers brevity to verbosity, and thinness to thickness – being aware of my ability to make the Volumes that were to bear my name and titles – large – as so many Kentledge pigs – and almost as heavy – limited the 2nd to 700 pages of easily readable type – and the Appendix volume to 352 – making together no more than 1052 pages – consequently – I was compelled to omit a very handsome collection of exceedingly valuable materials which I am now preparing for being added to those of the first Edition – in the composition of a second, or – a new work rather – which shall consist of not less than three Volumes – similar in size and print to those of the first – each to be of about 1,000 pages in thickness. To be published – so soon as a general call has been made for it, by the reading public. For the object of stimulating that call – this Supplement has been kindly written on my behalf by Mr J.C. Ross of the Cocos – he having been fully informed of the truly benevolent motives by which I was actuated whilst I was on my visit to those Isles – and – drawing up my report on them and him, which was published to the world by me in my first Edition. He has moreover desired whilst writing in my name to retain the title by which I therein designate him – because – altho’ he had a British-Javan-Government commission for commanding under it an H.C. Cruizer [vf.147v p.2] of considerably greater tonnage – and heavier [metal] than the Beagle measures – or – can properly carry – (and that whilst I was wearing pinafores – if not baby clothes – or at most was no further advanced in life than the serving of my school, (or college) fag apprenticeship) and has official documents addressed to him as – “Captain” by naval commanders in chief and Captains in the Royal Navy – Lieutenant-Governors – and Secretaries to Governments – yet – looking to the circumstances under which I obtained my commandership, he is ready to admit – that altho’ many Captains R.N. do not hesitate to (unofficially) give the title – to Masters of Merchant Ships – Knowing as they do – that it will be taken for what it is, an expression of gentlemanly courtesy and condescension – which cannot derogate from their acknowledged superiority, I could not afford to do so.

Returning to my present subject – I have to assure the world – that all the super-interesting extracts from hitherto unknown ancient and modern writings in Latin, Spanish, English, and French – prose and poetry – down to the Chilian newspapers of the other day – narratives of exploitations – discoveries – naval theories, and Historical sketches &c &c – which I compressed into the first Edition – will be amplified, enlarged, and, to those of foreign languages – translations attached &c &c &c in the new Edition – as for my ability to compress a large amount of information, indications, and insinuation into small compass – by writing as much on one page – as would require a hundred or so to duly unfold in those respects – I confidently refer to my report on the Cocos – &c &c – above mentioned. [f.148r p.3] Seeing as I could not help seeing (altho’ my “limits of space” prevented me from clearing them up at the time) sundry difficulties of the nature of stumbling blocks to my friends (the readers of my first Edition) I now proceed to notice – and to some extent – or in some particulars altogether – clear them up – I say in some particulars only because if I now in this Supplement – cleared up all – it would be taking off the cream of my new work – and so perhaps cause that to spoil on Mr Colburn’s hands, and become a mere churnful of sour whey in his literary dairy.

I naturally wished to have a savant at my elbow – in the position of a humble toadyish follower – who would do the Natural History department – on my sole account – but not being able to obtain such a one I was (in a manner) compelled to take Mr Darwin on a far too independent footing. He was indeed – perhaps he still is – “very fond of Natural History” – but by way of ascertaining that fondness involves fitness – Mr Ross has promised that if he can command the leisure and be enabled to enjoy the health of mind and body needful for accomplishing it he shall in the course of the IInd part of this Supplement exhibit evidence to that effect – in Mr Darwin’s instance – especially in respect to the super-sublimity and deeply diving profundity of his “theory of the origin of low and lagoon encircling Islands of the Coral formation.” For – altho’ I have myself intimated strong doubts of the validity of the elevation part of that theory – and only assented to that of the subsidence – temporarily – to serve a special purpose – namely – the depreciation of the Cocos – yet – Mr Ross certainly thinks – that he can prove both parts to be very nearly – if not quite – equal to [f.148v p.4] each other in that respect.

End of the Preface

“We sailed from Plymouth on the 27th December with a fresh easterly wind – and I steered as far Southerly as was safe – in hopes of keeping the easterly wind longer and the result proved that I was right – for although the Beagle had a fair wind all the way to the Canaries – vessels which sailed from England only one day after us and steered much more Westerly – lost the Easterly wind very soon and were retarded by another succession of strong and contrary gales similar to those which detained us a whole week.”

“At daylight on the 4th January 1832 the Island of Porto Santo was seen. We steered for Madeira intending to anchor in Funchal roads, but the wind drew round to Southwest with such strong squalls – that I abandoned my intention – and at once steered for Teneriffe.” I quote all this here – from the first Edition because certain impertinent persons have remarked – that – in the first place – to get a fair start from Plymouth out of the chops of the channel – or – of the Bay of Biscay – in the month of December especially – is a grand aid towards making a quick passage to the Southward.

In the 2nd that the expression “sailed from England” is rather too vague for comparison because – the vessels alluded to – might have sailed from Newcastle-Hull, or Whitehaven – for aught that I have said, or shewn to the contrary.

In the 3rd It is generally understood – that vessels sailing from the English Channel, and intending to put in at Santa Cruz (Teneriffe) do not intentionally steer much more westerly than the course to Madeira – and that – when the wind is blowing strong [f.149r p.5] from the S.W. at the Madeiras – it is not quite a fair wind for steering from thence to the Cannaries. Now – with respect to all but the last these saucy remarks – I shall notice them in my new work – here however, I shall (as Sir P.S. would say) “put down” that last one, at once, by stating the fact – that under my management the Beagle could, and did – whenever I chose – lie within four points of the wind – slashing through the water without making a foot of lee-way – in the 24 hours – or – as much more time as might be required in the case. To make amends to my friends – for my not proceeding to Funchall – at all – I have given five views of the that place – correctly drawn from memory and imagination – a liberality which surely ought to be duly lauded by them. N.B. I call and esteem my readers – as being my friends – for altho’ as sometimes happens between the dearest – misunderstandings may occur – these may always be best cleared up at once – I therefore here take the opportunity of directing their attention before I go farther to what they may perhaps have read too heedlessly – viz – that I have conferred upon navigators passing the Equator – in the Atlantic – the very valuable boon of instructing them – in what degree of Longitude – they should make that passage (Nothing nearly so trustworthy, having been previously made known to Nautical men) and – that in connection with that celebrated Line – I have vigorously remarked with respect to the elegant and truly exhilarating ceremony, celebrated by the crews of most vessels crossing it – that – sailors at sea on long voyages, have such superlative abundance of means and leisure, to keep themselves up to the acme of neatness and cleanliness – that – a dirtying match is felt quite as a blessed relief from the ennui of Dandyism [f.149v p.6] and that I therefore (as might be expected a priori) gave my hearty assent and personal countenance to its performance on board the Beagle.

Some Masters of merchant ships I know – (among others the one on whose conduct in other important respects I enlarged in connexion with the Cocos Isles) never permitted it to be acted in vessels under their command – the one I allude to in particular – even denominating it – “a dirty farce.”

“But I say that it is one of those amusements of which the omission is to be regretted – and furthermore – do deem it’s abolition and condemnation as being an absurd and dangerous piece of folly – a sign unmistakable – of these would-be-Abolitionists &c having weak heads, and unfeeling hearts.”

“Strong words these – your honour!” I think I hear my friends exclaim – but when they have read what I am just about to write – they will admit that weaker would be unworthy of the occasion – and that I am naturally zealous for the general re-acknowledgement of the Old Sea God – after his having conferred the indescribably important information obligation upon me of imparting the information and performing the assistance which is to be received in my unapproachably Philosophical Essay on the Oceanic Tidal movements – for which at large – see my Appendix – Here however – for the quieting of those friendly murmurers – suffice it to mention that his Godship (stimulated I must confess by his Old Goddess who was not ungrateful for the obsequious attention and humility which I shewed towards her when she visited the Beagle – ) Sent up to Otaheite a tide wave from each Polar Circle – “to neutralize one another at that Island” and sent “to the Sandwich Islands – one from the Equator and one from the 40th parallel of North Latitude – to maintain the water thereabouts about its' natural level” [f.150r p.7] Raised – the tide wave in the Tasmanian Ocean whilst passing Westward by the South of Australia to such an elevation as allowed a wave to fall off from it high enough to proceed Northward and N.E.rd to make on the Coast of N.W.n Australia – in combination with another from the Pacific (sent over the Torres Straits submarine Isthmus) high water – of an uncommon height – and that too – “at the very time – when but for these two auxiliaries to would be low water” – alias – dead ebb tide – then informed me – that – “the Indian Ocean has high water on all sides at once – though not in the central parts at the same time.”

That “the tides at the Cocos are influenced by the advancing swell of the Pacific coming on from Torres Straits.

That – “the times of high water at the Chagos and Mauritius are confirmations of the fact – that the tides in that quarter move Westward and Eastward to and from the East Coast of Africa” – and – to mention no more at present – that – the Newtonian hypothesis of their being two flood tides and two only; both moving from East to West in the Antarctic Ocean – at twelve hours – or 180˚ of Longitude apart from each other is corroborated by the fact there seen and set forth by me – of a “Third flood tide” and that too a “powerful” one moving in that same Ocean – from West to East &c

At the Rock Islet of St Paul, in the North Atlantic I saw “ravenous monsters of Sharks” – their monstrosity consisting in their having two terrible mouths – one above and one below the snout – which I scarcely need say – gave them an aspect at once monstrous and demoniacal.’ [f.150v p.8f] “The trade from Bahia might be very extensive in sugar and cotton but – who will embark much capital upon so insecure a foundation as is there offered?”

Answer by myself – “The thousands of slaves who are annually imported – are eagerly bought up at high prices – because they become the helpless instruments of immense gains of their owners.”

“Being in Brazil it became incumbent upon me to notice and discuss – the subject of the wreck of H.M.S. Thetis on Cape Frio – unfortunately my confined limits restricted that notice to only five pages – but having information enough, to fill fifty more – that shall be done – I only refer to it here – because some insolent fellow or other – probably a Master of a Merchant Ship – has – I understand – presumed to think – that along with my assumption of what – is somewhat rare, in the South Atlantic – extraordinary currents – to wit – I should have forestalled the following questions –

Was any alteration made in the position of the Kentledge, for taking on board the Specie? If there was such alteration effected – was the local attraction of the compasses correctly ascertained afterwards? Questions, which – looking at the rank of the questioner – might be passed by 'with silent contempt but – having 'the answers already provided (in the course of the information abovementioned – as being still on my hands) – I shall probably insert them. Meanwhile the reader will not forget my bravery – in publishing a sneer at “prudent officers” when he reads my anecdote of the Pampero and the Beagle – presently to be noticed.

Being of course ambitious to rival Mr Darwin in the line of Theory-invention – I hit upon one (viz – that – low Islands are productive of bad weather at them – and – in [f.151r p.9] their vicinity –) which I may safely say is very little if at all inferior to his – of Coral Island formations – in any one respect – except perhaps in that of daring assertion – whilst shamelessly quite fashionably ignorant as to whether those assertions were true – or the reverse. At the Abrolhos (off the Coast of Brazil) I educed the germ which I developed (as the reader of my volume will have seen) whenever an opening for that process appeared to be available – at once impressing into its service – the Bermudas – under their poetical appellation of “the still vexed Bermoothes.” – Of course the Gulf Stream passing along in the vicinity of those Islands at a much higher temperatures than that of the Ocean waters on both sides of it – can have no effect on the incumbent atmosphere nor consequently upon the weather thereabouts – nor can the neighbourhood of the Continent whose Coast lies nearly parallel with the course of that Stream have any influence of that nature in the case. – This last conclusion is especially true (in my opinion) with reference to the Abrolhos – which lie on – about – the limits to which the land winds from the Inter-tropical Coast of Brazil extend their influence – an influence which would doubtless produce a steady breeze of the trade wind – and constant fair weather about those limits – if it were not counteracted by that – of these perversely disposed low Islands and Shoals. –

For the abolition of slavery in Brazil – I invented a plan (for which see my first Edition) and have taken a patent for it in that Empire – by which I have no doubt of making an unheard of fortune by the sale of licenses to the Emperor &c – whenever it shall be adopted, by a Government composed of Slaveholders – an event which shall most certainly take place when the time comes wherein calves unfailingly obey the Butcher’s musical [f.151v p.10] invitation, “Dilly, dilly, dilled – come and be killed.”

I may nevertheless whilst at the subject of Slavery mention another plan – imagined by Mr Ross as being of feasible adoption – “Imitate (says he) the process by which personal Slavery was ultimately abolished in England &c – Raise the Slaves to the condition of Serfs attached to the soil and saleable only along with it – except in the cases of criminality – to be decided by a Jury of their fellow Serfs^presided over by their Master^ – allot to them as a cooperative body as much land as they can properly cultivate on condition of delivering to their master so much of the produce as to leave enough for their own comfortable subsistence – In the case of Staples – such as cotton, coffee, sugar, tobacco – their master to have the option of purchasing their shares at the average Market price – so that it may be profitable for him to erect the Machinery needful for the manufacturing operations.

The Serfs to elect their headman – and he to elect his sub-headmen – these to be answerable to him and he to the Master for the due cultivation of the land – and observation of all needful regulations. – To call and preside in Juries of the Serfs of the trial of skulkers and all other criminals no cognizable by the laws of the Colony – State – or Nation. The verdict not to be valid until approved by the Master – or his substitute for the time being.

This System would gradually become the same as the Village one of India &c – which also was most probably that of ancient Egypt. – In which however the comparative small proportion paid to the Government would indicate that the cultivators were co-owners of the soil – certainly neither the native nor the European Lords of India have ever allowed the cultivators of any tolerably productive lands to retain for themselves any [f.152r p.11] proportion at all approaching to so much as four-fifths – more especially not on such easily cultivated and exceedingly fertile lands – as those lying along the banks of the Nile – We need not proceed to specify particulars of details these being obvious and easily carried out – under this System the Masters would be freed from all anxiety – from much risk – and much expense – and by simply following the dictates of honesty – and justice – would find themselves surrounded by attached vassals instead of ruthless enemies. –

In my account of the Pampero – by which I had the Beagle’s topmasts and jib-boom carried away – and two men drowned – I have observed for “the edification of young sailors” that – “I had not then learned – never to despise an enemy – ” yet – in my notice of the loss of the Thetis written several years later – I could afford to sneer at prudent persons – I nevertheless now agree with Jonathan Wild, Monsieur Talleyrand, and other great men that – mischief-making is too precious a thing to be wasted – and therefore add here – that they should never causelessly make an enemy – and recommend to them (the said young sailors) the old Scotsman’s motto – “Dinna wauken sleeping dogs.”

In my first Edition – I propounded the following peculiar, and very logically constructed Interrogative with reference to the Country at Buenos Ayres. – “What must be the fertility of a country – which without the slightest assistance from man – can nourish such multitudes of cattle – besides immense droves of horses and flocks of sheep – and yet – except near its’ few towns – appear almost destitute of human inhabitants?” No answer to this has as yet been published – and if none be so – before the publication [f.152v p.12] of my new work – I shall then give in that – a most wonderfully philosophical solution.

At page 106 – it is seen that I commenced my advocacy of Savage marauders – but ^only^ in the “cut and come again” – or piece meal mode – which I thought proper to adopt – my friends may ^consequently^ have overlooked some of my most cogent pleadings – I therefore proceed to bring the principal of these – together – in this place.

“Perhaps it is not generally known, that many of the most desperate incursions upon the Buenos Ayrean colonists have been made – not by the Indians living in their neighbourhood – but by hordes whose head-quarters are in the Cordillera of the Andes – or even on the Coast of the Pacific – between Concepcion and Valdivia – [(who consequently could have suffered no injuries from those Colonists)] mounted upon excellent horses, and acquainted with every mile of the country – they think lightly of a predatory excursion against a place many hundreds of miles distant – where according to their usual practice – they kill all the old people, and men who fall into their hands – only saving alive some young women and children whom they keep alive to be slaves to them.”

“Three months before our arrival at the Buenos Ayrean Settlement – Argentina – one of these hordes under command of an old Auracanian Cacique named Toriano – who had long made his mere name a terror to the Colonists burst into the districts but were by the Commandant (of Argentina) come upon by surprize when the old Savage and also his second in command of the horde – together with some of their followers were captured – would the reader believe if I did not here declare the atrocious deed that these noble savages were shot – after being caught by these merciless Spaniards.” [f.153r p.13] “Prior to 1828 – the Settlers of Carmen on the Rio Negro lived tranquilly, undisturbed by Indian aggression (retaliation)*[1]” but since that time, they have been kept in continual alarm”

“During the time of the old Spaniards – After 1783 – [I beg the reader to note the dates] – more than a thousand Indians attacked the Settlement at one time – and the inhabitants retreated to their caves – which they had cut into the soft clay-stone precipices of the river's bank – and there being defended by strong doors with loop-holes for musketry they were safe – but their houses were ransacked and burnt – and all their animals were driven away – those of the Estación del Rey (King's farm or Estate) alone, amounted to more than one hundred thousand Cattle – and that – where now there is not even a calf. For since that time – the frequent predatory excursions of minor parties of Indians have prevented the Settlers from again rearing Cattle in large numbers, seeing that in so doing – they would assuredly tempt those aborigines to repeat their attacks on a greater scale than ever.” – Now between these statements of mine – there doubtless appears to exist – some sort of inconsistency – and I should at once clear that up – into perfect reconciliation – but for the consideration above-mentioned.

But in the meanwhile – the readers of my first Edition will doubtless have remarked, that having had occasion (by passing within a few hundred miles of them) to make some observations upon the Navigators, Feejee, and Friendly Islands – I have quoted with expressions of my entire approbation – certain remarks from La Perouse on this subject – of hostilities with savages – and – also, that [f.153v p.14] when at the Cocos Isles – I, of course, would be expected to have recollected those remarks – which doubtless I should have done but for the circumstance that the motives of my conduct there necessarily placed these recollections in abeyance for the time. – Perchance those motives, being of a most benevolent description I may perhaps have in some particulars or palavers allowed zeal to kick aside discretion – but of this – they (my readers) will be better able to judge by and bye.

Following the inspiration of my uncontrollable “disposition to criticize ill naturedly” and feeling certain that such criticisms are always – as infallibly true – as is the Athanasian creed – I found out – when at Port St Julian – that – “the trial of the unfortunate Captain Doughtie by Drake was a mock trial – and his execution pursuant to sentence – an unjust execution” – on which finding – I do now – most cheerfully leave the reader to decide – whether – the slandering and calumniating, of absent Strangers – or – of the valiant dead – be the most signal exhibition of personal bravery. That both are so – I know – and to remove doubt from my own mind have performed both – but I leave the decision to him or her – of which is pre-eminently so. In my own private opinion however – I think that the former is certainly entitled to bear away the palm – and this, because, I find it declared in “the Bible (“Every word of which I now know to be true and that its’ truth will be proved)” that – God hath manifested unto men – that they are beasts. For that which befalleth the sons of men, befalleth beasts – even one fate befalleth them – as the one dieth – so dieth the other – yea they have all one spirit. So that a man hath no pre-eminence above a beast – all go unto one place – all are of the dust and turn to dust again.” – I therefore agreeing [f.154r p.15 ] with the inspired royal Sage in all of this I conclude that a living dog is more to be feared than a dead lion.”

Knowing (as I have narrated) that “a party of convicts had taken a very small craft and crossed the vast Pacific Ocean from Australia to Chile: ” – I invented a scheme of making the Falkland Islands a grand convict prison – and published it in my first Edition – but strange to say – “Head-quarters” have not adopted it. I now therefore call upon the British Nation to enforce its adoption without brooking any longer delay. Here it is.

“I have always though the Falklands an admirable place for a penal Settlement – a thoroughly convict colony – a healthy temperate climate – far removed from civilized countries (where escaped convicts could be seized and sent back to the Islands but instead of such a continent at only a few hundred miles distance sparsely inhabited by savages, barbarians, and semi-civilized peoples, who would readily admit such escapes among them – instead of –as in the case of Australia – small Islands situated far in the Pacific, densely inhabited by Cannibals – to get away to which the convicts sent to those Colonies have nevertheless made numberless, and in many instances successful attempts) and (if used for such purpose only) incapable of being injured by the presence of bad characters – as our mixed settlements have been – fully supplied with necessaries – yet without any luxuries [such as soap &c] sufficiently extensive to maintain a large population – though small enough to be kept under the strictest martial law, and inspected everywhere – by water as well as by land” [for which duty – in a country separated into small Islands – whose shores are everywhere indented by sheltered Bays, Harbours, Creeks, &c and where a principal [f.154v p.16] portion of the food of the Settlers (convicts I mean) would be fish – for catching which – boats must necessarily be kept – probably some fifty or sixty thousand soldiers, marine policemen &c would suffice to – at least – prevent many of the convicts from making their escape to the Continent] It therefore seems to me (especially when looked at in connexion with the other proposal that I have made – of establishing a thoroughly free Port in those Islands) the very best situation for locating those bad characters –who are unfit to remain at home. “on looking over it however – I see or think I see – that some ambiguity hangs about my mention of what I call – “our mixed Settlements” – being “injured by the presence of that characters” – that is to say – whether by that appalachian, I mean the convicts for – and by whom – those Settlements were all originally made – or those people who have voluntarily gone to those convicts to reap the benefit of their labours and take them to their homes and hearths to be their slaves &c Hence I may perchance be supposed – by “bad characters” – to mean those said voluntary immigrants – a not improbable supposition – in the estimation of those who know that the old Kelt who during many years governed Eastern Australia and Van Dieman's Land – in reply to a frown emanated from head-quarters on account of his evincing “almost as much respect to the inferior as to the superior classes of the population” – declared that "he knew of only two classes – one who had been convicts, and one who should have been" However, I shall in due time explain myself on this point more fully.

I have next called – and still would call – the reader’s attention to the astonishing fact – “that the superstitious Ideas arising out of a debased Romish doctrine – have not deprived the natives of Chiloe of their belief in witchcraft!” – and here [f.155r p.17] I have to add that this doubtless has resulted from the Priests of that doctrine – knowing – that unless we had some good reason for believing that the divine Legislator or author of the Mosaic dispensation – enacted laws against nonentities – the existences of witches and wizards – is as clearly – as any other that can be mentioned – a doctrine or doctrinal tenet – set forth in the Bible. The story of the witch of Endor’s raising up Samuel – is indeed so clear and straight-forward a piece of narrative – as ought to have silenced all protestant disbelievers – and doubtless would – but for their having ousted the Pope from his office of Interpreter-general of the Bible – and taken it for themselves – therefore – of course – bent upon contradicting Him on all points.

After having duly noticed the enormity – which as most of my readers well know – is extremely rare in England, and not at all known to have been ever committed in Ireland – to wit, that of – “Priests intent upon their own worldly interest – instead of the welfare of their flocks – extorting first fruits and tithes from the poor people, whom they scarcely see, once in a year” &c I have gone on to declare, that – “there is a virtue practised in Chiloe which, if sins could be atoned for, by the good works of man alone – would go far towards furnishing good treatment and very slight purgatory – for the souls of Chilotes – I mean the warm hearted kindness shown to one another and particularly to Strangers.”

But – having also stated – on what I represent as being good authority – that – “they are justly complained of, for their extreme selfishness, and reluctance, to do anything for a neighbour unless for a consideration.” N.B. all which and more of a similar description I declare to be – “the evil consequences of their democratic inclinations.” The democratic inclinations – to wit – of People whom I also represent as being Royalists par excellence – almost crying their eyes out – when [f.155v p.18] informed by us – that there was no prospect of Old Spanish Absolutism being re-established over their country.”

In these specimens of my narrative writing – given in the first Edition – the reader will doubtless have (I say again) observed – apparent inconsistencies – but I can assure him – that my stinted space – alone prevented me from reconciling these as I shall together with all the others having – at present that sort of appearance.

N.B. In all the subsequent notices of these sort of things whenever I speak or promise in the future tense – the reader will understand, that I refer to my forth coming Work.

Proceeding to conclude my remarks on Chiloe and the Chilotes – I have written and printed as follows “Before I quit Chiloe, let me take advantage of this opportunity to express the gratitude of those with me – as well as for myself – for a succession of private assistance and sincere kindness, experienced from many persons at San Carlos whose names I refrain from mentioning – because I have a great dislike to the Idea of publishing anything – that occurs in the unreserved intercourse of friends.” I copy the foregoing – because the last sentence should have concluded as follows “that would amount to acknowledging obligations to individuals – a very foolish sort of conduct unless they had, or were likely to have – the power of advancing one’s interest at some future time.”

The wreck of H.M.S. Challenger was – in so far – a fortunate thing for me – that I got or made occasion for being as busy about it as a certain personage is said to be in a gale of wind. It is true that nobody asked me to put in my oar – but what of that – when my offer could not be politely refused! Unfortunately, I had no room for printing a tithe of the information that I took the opportunity of collecting. However, that shall be given in full. [f.156r p.19] Of course my self-assumed advocacy – of the Captain and officers blamelessness, for the catastrophe – would have been of little or no value – if I had not stated as I had done – that on the day before "Observations were got for time." which – by the majority – if not by all of my readers – must have been understood – the ascertaining of the Longitude by Chronometers much allowance must certainly be made for the very natural eagerness to get into Port – after a long Voyage performed in a very boisterous weather – but I needed not to have rendered the fact apparent – that a fatal mistake had been made – as thus – I have said that “At 5 p.m. it was supposed – that the Ship was fifty miles distant from the land – of which fifty she had run down 24 at 8 o'clock – and going from that time at the rate of four knots" She would have been ashore before four o'clock next morning (the sun not rising at that time of the year in that Latitude until 35 minutes after six) “Save me from my Friends” – was surely the exclamation of the Master after reading this sort of pleading in his favour.

My inability to recognize a prominent landmark (Tukapel Head) which I had surveyed shortly before – seems to require some explanation of it's cause – and accordingly I have given what the reader will have deemed to be a very satisfactory one. If he has remembered to forget – that between the time of my survey – and that of my said inability – I had journeyed on horseback to and fro along the Coast – had ascended the Head and visited the mouth of the river.

In concluding my dissertation on this theme of the Challenger’s wreck it is seen that I bestowed upon Commodore Mason of H.M.S. Blonde – some rather neat specimens of my
"natural disposition" – but I am sorry at having to say here – that he seems to have held them as cheap as dirt. f.156v p.20 A word more on the subject of difficulties – to be cleared up in my forth coming Edition – and I leave the Coast of Peru – where I closed my surveying labours with the exception of the Cocos – and which last mainly consisted – in copying Mr Ross’ Survey of those Isles – and in writing down that “Their lagoon is nearly filled up with growing coral and sand” – but – here is the word – in my “Appendix” Volume 281 my friends have seen me asserting that “From Arica to Payta the times of high water vary gradually – as the Coast trends Westward” and on pages 83 and 84 my report of the following facts.

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Now sure I am that – if I do not explain and describe the gradualily which according to my assertion is exhibited in the forgoing instances – the reader who discovers it by his own efforts – may fairly deem of himself as being an adept in the art of decyphering “the words of the wise – and their dark sayings.”

I next came to the Dangerous (or Low Island) archipelago (N.E. of Otaheite) and took occasion to add another page – or pages – rather – to the development and affirmation of my Low-Island-Squall-causing theory – of course – I shall not only affirm, but confirm it, by the reserved knowledge – which I have in my possession – but I may here direct attention to the following items of demonstration. Bearing in mind that "the Thermo-Equatorial winds blow from the Westward [f.157r p.21] of the Indian and Pacific Oceans (as in the Atlantic) and that in the Pacific – while the Sun is far Southward, or from November to March – this Westerly Monsoon (for such in fact it is – there being much Westerly wind and rain, with occasional calms and storms) extends to the Tropic of Capricorn and from N.E.n Australia to about 120˚ to 110˚ West Longitude in considerable extent from North to South – and thence narrowing in Latitude as it approaches the American Coast – in consequence of the Southerly winds which blow along that Coast from the colder Latitude. Bearing all this I say in mind, and observing that we steered too Southward of West (or toward the region of the steady trade winds) from the Northern side of this of this Low Island Archipelago – or that – nearest to the Equator – and lying within the above described track – and which we passed through in the month of November – the reader will not perhaps see as clearly as I do “the singularity of the fact – that directly we were clear of these Low Islands – we got into a steady trade wind such as we had enjoyed, before entering among them – and were no more troubled by Westerly winds, or squalls, till long after we had left Otaheite, and were approaching New Zealand” but, he will not have failed to perceive that the forsaid singularity has been demonstrated into an extensive plurality and conformality in the following passages. “At Otaheite (which lies far to the Southward of our track through the dangerous of our archipelago – where we arrived of the 13th of November) there was – instead of fine clear weather – a thickly overcast Sky – and only light and variable winds. Singular interruptions to the regularity of the trade wind, occur among all the Tropical Islands (high and low) of this Ocean “during the season from November to March – wherein I have just said – such [f.157v p.22] interruptions consist, in being results of the situations of those Islands, within the limits of the Westerly Monsoon above described. My readers will therefore please to remark – not only the forsaid singularity – but also that – at Otaheite – that the “steadiness of the trade winds” which stuck to us all the way from the Low Islands to near New Zealand – ^was^ apparently a cousin-german to that “fair wind which we had all the way from England to the Canaries.” Limited as I was in space – I could not afford to give more than 50 pages (only one fourteenth part of the Volume) of the new and important information, which I discovered, and collected at Otaheite – for one instance – I have nearly mentioned the Pitcairn Islanders quite incidentally, without giving a particle more of any sort of information about them, altho’ it is understood by many persons that with their removal to Otaheite – at the instance of the missionaries – and their subsequent return to their own Island – (a return eagerly desired by them) several points of interest to the reading and even to the religious public are connected.

Therefore – they will have a right to expect and shall not disappointed, that in my new work an 150 pages at least – shall be occupied with that (formerly withheld) information – among other particulars – I shall shew how it happened – that, instead of asking Mr Middleton himself to “reconcile his expressions of personal feelings of ill will towards the missionaries – with his strong declarations of their having effected great good amongst the inhabitants of the Low Islands” I chose to find out the explanation for myself. Of course – my natural disposition – could not doubt – that – it consisted of their having imposed restraints upon his conduct at Otaheite in singing ^of^ jovial sea songs even on Wednesdays*[2] [f.158r p.23] instead of the sacred hymns, composed by their Right Reverend Brains – at times – such as Saturday nights – even committing the enormity of dancing some steps to his own profane tunes &c &c &c

Having as aforementioned passed the Navigators, Feejees, and Friendly Islands – at only some hundred miles of distance – it must have been expected, that I should have given – at least, some hundred pages, or so – of valuable information concerning each and all of those Islands – that however (for the reason already so often mentioned) I could not then accomplish but at all events shall make amends – by not only giving all that – but also a full and accurate history, of every sand-bank, every reef, every Island, every group whether consisting of one or many – and every Conglomeration of Islands, or Reefs &c – existing now – or formerly – within the utmost limits of the Grand Ocean from Behring’s Straits to Victoria’s Land – nor shall those of the Chinese – the Indonesian – the Indian – and the Antarctic Seas be omitted – and with that History shall be given (besides ample dissertations on the subject of the proper names of each) exact Charts, bird’s eye, ground plan, profile, front and back sides &c a la mode de Funchallian – of every individual so historified. Again – of the invaluable remarks which I made in New Zealand – on all its concerns – I could only give 45 pages – but now – I shall not only have enough of that (for which I then had not room) to fill 155 pages more – but a whole volume of at least a thousand pages – to be entitled an “Appendix” and contain the true and complete history of my most justly celebrated government of that Great Britanniarum of the South – wherein as (I am ready to admit) by realizing “the hope (which I had expressed) that whoever might be appointed to exercise Governmental functions [f.158v p.24] in that country – would have the good sense to ask for advice from the missionaries” and (than that) I could not say less after reading the history of my paternal ancestry – and thereby knowing – how vastly they were indebted for their peculiar fortunes – to the adoption of Priestly advices and counsels – I am, I say ready to admit – that by such realization – I am, if not altogether – yet – chiefly indebted – for being thereby d__d to everlasting fame. N.B. the reader may if he pleases fill up the blank – with the letters “evote” but any others that strike his fancy, will doubtless convey as good, or at least a not less true meaning.

From the same cause (Stingy limits to wit) my remarks on Sydney and Hobarton, are so scanty that I had been ashamed of them on that account – until I came to the decision of preparing my new work – in which such remarks and researches will be found – somewhat commensurate with the extent of those countries – but I may just mention here – that I shall give a minute and exact description of the new species of “Fortunes” which I discovered to have been created in Australia – to wit – those “which would make honest men’s hairs stand on end” but the solution of the questions which are involved in the case – viz – whether such rising and standing up be attributable to mesmeric, or magnetic, or Galvanic, or Voltaic action, and whether that action be attractive or repulsive – I must also reserve on this occasion.

At King George’s Sound our arrival was left almost unnoticed – no balls – no concerts – no nothings – were got up to celebrate the advent of the first circumference meter of the Globe – with the exception of one of the class – which Mr Darwin bribed the Aborigines to perform – we were therefore thrown upon our own resources for obtaining amusement and in that my natural disposition stood me in good stead – [f.159r p.25] as the reader has seen – and on a subsequent page of this Supplement see in part again by the tenor of my remarks on the place – and the Settlers &c but, besides other withheld particulars that I have on hand – those that I observed in Sir Richard Spencer’s Menage, which enable me to declare – that he had “taken a vastly retrograde step – (N.B. I meant – stride in seven league boots – as probably the reader has surmised that I did. The epithet “vast” not being reasonably applicable to the pace of a biped of the Genus or Species Homo) in civilization.”

It will have been observed, that in the arrangement of my paragraphs – on each of my themes – I have usually wound up with one of Special import – and on this of King George’s Sound – I have not neglected to do likewise as per the following – respecting Flinder’s history of his explorations of these Australian Coasts.

“There are many points of information, in his large work useful to many but especially to Seamen which would be well worth separating from the technicalities among which they are almost lost in the present cumbersome Volumes.” I presume I need not express my confident belief that at least one portion of this remark on the work in question will not be found applicable to mine, by any of my readers – which portion that is – I cheerfully leave to their decision – only they are to understand that instead of the term technicalities – they will substitute – twaddlings, and snarlings &c

So now for my – chef d’oeuvre – I mean my report on the Cocos – or as I have for reasons best known to myself, and in part mentioned below – eagerly denominated those Isles “the Keelings” – to wit – that those reasons by the bye were most excellent – the reader may however believe without hesitation – seeing that I thereby exposed to risk of Shipwreck [f.159v p.26] Vessels passing them when bound to the Westward because Horsburgh Island lying (as it does) considerably to the Northward of the other Isles of the Cocos – Vessels (commanded by men, who have not previously put in -) coming (as they generally do) from the Eastward – those commanders observing the separation to be broad and apparently affording a safe passage between it and the others – and having in their recollection only the name of “the North Keeling” and the fact of their being “a safe passage between it and the Southern group” (as I call the Cocos Chain) may mistake Horsburgh's for the proper Keeling’s Isle and if the Sun be to Westward of the Meridian – find out their mistake, only when run aground on some one of the Coral patches lying to the Southward of the former – i.e. between it and the nearest extremes of the Chain – this result has in fact occurred in 1841 to the British ship – John Orton of Liverpool – a new Vessel on her first voyage homeward-bound from China, with a cargo of Tea. Fortunately there was scarcely any surf on the reefs and nearly low water at the time – owing to which circumstances – altho’ (being under all sail) she had [served] up forward more than three feet. She was (by Mr Ross’ assistance) got off (without any other important damage than the loss of her copper from the flat of her bottom) and sailed for her destination on the following day.

Another Vessel – a brig was also seen in 1843 – standing in for that passage but the Sun being then to the Eastward – the coral was visible and she put about – just in time to save herself and stood out and round by the north of Horsburgh’s to the Westward – not having been boarded by the pilot boat – her name is not known.

I find then that Mr Ross – estimating not only the works of Flinders as I do – but so likewise most of the works of that class which have been published in late years, had supposed my [f.160r p.27] work to be one of the same description as those, or, the majority of them – and – being out of the way of bookshops – did not order it, until several years after its publication – when – by accident he learned its importance towards him, and his undertaking.

But now – having understood the benevolence of the motive by which I was actuated in assuming with reference to him the part of an apparently envenomed Enemy – he has kindly volunteered, and I have gladly accepted the offer to – jointly with me – re-write the whole in my name – for my new Edition. The report as it stands in that – he has also seen fit to insert on the parallel columns – so, that the whole of the bearings and distances, of the one, from the other – may be at once easily seen and clearly comprehended.

Original Report Re-written Report
I “From the 27th to the 30th of March we had a severe gale of wind – when near the situation of these remote Isles – and on the 31st – were in much doubt, whether they lay to the east or to the west of us. There was most reason to induce one to steer eastward- indeed I was about to give orders to that effect – just as the sun was setting – no land being seen from the Mast head (tho’ the horizon was clear when a number of Gannets – [by seamen commonly called boobies] flew past the ship towards the west. We steered directly after them and early next morning (after making but little way during a fine night) saw the Keeling's [i.e. the Cocos] right ahead about sixteen miles distant.” I On the 28th we were (as p/ meteorological Journal – given in Appendix Volume) E.B.S.1/4S. fifty three miles from the S.E.rn (the largest) Isle of the Cocos chain. On the 29th at noon the same Isle bore WnW forty four miles distant – and on the 30th nearly the same, and at 10 a.m. of the 31st only seventeen miles. Now as I have correctly enough observed elsewhere – “generally speaking if there is land within fifty miles of a vessel, it's existence will be indicated and the direction in which to look for it, will be pointed out by birds” – It may appear strange that those gannets (who are known to go off from the Cocos regularly every day to from sixty to eighty miles Eastwards and S.E.rd and return as regularly every evening, should not have [column continues across full width of page]

[f.160v p.28] been seen by us till near sunset of the 31st we having been as foresaid at 10 a.m. only seventeen miles distant from the land in a clear day, wherein our Latitude, and Longitude were correctly ascertained. Therefore, altho’ the said Journal saith it not – it assuredly indicateth, that we must have been steering aside from the Isles during the time between 10 a.m. and nearly 6 p.m. since after steering towards them – all the following night – with a three to four knot breeze – we were still sixteen miles distant at sunrise the next morning! Well – that there is an apparent discrepancy observable amongst these particulars – I know – and the reconciliation shall in due time be clearly effected. Meanwhile I trust the reader will not fail to join with me in giving due credit to the boobies – for having manifested so kin-ly a feeling – in coming to my aid (as they imagined) just in the nick of time – thereby intending to preserve me from causing the tale to be told in Gath, and published in the streets of Askelon – that Ithat I with fifteen serviceable chronometers, and numberless lunar observations – missed finding Isles, that had been – by a nobody-sort of person – sometime Master of a Merchant Ship – often found – but never once missed – without having so much as one chronometer in his possession. For, altho’ as my friends will see in the course of this cruize, I really was not at all in any need of their assistance – that circumstance should not diminish my gratitude for the good-will shown by those birds on the occasion. N.B. “The most reason there was for steering to the Eastward instead of the Westward on the evening of the 31st" shall be shewn in the proper place. [f.161r p.29]

II. “A long but broken line of coconut palms and a heavy surf breaking on a long white beach was all we could discern till within five miles of the larger Keeling (there are two distinct groups) and then we made out a number of low Islets no where more than thirty feet above the sea, covered with palm trees and encircling a large shallow lagoon.” II. A long line of coconut palms (the Cocos Nucifera of botanists) broken by the separations between the Islets which compose the Eastern side of the Chain (the Western consisted of one long curving Island as per plan) and a heavy surf appearing to break on a low-white beach but really breaking over the margin of the reef on which the Islet chain is placed – was all that could be discerned – until we were within [column continues across full width of page]

nine or ten miles of them – when the separations between the Islets were clearly distinguishable and these seen to almost encircle a large lagoon. These islets are generally not more than thirty feet above the level of the sea – except the S.E.r n part of the S.E.r n Isle which is about fifty and in a few other spots there are elevations of various heights between these limits but all the Islets being covered with lofty coconut trees – they are for all intents or purposes of safe navigation in their vicinity – about a hundred feet above the Ocean level – as indeed I have intimated in mentioning, that they were seen at 16 miles distance from the Beagle, a vessel of no more than 242 tons measurement and on account of the service in which she was engaged, rather under than over sparred – taking for granted too that they were seen from her mast head, which circumstance however I have not mooted. Indeed every seaman will agree with me, in the assertion – that such Isles as these, are much safer to make in the night than high Islands liable, that those often are – to be involved in and so mistaken for clouds.

Of the other of those “two distinct groups of Isles” – more anon. [f.161v p.30]

III. “We picked our way into Port Refuge – the only harbour – passing cautiously between the patches of coral rock clearly visible to an eye at the mast head – and anchored in a safe tho' not the best berth. An Englishman (Mr Leisk) came on board and guided by him, we moored into a small, but secure cove, close to Direction Island.” III. We entered into Port Refuge in the forenoon of the first of April by the N.E.rn Passage (between the reefs stretching off from the West Point of Direction Isles and from the S.E.r n point of Horsburgh's I could say with perfect truth that the said port is – the only harbour – seeing that it includes all the anchorages within the circuit of these Isles.)[column continues across full width of page]

We anchored in what is called the Roadstead – the body of the Lagoon being to the Southward – and the Basin and Cove close to Direction Isle to the Eastward of us. An Englishman (a British subject I mean) Mr Leisk, came on board and guided by him – we moved into the small but secure cove clost to Direction Isle – but by way of indicating the greatness of the caution, which I had to exercise, in entering to the first anchorage, with the Beagle drawing (say) twelve feet water – I many just mention, that when Mr Ross returned from England – he saw the Isles (which he had seen only once before) from the Mast head just at sunset – proceeded onwards (the night being clear but moonless) and at about 11 p.m. anchored the Ship Borneo drawing 18 feet water in the spot where she lay till leaving for Batavia – ten days afterwards.

IV. “Many reasons had induced me to select this group of Islands for such an examination as our time and means would admit of – and as the tides were to be an object of special attention in a spot so favourably situated for observing them – a tide gauge was immediately placed.” IV. It has been seen – as per my narrative – first Edition – that I was specially instructed by Headquarters to examine (whilst in the Pacific Ocean) some of the circularly formed coral Islands having accessible Lagoons – wherein the tides might be correctly observed, whilst their geological formation span [column continues across full width of page]

[f.162r p.31]>

and configuration &c were being examined and ascertained.

Having crossed – and left – that Ocean without attempting to act upon those instructions – there remained no other Islands of that class in any route homewards (besides the Cocos) where at these particulars could be accomplished. I might indeed, have deviated and gone on to Diego Garcia – but that Island being only one of an extensive Archipelago of Isles and Banks could not have afforded such a satisfactory result as the Cocos. Hence one reason appears for my selection of them – which is surely worth all the others of the “many” that my imagination – prolific though it be – could possibly assign – and in respect to the “selection” that was evidently made with the utmost promptitude and facility in the principle of “Hobson’s choice.” But be all that as it may – I had done no more than cause the tide-guage to be placed – when I found it incumbent upon me, to apply my attention so entirely to the history and condition of the Settlers and the Settlement – and the conduct of Mr Ross – in the capacity of its founder and manager – that I should not have obtained knowledge of the following interesting particulars – if Mr Leisk ^or someone else^ had not furnished them then^ [illeg. two words] ^ The why I have not mentioned these nor ever alluded to them in my works not even in my Essay on the subject presently to be noticed – will appear in the sequel.

Whilst the Sun is at either of the Tropics – one of the two diurnal tides at these Isles is about two thirds of its height higher than the other. When on the Equator – the two tides are if equal heights but neither of these two – are so high, by about a sixth part – as the highest of the two, when he is at the Tropics – and – both take place, nearly three quarters of an hour later than the highest of the two Tropical tides. Of course these inequalities increase and decrease, gradually in accordance, with the Sun’s declination. Whilst he is in the Northern hemisphere, the [f.162v p.32] morning tide is the high tide – but when he is in the Southern the evening tide is the highest. These peculiarities had of course – drawn Mr Ross’ attention strongly to the subject – and shortly after his Settling on the Isles – led to his discovering the true explanations of the tidal motions in all the Oceans on the Globe.

Happening some time afterwards to see in “The United Service Journal” an abstract of an “essay &c” on the subject by Professor Whewell – the same – of which I have informed the readers of my Appendix Volume – that – “I received a copy from the Author, and do aver that it is a work for which Seamen are deeply indebted to him.” But instead of acknowledging any such debt – Mr Ross deemed it to be of no other value than that of being likely, by its gross absurdities and baseless assumptions – to draw attention to the subject – more strongly than any reasonably rational work which the Author was capable of executing upon it, could have done – and accordingly he set about arranging his notes – and embodying their contents in a paper to be published – at some future time.

In that paper he declared the principles – but inserted no more of the demonstrations, than appeared to be needful for their authentication – his object being to make the paper so brief that it might be inserted in a newspaper or some such periodical publication.

In August 1835, H.M.S. Zebra Captain Macrae called at the Isles en route from India – to make the tour of the Australian Colonies – or Settlements) and Mr Ross then gave the paper to Captain Macrae with a request that he would give it for publication to some one of the Editors of periodicals in those Colonies. But whether it was so given, or published Mr Ross had not exerted himself to obtain (nor consequently had obtained) any information. Seeing however, that I was in Sydney from the 12th to the 30th inclusive of January [f.163r p.33] 1836 at Hobarton from the 5th to the 17th of February and at King George’s Sound from the 6th to the 13th March – It does not seem improbable that I saw, or heard, somewhat of, or from, that paper in the course of those my maritime or Port-al peregrinations – altho’ of course my mind was too much occupied with other matters, to allow of my committing to memory any more of, or, about it than what I imagined to be – available particulars.

At the Cocos however, being in such close communion with Mr Leisk (indeed much closer than is ever indicated by my report) who had frequently heard Mr Ross giving those explanation to visitors who felt an interest in the subject I conclude that I must have obtained considerable information upon it – so much indeed, as emboldened me to write on the way homewards a brochure on the subject and get that as soon as possible – after my arrival in England inserted in the Geographical Journal, a publication which Mr Ross was less likely to see – than the Nautical Magazine – to which it would otherwise have been much more appropriate. This conclusion I adopt – because it is very unlikely, that if quite unaware of Mr Ross’ discoveries and explanations – I should have used so very nearly the same words that he had employed in the foresaid enunciation of it's principles – in fact with – in most instances, no other alteration than that, of changing the affirmative into the interrogative – as being more modest – at least in appearance. Having thus as I imagined forestalled Mr Ross in publication (which – like possession is equivalent to nine tenths of any legal right or claim) I sat down to the work of writing an Essay on the subject – therein exemplifying and applying those principles by giving detailed explanations of the tidal movements in general – and of their apparent “anomalies” in [f.163v p.34] particular – meanwhile confidently expecting that my said brochure would be keenly discussed by the Philosophers and from that discussion important aid be derived for my said work. In this however I was mistaken – no notice was taken of it by them – perhaps they expected that having discovered the principles – I would proceed – as being the most capable person. My Courage however was dauntless. I proceeded – completed and published the work in my said Appendix Volume and if my friends have perused it with due attention – they must have confessed to themselves that I have the gift of the poetic imagination – in such rare perfection – that I not only give the most wonderful explanations of actually existent difficulties – but go on – to make some for myself – which would be found insuperable by any other person. I prudently however – ignored the foresaid peculiarities of the tides at the Cocos – not because of any doubt of my ability to explain and reconcile with them – my “advancing swell from the Pacific” – but from apprehending that if I did – I might possibly – whist thinking only of the explanation – have inadvertently exposed my knowledge of Mr Ross’ discoveries &c – N.B. I am not in all this meaning to conceal the assistance which I received from his Godship Neptune as already mentioned.

How the work soever completed &c – has been received by the scientific world – I have not as yet learned – but I know that when Mr Ross saw it (Brochure and all – for the first time) he elevated his shaggy overhanging eyebrows – and curled his upper lip as he thought to himself – “Eh! This is indeed a daring attempt to seize upon my principles as being of his own discovery and connect them with the Whewellian reveries and Newtonian hypothesis the better to disguise their real authorship – an attempt which a priori I should have pronounced impossible to be made [f.164r p.35] with the slightest approach to success – the Sage and Gallant Captain has however carried it out, most miraculously and proved himself to be such a man as Hotspur assumed – as not being ever to be found among men. Forasmuch as that he can – not merely “call spirits (tide waves) from the vasty deep – but make them come when they are called to execute the behest of his imagination.”

“But I owe and shall – when occasion serves pay him – hearty thanks – for having in this case fulfilled on my behalf the wish of Job" Oh that mine enemy had written a book.”

To be sure some persons if in his stead might in these circumstances, have exclaimed, Plagiarism – Piracy – &c – he however altho’ at the time unaware of the laudable motives by which I was actuated – thought not of applying any such Epithets – but merely observed – “Oh this is only impressment of work, and surely when his Honour (having the prorogative of impressing a man’s whole body &c) contents himself with a small piece of work instead – we should feel correspondingly thankful! Nevertheless I shall now rewrite that paper and add the demonstrations in sufficient detail – as for publication there is no hurry in the case – It would be unkind to Mr Colburn for whom I feel much respect – to damn these books to the fate they deserve – namely – to moulder on his shelves and thence go to the grocers and trunk-makers shops.” Now however he knows perfectly well that it was not with my view of obtaining a single scintillation of Fame or Eclat for myself – but solely out of my inexpressible attachments to Science and my anxious desire to oblige him without his being just then aware of the fact – that I quite withheld any reference to his being the Author of the discovery &c and I had said to myself – If this be published as belonging [f.164v p.36] to such a nobody sort of person – no Gentleman-Philosopher will deign to look into it – I will therefore make-believe that it is all my own in every sense of the term. If it be received with due approbation by the Scientific world I shall then declare (and of course to Mr Ross high, because unexpected gratification) how the case stands in respect to the property &c if not – if it be treated with contempt I will say nothing but bind myself to suffer in silence – as indeed the reader has just been informed that I have so suffered – not quite in silence however, I actually made, as my friends have seen – a desperate attempt to bring in Mr Babbage and his Bridgewater Treatise to my support but he called out to me “off hands will ye! I was not thinking at all of you, and your humbug of some other person’s work upon the tides – when I wrote my remarks on what might have been the tidal movements – if an arrangement of land and sea – different from the present – had formerly existed on this planet” –

V. “Until the 12th everyone was actively occupied – Our boats were sent in all directions – tho’ there was so much wind almost each day as materially to impede Surveying, Soundings on the seaward sides of the Islands could seldom be obtained, but two moderate days were eagerly taken advantage of to go round the whole group in a boat and get the few deep soundings which are given in the plan*[3] V. Until the 12th everyone was actively employed – myself as a aforesaid – and the officers in ascertaining that the Survey made by Mr Ross was correct – before I made a copy of it. Intending as I did at the time pass that off for being the result of my own labours, but – on coming home to England I found that a copy had been some years previously (by Mr Ross ) transmitted to Horsburgh and published by him in his Chart of the S.W. “Coast of Sumatra and Islands Adjacent &c” Hence I could neither claim it as mine, nor consistently

[f.165r p.37]

The two principal Islands (considering the whole Southern groups as one Island) lie North and South of each other fifteen miles aparts and as Soundings were obtained two miles north of the larger Island I think it may be inferred that the sea is not so deep between the two as it is in other directions, only a mile from the Southern extreme of the South Keeling I could get no bottom with more than a thousand fathoms of line.” with my objects in respect to Mr Ross – acknowledge it to be his – I therefore hit upon the expedient of giving it to Mr Darwin to put into his Volume. Here – said I – take this – I can very well spare it, and it will shew that we are indeed the best of friends &c &c notwithstanding our little sniffs about the Elevation part of your Geological Theory – the Gallapagos animals &c &c It happened fortunately indeed that I did so – since tho’ [column continues across full width of page]

I knew it not at the time – Mr Ross made a certain particular of the Survey to do the office of a private remark, which I, of course, ignorantly copied – so leaving myself open to conviction of being &c if I had directly claimed it as my own original Survey &c &c

Altho’ my meteorological Journal sheweth it not - there must have been most extraordinary strong winds at the Cocos whilst I was there – nothing moderate surely, could have materially impeded Surveyors accustomed to the weather of Terra del Fuego! Howbeit, soundings on the seaward sides of the Isles are too near to their shores to be of any importance to shipping.*[4] But one might have occupied the eight or ten blowing days in surveying the lagoon of which Mr Ross had scarcely done more than indicated the passages [f.165v p.38] in and out – I however concluded that the trouble and time required for that object might be saved by ^writing^ merely these few words “The Lagoon is shallow – almost filled with branching corals and coral sand.” Hey presto! Why stop to notice it any further? Here however I must say that I do not intend to warrant the correctness of the statement contained in these said few words premising as I do that Mr Ross would undertake to pilot into it – and safely anchor – a more numerous fleet than any that is at all likely ever to be placed under my command.

Altho’ with reference to Soundings on their seaward sides – the Cocos Chain of Islets – may be considered as one island – yet they cannot be so denominated in the common acceptance of the term – Horsburgh Isle being widely distant from the others and altogether separated from them by a navigable Channel – Keeling Isle lies nearly north from Horsburgh as mentioned and is placed on the S.E.rn end of a Coral Bank which extends from the Island to S.W. nearly two miles gradually sloping from the shore of the Isle to 45 fathoms near the outer verge – The S.W. side of the Island is therefore dangerous if closely approached by a ship in passing along that side – but altho’ after departing from the Cocos I “sailed round that Isle” I kept at so respectful a distance that I saw nothing of the said bank.

VI. “The Southern cluster of Islets encircle a shallow lagoon of an oval form about nine miles and six wide. The Islets are mere skeletons little better than coral reefs – on which broken coral and dust have been driven by sea and wind till enough has been accumulated to afford place and nourishment for thousands of coco palms. The outer edges of the Islands are considerably higher than the inner but nowhere ex-[f.166r p.39]ceed thirty feet about the mean level of the Sea – the lagoon is shallow – almost filled with branching coral and coral sand. The small Northern Island is about a mile in diameter, a strip of low coral land – almost encircling a shallow lagoon and thickly covered with coco-nut palms.” VI. Exclusive of Horsburgh’s Isle the Cocos Chain of Isles and Islets is of nearly a horse shoe form – outside of which in the direction of the heel – that Isle is situated – consequently the lagoon is only embraced by the Chain to about three fourths of it's circumference – There are many extensive patches of Coral in it but room enough and water enough (seven fathoms and more) to allow of any vessel which can enter over the flat (to Southward of Horsburgh Isle) or, not drawing more than 18 feet to work up under sail to abreast of or beyond the Settlement which is placed on the central and largest Isle of the Eastern side of the Chain about three miles to Southward of Direction Isle. The Isles are similar to most others of the same formation [column continues across full width of page]

elsewhere – Mr Ross however having no interest to advance by representing them as being of greater value than they really are – need not notice any such representation of them as I have made – but – for the tenet – which he holds – that – with the dubious exception of novel writing excepted – truth is to be told rather than fiction. If they had been much more valuable than they are, they would have been left unexplored and unoccupied by man – until the end of the first quarter of the 19th century – but I did not at the moment recollect – that “little things are great to little men.”

As to Keeling Isle – the coco palms do not occupy a half of its superfices - the remainder being covered with trees of other species of the class – peculiarly adapted to the soils of the coral formation.

Nevertheless Mr Darwin (doubtless from his not looking at them through my optico) has in his Volume aforementioned expressed his sentiments on the subject as follows “On entering (into the anchorage) the scene was very curious and rather pretty – It's beauty however being solely dependent on the brilliancy of the scene – The shallow, clear, and still water (over the flats which lie between the anchorage roads and the body) of the lagoon – resting [f.166v p.40] in its greater part on white sand, is, when illuminated by a vertical sun of a most vivid green – this brilliant expanse several miles in width – including the lagoon is on all sides divided – either from the dark heaving waters of the Ocean, by a line of snow white breakers, or from the blue vault of heaven, by the strips of land around at an equal height by the tops of the coconut trees – As a white cloud here and there affords a pleasing contrast with the azure sky – so on these flats (as they are called having only from three to four and half, or five fathoms of water upon them) dark bands of living coral appear through the emerald green water.

“April 6th I accompanied Captain Fitzroy to the Islet which forms the S.E.rn side of the lagoon – when we came to it – we walked over one of the narrow places (or Isthmus in miniature) to the outer margins and found a great surf breaking on the Coast – I can hardly explain the cause – but there is to my mind a considerable degree of grandeur in the outer shores of those lagoon Islands – especially as contrasted with the inner. On the former there is a grandeur in the regular beach crowned down to high water mark with green bushes and tall coconut trees – in the flat of coral rock nearly dry at low water between it and the brim or outer margin of the reef [over the present super-marine platform of the Isles must have at first extended and therefore shews the extent to which that has been during the lapse of ages torn up by the breakers and carried piecemeal onwards over that flat into the lagoon during the former era of the existence of this platform – and in the present – heaped up upon the top of its exterior margins so forming the elevated outer sides of the superficies of these Islets] and in not the least of these Items – The line of furious breakers on the top of the brim of the basement reef – all coursing away towards either hand. Nor are there any periods of [f.167r p.41] repose to their action. By the long swell resulting from the prevalence of the S.E.y trade winds – it is continually maintained and at times during the winter season of the Southern hemisphere, the billowy swell raised by the S.W.y storms beyond the Tropic, runs up to these Islands (as it does to those of St Helena and Ascension in the South Atlantic*[5]) causing breakers almost equal in height and force to those in the very regions of those storms. It is impossible to behold these waves, without feeling a conviction that an Island tho’ built of the hardest rock – let it be porphyry, granite, or quartz, would ultimately yield and be demolished by their undermining and overwhelming force. Yet these low strips of Coral Islets, almost victoriously sustain the perpetual assault – because the power of vitality, is here arrayed in their support. Turning next to the lagoon shores of these Islets – the simplicity is scarcely less striking, the stillness of the water, and at high tide – the leafy branches of the bushy trees particularly those of a willow-looking species bearing clusters of curious flowers at their extremities dipping into it with every passing breath of air – whilst fish of various species some of large size are playing about – apparently as tame, as tho’ they had been confined in a small pond.

“After dinner at the Settlement, on a previous evening we staid to see a Malay dance. It did not commence, until after the moon had risen and it was worth while remaining to behold her bright globe so quietly shining through the long arms (leaf branches or fronds) of the coco-nut trees as they waved in the evening breeze. These inter-tropical scenes are in themselves so delicious that they almost equal in attraction those dearer ones to which we are bound by [f.167v p.42] each best feeling of the mind.

“The next day I employed myself in examining (on the outer coast) the very interesting yet simple structure and origin of these Islands. In doing so I waded into the water (being unusually smooth) as far as the living mound of the coral wall on which the swell of the open sea breaks. In some of the gullies and hollows of the flat abovementioned between it and the foot of the beach – there were beautiful green and other colored fishes and the forms and tints of some of the Zoophytes were admirable but altho’ it is excusable to grow enthusiastic even here over viewing the infinite numbers of organic beings with which the sea of the inter-tropical regions so prodigal of life teems at such places as these – yet it is only in the still and somewhat deep waters of the lagoon that the submarine labyrinthine-chamber walls and partitions appear to justify the indulgence of exuberant language.

“During another day I visited Horsburgh and the West Island. On the latter vegetation is perhaps more luxuriant than on any of the others – the coconut trees generally grow separate, but here the young ones flourished beneath their tall parents and formed with their long and curved fronds the most shady arbours, and overhead the trees occupied by numbers of gannets, frigate birds, terns and boobies. These last are as their name imports, very stupid [whilst they retain their brown garments – i.e. during the first year of their existence but after moulting that and assuming the proper gannet-colored dress they become sufficiently shy and wary.] There are also besides these – birds of several other species tho’ less numerous – little flocks of sand pipers running along the beaches and the mutton birds (of Australian nomenclature) which altho’ a sea bird burrows its habitation deep into the soil. But there is one charming bird – it is a small and snow white tern – which [f.168r p.43] smoothly hovers about among the trees and every now and then comes within arm’s length – its’ large bright black eyes scanning the person, with an expression of quiet curiosity. Little imagination is required to fancy that so light and delicate a body must be tenanted by some wandering sylph. Those alone who have tried it know how delicious it is to be seated in such arbours – surveying these denizens of the Ocean – and the atmosphere and – the perennial vegetation – whilst drinking the cool pleasant fluid of the coconut – which hangs in great bunches close by. In the lagoon side of this Island there is a large bay composed of the finest white coral sand – quite level and so much elevated as to only covered with water at the time of high tide. From this bay smaller creeks run into the surrounding woods. A field of such sand – just covered a few inches deep with water glittering the sun – whilst around its borders the coconut trees stand with their lofty trunks – supporting magnificent leafy crowns waving in the breeze – formed a singular and very pretty view.”

Now bearing in mind that Mr Darwin is exceedingly “fond” of dry bones and charmed into raptures by the discovery of a Skeleton. – It is clear enough that all the world are not, nor probably, ever will be, disposed to adopt my opinions – at least not on the point in question. It surely argues well however for my fairness of statement that I have thus recapitulated Mr Darwin’s sentiments – albeit – so adverse to my own.

VII These lonely Islands also called Cocos – were discovered in 1608-9 by Captain William Keeling who was in the East India Company’s service, and held a commission from King James I. Of these facts I was credibly informed, on the author-[f.168v p.44]ity of the late Captain Horsburgh and presumptive evidence of their reality is afforded by the following extract from the work of a well known historian.” *[6] VII Looking now at the opposite paragraph &c I feel that some question may be put upon its statements, which would be difficult if not impossible for me to answer satisfactorily, at present – but of course that shall be performed tho’ not just now. The questions to which I allude are the following.
J.C.R. [column continues across full width of page]

his great work (the East India Navigation Directory) the name of Keeling in connexion with the Cocos – until he prepared the third Edition of that work for publication, which was, after Mr Ross had applied the name of Keeling’s Isle “to the distant Northern Island (which Capt H. had in previous Editions, denominated – “the North Coco”) because of Mr R. having discovered in an old Gentleman’s library at the Cape of Good Hope – a manuscript of notes on Books of Voyages in the Indian Ocean in which he found it mentioned that on Capt Keeling’s homeward voyage an Island was seen or thought to be seen to the Southward, which by the manuscript writer was supposed to be the Cocos – but Mr Ross knowing that no vessel can pass between the Cocos and Keeling's Isle in the day time without seeing both at once, or passing so very close to the northward of Horsburgh’s Isle as to clearly see the Cocos chain at the same time – concluded that no doubt could exist of its being the one single Isle which Horsburgh called “the North Coco.” These particulars and circumstances he stated to Capt H. in verbal conversation with him – when proposing to distinguish these Cocos Isles – from the others of the same name situated in those seas. Surely that was the time for Capt H. to have proposed the name of Keeling instead of “the Borneo’s Coral Isles” which he adopted. Of course the words “the Borneos” would in no long time – have been [f.169r p.45] dropped – and that of the “Coral Isles” descriptive of their Geological constitution – as the Cocos are, of their chief vegetable produce – alone retained. Mr Ross is however perfectly content that they should be known as “The Cocos” and so put the others of the name – hors de combat – in regard to equality of distinction.

Here follows Horsburgh’s notice of these Isles word for word – exactly and completely – as it stands in the 2nd Edition of his Directory published in 1817 with Supplement for 1819 (that being the Edition of which Mr Ross possessed a copy) and if the reader sees in it – any evidence whatever – Real – Apparent – or “Presumptive” – of the name of “Keeling” being applied to the Cocos – by Horsburgh – or on his authority – he will see more than I have been able to perceive.

“Cocos Islands”

“Islands to Southward and S.E. of Java.”

“The Cocos Islands are low and covered principally with the coco tree [coco-nut tree or palm.] They are not seen above five leagues above the deck of a large ship. Some navigators who have landed on them*[7] no article of utility except cocoanuts – and their extent is not more than 10 or 11 leagues. [8 leagues including the North Cocos named Keeling's Isle by Mr Ross] The North+ is a single low Island 5 or 6 miles long [about 2] and 3 or 4 miles broad [about 1 1/2] with breakers projecting from it in several places [only from the S.W. side] having apparently safe landing on the W. side [unsafe when the ground swell of the Ocean is running at all considerably high.] The channel betwixt this and the Southern Islands [The Cocos] is about 3 or 4 [4 or 5] leagues wide. Through it the General Coote passed – Capt Robertson (then an officer in that ship) described these to be a circular group of low Islands extending from Lat 12˚ 4' S. to 12˚ 23 [an error of nine miles – too much to Southward first discovered by Mr Ross] the Eastern extremity, being in 7˚ 50' W. [f.169v p.46] of Java Head [an error of about 15' too much to the Eastward rectified in 1829 by Mr Ross from his own observations and those made by Captain Sandilands of H.M.S. Comet by his chronometer measurements from Madrass in 1830] and the Western extreme is on the meridian of North Island which he places 8˚ 1' W. of Java Head [in reality 8˚ 13'] and in Lat 11˚ 50' S. distant 14' Northd, from the most northern one of the group. In ranging along the north part of the group no danger was seen detached from the shore which seemed steep to, with a beautiful beach of sand or white coral – a reef projects near a 1/4 of a mile from the N.W.n part of the group [West point of Horsburgh Island]. The Houghton in 1788 – passed along the east side of the group, a fine sandy beach appeared on the Eastern Island. In the centre of the group there is an extensive basin of smooth water – which is probably a safe harbour for small vessels, altho’ these Islands are generally supposed, to be steep to and without anchorage.”

“The Southern limit of this group, as placed by Captain Robertson, is no doubt nearly correct – altho’ the observations of some other persons, place it several miles more northerly. Observations taken in six different ships by chronometer and moon make the North Coco [which has been called Keeling's Isle by Mr Ross] in Lat 11˚ 49 3/4' S. Lon 97˚ 4' E.”

It is true – to be sure – that the Editor of the fifth Edition of Horsburgh's work, has taken upon himself, to assert, that “Keeling is the former name of these Isles” but until he has helped me to his authority for that assertion I must place it to the credit of his desire to gratify me, by corroborating my supposititious statements on the point.

2nd Were not the Cocos chain of Islets discovered by a Portuguese navigator – and named – "the Cocos" – some thirty four years before Captain Keeling made the voyage to and from the Moluccas? N.B. Mr Ross has promised – that whenever [f.170r p.47] I produce authentic evidence in proof of Capt Keeling having first seen the Cocos – he shall furnish me with the particulars of the Portuguese discovery.

3rd Do these Isles ever appear – laid down on any somewhat ancient chart of the Indian Ocean – with the name of “Keeling” attached to them – or any other – than that of “The Cocos”? (or "Cocoas" as “Old Dampier” has spelt the name.*[8]

4th Why has the Editor of the fifth Edition of Horsburgh's work – altho’ he has jumbled together Horsburgh's different notices – and inserted my description of these Isles – refrained from mentioning what I assert – that Capt Keeling was their discoverer – a mention which would have come in very appropriately, when he says that “Capt Ross gives the name of “Keeling” to the north Island, it being far detached from the Southern group" he (that Editor) says indeed as aforementioned that “Keeling is the former name of these islands” – but he does not say anything of the hows it became so – nor – say that which he ought to have said – when presuming to say so much – why Horsburgh himself had not applied that name until after the time and circumstances aforesaid. Perhaps he put in this assertion, by way of compliment to me – if so – I must decline it – until I have produced my “credible informer” and had his credibility generally acknowledged.

The readers of my first Edition – have been informed that I carried with me in the Beagle – a large stock of books – but it will appear from the foregoing and the next sections of this report – that altho’ I was to come and [f.170v p.48] did come homeward across the Indian Ocean – if Horsburgh’s Directory was one of them I had not taken the trouble to look into it.

Captain (now Admiral) Beaufort Hydrographer to the Admiralty has indeed pronounced “that name imposed by first discoverers should be held sacred (from change) by the common consent of all nations” but with that profound respect which is due to his high character, scientific abilities, and truly valuable labours in Hydrography – I must beg leave to demur a little to that pronunciamento – for altho’ Mr Ross doubtless could, if need there were, produce decisive evidence that the name of Cocos was given to the Islet Chain, or group – by their first discoverer, he sees none, for producing them at present in obedience thereto.

Because neither the British Government, nor their Hydrographers, who proceeded the Admiral, in that office, have observed its dicta – nor has he himself endeavoured as far as I know to redress the violations of it, which they have committed. Witness, Mauritius, discovered by the Portuguese and named “Cirne” from it's aspect – as seen by them at the time – and – the Island-Continent of Australia – discovered and great extents of its Coasts – examined by the Dutch, who named it “New Holland.” – Capt Cook indeed gave in his capacity of explorer, the name of “New South Wales” to the Eastern Coast*[9] but altho’, some three or four generations of its colonists have been born – since it was colonized – we have not as yet seen or heard of such people as “New South Welshmen” or “women” – and suspect that like the name imposed on Pulo Penang – That name will never become a current one but be melted down into that of Eastern Australia. [f.171r p.49 ] I further opine – that discoverers, or explorers, employed and paid in every rank – dignity &c by a Government in its capacity of general representative of the Nation – altho’ they may and must, for distinction's sake, at the time – apply any names or numbers (which latter would be preferable) that may suit their fancies to distinguish one place from another, have no right, to claim, that those names should not be discarded, and replaced by any others which the Government officer, appointed to preside over that department, may please to adopt. ^And further –^ that the first explorer or explorers of a previously discovered land, have a right to set aside the names which the discoverers may have applied to land merely seen – and passed by without examination – as in the case of his having made the discovering and exploration, not by seeking for it – at his own risk and expense – but, by accidentally passing along on his proper voyage for other objects – and – That the Colonizers or Settlers of any land, previously discovered in modern times – have a right to set aside, (even though sanctioned and employed by a Government Hydrographer) any foolish, or absurd names which may have been so imposed upon what has become their country – par example "Back Stairs passage” – “Phœbus what a name!” for Kangaroo Strait – In fine – I certainly should ^shall^ on this point, prevent the adage of “a wise man changes his mind often – a fool never” from being applied or deemed applicable to me – and in my new work designate these Islands, by the denomination of “The Cocos and Keeling's Isles” – Seeing that malgre all the endeavouring which I or anyone else may endeavour to the contrary – that is the appellation which they will certainly retain. But in my capacity of an officer high in the service of the crown – I must not be accessory to nullifying any of their*[10] prerogatives. ^As this by ^in^ the wisdom of our ancestors – verified^ [f.171v p.50] For those were the days – to liegeman – be it known

When all a man saw – or sail’d by – was his own –

His own forsooth! Nay – his owner's do you see –

His King or his Kaiser – as the case might be

Yea – for ev'n in this – our own Radical age

The term Subject holds up – of Slavery the badge

I therefore trust that this exhibition of my loyalty and zeal will be duly appreciated at “Head-quarters.”

With respect to the extract from “The Universal History” which I have inserted in my first Edition “as affording presumptive evidence” of my credible information – not being incredible – I must admit the justice of Mr Colburn’s observation when he had heard it read to us, by my literary fag – “Why now! after repeatedly complaining of my having stinted you in space &c here have you filled a whole page – with an extract which you say “affords presumptive evidence of the correctness of your assertion, that a certain Captain Keeling discovered the Cocos Isles – in the Indian Ocean” – Instead of which it does not afford the slightest hint of his having made in that – or at any other time – any discovery whatever of that kind.

VIII “Little or no notice was taken of them [the Cocos] till 1823 – when one Alexr Hare a British subject established himself and a small party of Malays upon the Southern Keeling Island – which he thought a favourable place for commerce, and for maintaining a Seraglio of Malay women whom he confined to one island almost to one house.” VIII Of course as already observed – If Horsburgh's Directory was a component of the Beagle's large library – I neither then nor subsequently at any time before finishing the writing of this narrative looked into it – but indeed if I had – the course that I had resolved upon taking towards Mr Ross necessitated my ignoring the information which it contains respecting the Cocos and his proceedings at – and on them – [column continues across full width of page]

[f.172r p.51] so willfully antedate the period of Mr Hare's disembarkation – which latter event as has been shewn in Section IV took place in the latter part of 1826.

That I am however quite correct in here writing this much my friends will acknowledge after reading the following extract from the fifth Edition of Horsburgh's Book*[11] – edited after its Editor had seen my work.

The Cocos or Keeling's Isles have been described in Volume first of this work. They are in two distinct division lying north and south of each other. The northern, consists of one Island only, whilst in the southern one, the Islets are numerous. Their value to navigators remained unknown – until Captain J.C. Ross visited the southern group in the ship Borneo, and found a good harbour, where he lay from the 5th to the 9th December 1825. He has given the name of – New Selma – to the village he has constructed there, for the residence of his family and party of followers amongst whom are a Smith and a Carpenter. Being himself a ship builder and mariner, and having mechanics under him, a vessel in distress may be assisted, or hove down, and receive any repairs which are not of great magnitude. His expectations have been realized in this respect – for several ships have touched at the Port, to repair damages – or procure water and refreshments." I may however add here – that he (Mr Ross) never expected to realize any other advantage, from that “realization” than the good will of all civilized Governments, whose subjects have been or may be benifited by the establishment of the Settlement.

Mr Hare was not only “a British Subject” but “a true born Englishman” – being a native of London, which contains (as is well known) in proportion to the total of its population – a greater number of "True born Englishmen" than any other city or town within the circuit of the British Islands or in [f.172v p.52] lawyer lingo “within the four Seas.”

In 1819 Mr Hare was ordered by the Government of Netherlands, India to leave territories within six months. Having lingered in Java till that period had elapsed, and further time being refused – he embarked in the month of December, on board a Schooner, with these people and wrote to his brother – who was at Batavia and going home to England a passenger in the Ship Borneo (commanded and partly owned by J.C. Ross) then lying in the roads – loaded and ready to sail for England via Fort Marlboro' (vulgo Bencoolen) there to receive a British plantation register a pressing request for the Ship to come round to Eastward of Madeira Island, and take him and these people from the Schooner lying there on board the Borneo as passengers to Cape Good Hope. Mr Ross accordingly proceeded thither – took him and them on board and thence onward to Bencoolen – after arriving there, the Master attendant (Capt Salmond of the Bombay Marine) inquired concerning these people's condition “oh – they are my followers (Mr Hare replied) free people – having been freed by the Colonial laws of Java under the British Government.”*[12] “If so (said Captain S.) upon what grounds do you confine them to the ship, whilst here, refusing – as I have been informed to allow any of them to land?” [f.173r p.53] “I do so, because I take a strong interest in their welfare – and am satisfied that if allowed to land – they would be enticed (ultimately to their own hurt) to refuse fulfilling their promises of accompanying me as servants.” “Oh is that so? Then being free – you can have no objection, to their getting a certificate from the magistrate of this place, to that effect – you are about taking them to the slave holding colony of South Africa and I know enough of the doings in those colonies in that way – to determine me in refusing to clear out the ship with them onboard until they have received the certificates that I propose, delivered to each of them in the public court, before the magistrate and signed by him." To this Mr Hare demurred, and argued – appealed to the Lieutenant Governor, to interfere to prevent the demand being insisted upon &c but – altho’ a most warm friend, to Mr H. – Sir T.S. Raffles declined doing so – that circumstance (of friendly feeling) however being known to all – Captain Salmond refrained from requiring more, than, that the magistrate should certify that they had received those documents.

Here follows a copy of one – all being worded alike except the name of the person (and place of nativity) for whom it was made out.

Official Seal


“No 47”

“This is to certify that Ma Bagoke, a native of Passier (East Coast of Borneo) about 40 years of age, formerly a slave belonging to Alexander Hare Esquire – stated long since to have been emancipated under the Colonial law of Java – and now again produced in a British Settlement – in order to obtain a more especial act of emancipation – and a due registry thereof has this day been registered in my office, as duly emancipated according to the regulations of this Settle- [f.173v p.54] -ment and is in consequence at full liberty to employ her services at pleasure – for her own benefit.”

Fort Marlboro'

22nd April 1820 (Signed) C. Salmon Acting Magistrate


(Signed) C. Salmon Acting Magistrate

(a true copy – signed – J.C. Ross)

These documents were taken on board the ship and delivered to the people by the hands of two of the office clerks (Eurasians) whilst Mr Hare's brother aforementioned, stood by – and stated to them, that “these were renouncements by Mr Hare – of his power to sell them at the Cape – which however would only be valid – after they had signed papers that would be drawn up as soon (as time permitted) purporting that they had agreed to remain with him for life – and their children after them – on the same footing as they had formerly been.” The clerks said nothing – and the people not understanding the English writing – believed – or half-believed – because they could not comprehend, why certificates should be needful in the case for so small an alteration of it.

On the passage to Cape Good Hope – those papers contracting them to Mr Hare as just mentioned – were written – and signed by them in presence of Mr Ross and the chief officer of the Ship – who certified merely – that the signature (mark) had been voluntarily made in their presence. These paper were all made out and signed – before the ship had passed Madagascar – but were left undated – and when Mr Ross in the following year called at the Cape outward bound Mr Hare requested that he would go to his lawyer in Cape Town and formerly give his attestation to those papers – he went – and on their being produced – observed that they were dated and said to be executed – whilst the Ship was lying in Simon's Bay “this (said he) I cannot attest – but wishing to oblige Mr Hare to the utmost that facts will allow – I can [f.174r p.55] only say – that as far as I knew at the time – the signature was voluntary – you can easily word it so as not to bring up the question of where they were signed – in fact it appears to me – that these papers if executed in Simon's Bay – should have been so – under the cognizance of the water fiscal instead under that of mine, and the chief mate. Is it not so?” “Perhaps it is – but that is of no importance at presence – I shall word the attestation so, as that you shall not be implicated.” He did so – and Mr Ross signed it – when Mr Hare next (after getting it) saw Mr Ross – he intimated that it did not exactly supply what he wanted – but was at once assured that nothing more to the purpose would be signed by him – and nothing was said between them on the subject.

In reality – not more than five of these people had ever been legally purchased by Mr Hare – the others had been – some left in his house at Malacca, by lodgers who had died or gone elsewhere and left them there – as servants in his charge – but the majority had been presented to him from the Borneot Sultans and Rajahs – (after the slave trade had been abolished by the British Javan Government) and whilst he was Commissioner General of Borneo and as such their paramount superior under that Government – besides these were also some (boys and girls chiefly) obtained by the commanders of his trading vessels – as presents from the Rajahs or Sultans of the ports which they frequented – and – a few Javanese, purchased indirectly from pirates for trifling sums, whilst Mr Hare was a merchant residing in Malacca – before the conquest of Java.

At the Cape – the Government refused to allow of their admission, as contracted servants – unless he gave bond – not to discharge them in the Colony – of course he readily gave that – seeing it involved the Government in ^the^ supporting of his power over them – which in reality amounted to retaining them in the same state and under the same treatment as the ^slaves^ then were in that Colony. [f.174v p.56] At Malacca the very few of them which Mr Hare had whilst there – were employed as domestics in his house. On Borneo – it is not needful to say how the women were employed, farther than that there was no out of doors work to be performed by them – the men were set to learn music so as to perform the part of a band at his (Mr H’s) dwelling place. In Java whilst he remained there (after the restoration of that Island and its dependencies to the Dutch) he had nothing in the shape of work to set them about. It is therefore probable enough – that they would not – at Bencoolen have refused to continue with him – altho’ their certificates had been fairly translated to – and fully understood by them. But most certainly they (these people) would not have listened in patience even to the reading of those papers – which they signed in their ignorance of the contents of their certificates had the latter been known to them at the time.

In the Cape Colony Mr Hare purchased a farm-estate and set these people to work on it under an overseer or driver – precisely as the slaves on the neighbouring farms were worked. The situation being completely exposed to the S.W.y winds – hail and sleet of the Cape winters – fieldwork on it – in sheepskin clothing – was not quite pleasant to the natives of Indonesia. Of course discontent was too manifested, and some (probably getting their certificates explained to them) had perceived how they had been duped, and set off to the nearest office of the magistrate class to make complaint upon it. He being a friend to Mr Hare – who had not neglected to make friends of all such within their reach – no sooner understood the nature of their statements than he ordered them off instantly to their Master – with the assurance that on the next occasion they should be made to feel a good flogging. After some more time had passed on they resorted to another magistrate’s office situated farther off from them – but met with the same sort of repulse – next – Mr Hare being in Cape Town where he after remained a considerable time – a numerous party started off [f.175r p.57] to that place (about 24 miles distant) where (as doubtless they had learned from the neighbouring slaves) they expected to receive a different sort of reception – but their driver sent off an express on horseback to Mr Hare's Cape Town agent whose country house stood close the road, by which they had to pass (some four miles from the town) he immediately set out to meet them with some two or three of his servants (personating policemen from Cape Town) met and ordered them back on peril of being instantly taken to the nearest police station – and there flogged – at this they gave in – and returned. These runnings off to complain – and the passing of the Act of Parliament directing slave-protectors to be appointed in all the slave holding Colonies – induced Mr H. to resolve on quitting and taking these people off with him – whilst he would be allowed to do that – accordingly he directed his brothers (residing in London) to purchase a fast sailing vessel for him – and send "under the command of some man who could be trusted" – they bought a French vessel built for L'Orient and New Orleans packet service called – the Hippomanes – and gave the command to R.C. Ross (brother to Mr J.C. Ross) the same who has during many years commanded ships employed in the trade between London and Hobarton. In June 1825 – Mr J.C. Ross outward bound with the Borneo, called according to the owner's instructions at the Cape and found Mr Hare expressing much anxiety for the speedy arrival of the Hippomanes. It had been arranged in London that Mr Ross should proceed in the Borneo to Batavia – land the outward cargo – get Spanish dollars – proceed to Bencoolen – agree for the purchase of spices there – and go on to the Pepper Coast, and purchase a Cargo there – take it to Bencoolen, land it on Rat Island for the Hippomanes – thence return and purchase one for the Borneo. To all which Mr Hare heartily assented and assured him – that the Hippomanes should be sent on in good time – as he intended to [f.175v p.58] land on the Seychelles. (The inhabitants of these Isles having some peculiar privileges in regard to slavery granted on their putting themselves under British protection previous to the capture of Mauritius.) Fortunately for the house in London – Mr Ross was far from being so sanguine in the expectation of such high prices for spices &c continuing for any considerable time – therefore having purchased – only the Cargo of Pepper for the Borneo when some intelligence of the London prices reached the Coast and caused a rise in the rate there, he refrained from purchasing any more. No tidings of the Hippomanes whereabouts having reached Padang, where in November – he put in to receive some coffee – he left for England intending to look at the Cocos and so forth as will presently be stated.

The Hippomanes arrived in Table Bay in July 1825 – whence Mr Hare sent her to Hout Bay (his estate lying on the other side of the mountain at the foot of which that bay is situated) there to embark him and the people. In Hout Bay he kept her lying with the English crew until the middle of January 1826 – when he at last left, but had not made up his mind where to proceed – except “to the Eastward.” Having abandoned the intention of going to the Seychelles – he had next proposed going to Masambique (he had spent some years of his youth in Oporto, spoke the language – and liked the custom of the people) after passing the Cape – he changed his mind and directed ^the commander^ to take the course for the Seychelles – but just before entering the trade winds, changed that, for Christmas Island – but proceeding first to Diego Garcia for provisions of which he had not laid in any more than required for the passage to Masambique. Little could be had at Diego Garcia so he went on to Pulo Nias – got some rice but not enough – came on along Sumatra and put in to Croee for more – there two men of these people swam ashore in the night – and made their way to Bencoolen – where his agent had them taken up and sent back – [f.176r p.59] thence he proceeded to Christmas Island – landed – looked about – could not find any fresh water – was to have another examination next day – but having to be (as also was the master of the Ship) hauled off through the surf, by a rope round his body – he the next morning gave up that intention – and proposed for the Andamans – but want of provisions for which he would not go to any European chief Settlement – took him into Keyser's Bay – there – only rice could be obtained – when being aware from Captain R.C. Ross of his brother (Mr Ross') intentions in respect to the Cocos he proceeded thither for turtle and coconuts and saw these Isles for the first time in his life July 1826. On first landing ^then^ – Mr J.C. Ross' clearings and plantings on Direction and Horsburgh Isles (in which on the latter a banana had just fruited) were found – together with the marks and notice of his having taken possession. At Keyser's Bay the crew of the Hippomanes had refused to weigh the anchor unless Mr Hare would promise to proceed direct to some European chief Settlement – alledging as their reasons “that he was carrying hither and thither those people – and treating them as slaves which they (the people) denied that they were – and therefore they (the crew) expected that if they happened to fall in with a British man of war, the Ship would be seized and they would lose their wages.” Mr Hare refused and at his solicitation the Captain compelled them at the pistol's muzzle to get the vessel underweigh.

But now when Mr Hare proposed to leave the Cocos for the Andamans – the crew sent in to him “a round robin” making the same demand and declaration which they had made verbally before in Keyser's Bay. Mr Hare again solicited the Captain to compel them &c “no (said he) I have already been on the point of shooting a man on this account and I apprehend there is reason enough in their demand for my refusing to run the risk again.” “Oh! Then land me and my people at once – I will send you on to Java with orders for [f.176v p.60] my agents to send the Mary (a ship of his employed in the country trade) with a native crew to take me on. I might have known that no good could be effected with mutinous English sailors.” That was done accordingly – So now – having disembarked “Mr Hare and the small party of Malays” on the Cocos in the month of September*[13] Eighteen hundred and twenty six – we can return to Mr Ross and narrate his proceedings with reference to the same subject.

In December 1823 returning from the Pepper-Port-Coast of Sumatra – the foremast of the ship was found to be sprung – and he proceeded to the Poggy Islands**[14] (where he knew that spars could be got) for a new one. Observing the fertility of the soil and the paucity of the Inhabitants and that they are in all respects (except the practice of a newly decapitated head being indispensable for the Trousseau of a Virgin bride) similar to the Dyaks of Borneo with whom he had been well acquainted – he formed a design of Settling there with the view of cultivating spice and establishing a regular trade (instead of an occasional one) with the Pepper Coasts of Sumatra (“Ports” is not an appropriate term – there being really none deserving that name) by means of small vessels bringing the pepper to Entrepot ^Emporia^ on the Island – thence to be shipped to Europe. The consideration of the delays on the Coast in loading – by the surf being frequently too high for boats to pass through it – the wet and sultry weather destructive to European***[15] sails, rigging****[16]&c – and [f.177r p.61] concessions to the health of the crew – led him to conclude that small vessels from one to two hundred tons – manned with Asiatics and rigged with country rope and canvas – which withstands the weather much better than the European articles – should be employed – looking at the Chart – Padang or even Bencoolen – would seem well enough adapted for the object – but knowledge of the winds and currents and of the numerous dangers along the Coast and its vicinity shews the inconveniences of those Ports to be too great for overcoming with an adequately profitable result. Now however that Steam has – or soon will – change, or set aside all that – the plan for the Poggy's would not be likely to obtain much advantage over these two ports – or rather we may say Padang alone – Bencoolen having been a forced place is fast falling into hopeless decay since last that forcing was withdrawn.

Having proceeded from the Poggys to Bencoolen to take in the spices – previously engaged – and get the new foremast made (onboard in Rat Island Basin by the Carpenter) Mr Ross had to stop some three weeks there – in which time by application to the Lieutenant Governor Sir T.S. Raffles – whose acquaintance he had the honour of having made whilst commanding the H.C.C. Mary Ann under his Government of Java and its dependencies – obtained a Fort Marlboro Government grant of Settlement on the Poggy Islands “for purposes of trade and cultivation” with authority to display the British flag on his Settlement – negotiate and arrange with the natives” &c &c &c. On arriving in England however he learnt that the Treaty was on the tapis which was afterwards concluded between the British and Netherlands Governments for the exchange of the Sumatran possessions of the former – for the India-Continental ones of the latter – under which treaty of course – the Poggy Island Settlement would be dependent upon the Government of Netherland's India – which could not reasonably be expected to favour it – not even perhaps to allow of it’s establishment – on terms suitable to Mr Ross' views – he therefore turned his attention to the Cocos – on Horsburgh's suggestion – of their “probably affording a safe [f.177v p.62] harbour for small vessels – which if found existent – would render them as suitable – and in some respects more so – than the Poggys – for realizing those plans &c. Accordingly he took with him from Padang – a collection of roots – plants – and seeds for commencing a plantation – and – on the 5th December 1825 – came in sight of these Isles – went in his boat – discovered the entrance of the Harbour – and brought the ship to anchor in it.

Having been found crank on the way from Padang – her spacious 'tween-deck-room as also the steerage cabins being full of pepper in bulk – he set the crew to open out the main hatch-way (which was boarded athwartships to receive coffee in bags at Padang) and to ^take^ off from Direction Island (from above high water reach) the solid coral stone (which has been hardened and densified during ages of exposure to sun and weather) to put below the coffee – the pepper in the hold having compacted so much on the way by the motion of the ship that the coffee displaced by the stone could be forced in on the top of it.

Being the season wherein hurricanes occur on the Indian Ocean (Horsburgh says “stormy weather off the Cape” but that is a mistake – the meaning being that of “Stormy weather in proceeding towards the Cape” from the Cocos) Meanwhile with his apprentices he explored the Isles, as also the lagoon – the latter but imperfectly (partly for want of time, and partly from seeing that all the coral obstructions within it would be observable enough in tolerably clear weather) made a sketch survey of the whole – cleared with fire and axe – a space on each of the two Isles – Direction and Horsburgh’s – which form the principal entrance to the port and planted therein the seeds &c – brought from Padang and in presence of the officers (chief second and the Carpenter) took formal possession of the primitive right in the soil – that of first occupation to wit – as per certificate written on the survey – and attested by their signatures – under date of 10th December 1825 – nine months prior to the time of Mr Hare's [f.178r p.63] disembarkation upon them. After arriving in England Mr Ross laid before the Co-owners Messrs J. and J. Hare (who always freighted the ship on their own account) his plans for Settling on the Cocos, and entering fully into the pepper trade as abovementioned – they were even more sanguine than himself – in their anticipation of his success, and it was arranged, that he should take out to the Cocos in the ship – his family and such followers as he thought proper – land and house them there – thence proceed to Batavia with the outward cargo to be landed there except the minor part (in bulk not in value) destined for the Pepper Coast – next proceed thither – purchase a Cargo and when returned to the Cocos – give over to the chief officer*[17] the command for the homeward voyage.

When Mr Hare left the Cape he wrote to his brothers (aforementioned) that he was uncertain as to where he should proceed – therefore it would be useless their writing to him until they received tidings from him – or of his “whereabouts.” He departed (as aforesaid) in January – but no intelligence of that where- [f.178v p.64] -abouts had been received when Mr Ross left England with the intention ^(at the urgent solicitation of Messrs J. And J. Hare)^ of proceeding (after he had placed his family and party in the Cocos) to that whereabouts (if not too far off) for the object of inducing him ^Mr A. Hare^ to visit London on the following occasion.

In his capacity of “Commissioner General of the Island of Borneo” – and contractor for the establishing and maintaining a Malay convict Settlement on that Island – His accounts with the British Javan government remained unsettled – because when they were winding up and closing their functions – they requested him to come to Batavia and have his accounts settled – but altho’ in Java at the time – he refused or evaded compliance – sending to them instead, Protests and Arguments against abandoning Borneo and breaking up the convict Settlement &c – they replied by stating that they had no authority to refrain from doing so – and repeated their demand for his personal attendance – which he continued to refuse – finally – when about leaving for Bengal – they informed him that the case would be put into the hands of that government – and which ^govt^ after summoning him to appear, and afford explanation without which they would not pass his accounts – and finding that he also ^as he had done in Java^ neglected to comply – that the Supreme Government of India placed on record an extremely severe censure of his ^said [motions] &c and^ conduct not only in that respect – but also in that of his ^general^ conduct in the execution of his offices ^on Borneo^ altogether – He then sent an Agent to Bengal – but the government demanded explanations which that person could not afford – his brothers ^next^ applied to at the India House, and were told that nothing could be done until he came forward in person.

It next happened – that in the year before that wherein Mr Ross was preparing to leave England – his (Mr H's) brothers house – (Messrs R. Scott Fairlie & co.) holding many proxies for proprietors then in India – had acquired considerable Interest at the India House – and been assured that if he would come home and present himself he would be amicably received and most probably have the greater portion if not all of his pecuniary claims allowed – and [f.179r p.65] the slur thrown on his character cancelled. – His brothers were therefore urgent with him to come home – but he kept on declaring that he could not think of leaving these, his “attached dependents” (who were now and then running off to magistrate's offices with complaints against him) under the hands of any other than a perfectly trustworthy person – which neither of those two they had successively sent were – nor any that he could find for himself. They had sent those two in succession from England to him – he had also for some time had as overseer a chief mate of a Ship that was wrecked in Table Bay – but none suited – because in reality – he did not want to be suited. In one of his letters to them before leaving the Cape he had said – that “if he could get such a person as Captain Ross to take the charge – he would not hesitate a moment longer to come home as he deserved to do.” That letter they shewed to Mr Ross and requested of him to go if possible after settling his family on the Cocos and to go make the offer which they felt sure would be gladly accepted – Mr Ross however knowing more of his mind – than they did – doubted that very strongly – but promised that if he was to be found there – or anywhere within a moderate distance – he would proceed and make the offer – at the time he thought it possible that Mr Hare would be found on Christmas Island – because he had, when Mr R was going out on the previous voyage – asked him to look at it, for him – if that could be at all conveniently accomplished.

At Cape of Good Hope by the commander of a vessel just arrived from Java – Mr Ross got the intelligence of Mr Hare having landed on the Cocos from the Hippomanes to await another ship to take him on to somewhere else – but that the one he wanted – the Mary – employed in the country trade by his agents in Batavia was in Bombay – undergoing repairs – and no other would be sent by his agents until they received instructions from him to that effect. On hearing that – a Gentlemen that was well acquainted with Mr Hare [f.179v p.66] being present, observed “I know Mr Hare better than you – once he has sat down anywhere – he will never get up until compelled by circumstances that he cannot control – you will find him there – and find that he has no intention of proceeding to England – but will stop at the Cocos – and play the dog in the manger towards your views, as far as he can – and you will permit.” Mr Ross admitted the possibility, but doubted the probability – of Mr Hare being infatuated enough to risk the loss of such a sum of money – as the disputed balance abovementioned*[18] – and the continuance of the recorded slur cast upon his character by the Bengal Government.

With respect to Mr Hare's disembarking on the Cocos “because he thought it a favourable place for commerce” the fact is – that the reason why he did not think of remaining – was – that same – Thus he wrote to Mr Ross “ever since I saw that the place had a harbour – to which shipping were likely to resort – I determined to get away from it as soon as I could. It’s an out of the way sort of corner that I want – where I can be free from the annoyances of Sailors landing and running about” &c and for these same reasons I scarcely need say – that he did not deem of it – as being at all a “favourable place for maintaining a Seraglio of Malay women” – who by the bye are not quite the best disposed of the Asiatic races for being so kept.

IX. “In 1826 or within a year of that time – Mr J. C. Ross (sometimes master of a merchant ship) took up his abode on the S.E.rn Islet of the group – and in a very short time – Hare's Malays slaves aggrieved by his harsh treatment of them – especially by his taking away of the women, and shutting them up on an Island which the Malay men” might not approach – deserted in a body and claimed protection from Mr Ross. Hare then left the Keelings and about a year afterwards was arrested in his lawless career by death while establishing another Harem at Batavia.” IX Mr Darwin's volume of the Adventure and Beagle's productions aforementioned – having been got up in correspondence with me and mine – I was therefore fully cognizant of all Mr D's statements respecting the Cocos – and knew full well – that these were (in respect to all particulars concerning Mr Ross) stated, on one and the same authority as were such statements made by me. Hence (with reference to Section VIII and the opposite paragraph this section (IX) of my report) I have to note that Mr Darwin has in that volume[column continues across full width of page]

[f.180r p.67] stated as follows “the history of the Inhabitants in this place in as few words as possible is as follows – About 9 years ago i.e. from 1826 or 1827 counting back from 1836 – Mr Hare – a very worthless character – brought from the East Indian Archipelago*[19] a number of Malay slaves – which now – including children – amount to more than a hundred. Shortly afterward Captain Ross – who had before visited these Islands in his Merchant Ship arrived from England – bringing with him his family and goods for Settlement. The Malay slaves soon ran away from the Island – on which Mr Hare was settled – and joined Captain Ross' party – Mr Hare upon this was ultimately obliged to leave the Island.” It therefore becomes sufficiently evident, that even if I either had not “Horsburgh's East India Navigation Directory” or – did not look into it – with reference to the Cocos – yet I knew – as well as Mr Darwin did – all the particulars of the foregoing extract from his volume – and consequently have knowingly and (as aforesaid) willfully misrepresented the facts. In antedating the time of Mr Hare's arrival – by no less a period than three years – and ignoring Mr Ross' previous exploration &c as also his having brought his family and “party” of followers from England – expressly for the object of Establishing a Settlement upon these Isles. It results that these so willful misrepresentations both in [f.180b p.68] respect to commission and omission would (as I am ready to acknowledge) if I had been writing with the intention of inducing my friends merely to believe for a short time – but to continue believing these statements – have subjected me to consequences of a very disagreeable complexion – but writing as a novelist, from whom nobody expects adherence to fact and just representation – no such hazard was incurred. To be sure I should have explained all this – not only to my friends – but especially to Mr Ross – so soon as the sale of my book had been effected so far as it was likely to be – but the tardiness with which the purchasers have come forward – has caused me to defer that explanation longer perhaps than prudence would have dictated. Howbeit they will admit that I have shewn great Gallantry in writing as I have done – with the knowledge that many of them were ^doubtless^ acquainted with Horsburgh's work – writing I say – that – Mr Hare had Settled on the Cocos for the object of carrying on a mercantile commerce – three years before Mr Ross had so much as seen them – that then he came all alone – and took up his abode – with of course the purpose of inducing Mr Hare's slaves to desert to him – that they did so desert “in a very short time” (afterwards) and were at once received by him. Statements these which looking at the facts of the affair – need not to any person, possessed of common sense be characterized by me. I may therefore go on to the next noticeable particulars of facts – namely, that as already mentioned – Mr Ross on his return from England, entered the ^harbour^ and anchored in the night. Next morning he landed and found Mr Hare with a few of these people (whom he designated “trustworthies”) hutted on the spot, which he (Mr R) had selected for the site of his Settlement (and the same whereon it is – and has been placed since Mr Hare's departure from the Isles) the remainder i.e. all but those few he had hutted with his manager ^or overseer^ on the West Island near its northern end. As soon as their “how d' ye do's” &c had been exchanged – Mr Ross asked him “do you intend to stop here?” [f.181r p.69] “Stop here! Certainly not – stop in a place where no fruit can be raised and where ships can come in and anchor in the dark as you did last night! No no that alone would have determined me to leave even if I had not been intending to before – it was the mutinous behaviour of the crew of the Hippomanes that ^made^ me leave and send her away with orders for the Mary to be sent to take me to the Andamans where I was just about going when the mutiny broke out – and now that I have learnt that she is not be had for I know not how long – I have been thinking of moving to the North Coco [Keeling's Isle] in the meantime but have no means of moving at present" and expecting your calling in on your way to Java as I concluded from finding plantains growing on the outer isle in newly cleared ground – and your brother saying that he knew you intended to settle on some island hereabouts [N.B. he knew of Mr Ross' intentions respecting the Poggys – and had heard him observe that altho’ the treaty with the Dutch had put that place out of view – there was another to be found perhaps – even better adapted for his purposes] that it had been made by you”– “You guessed right (said he) and I have now brought my family and my party to establish a Settlement – and that was my reason for asking if you intended to stop – as I heard at the Cape from Capt Ol y [Ogilivy] that you had landed here – and sent to Batavia for the Mary – to carry you and your people to somewhere else” – so now read “your brother's letter and then we may have something sure to talk about” (letter read) “Ah! I see – my brothers are still urgent for me to come home. Altho’ I have repeatedly impressed upon them that before seeing my people settled to my satisfaction in a safe place I could not – as for your taking charge of them have in my absence – as my brothers propose – it is out of the question altho’ I cannot hope to find one more fit for it than you – but you could not do more than I can do myself – and I cannot expect to keep them from falling into mischief by intercourse with the shipping that may touch here – I knew that I should want an able man to go with me to the Andamans and I wrote by the Hippomanes to [f.181v p.70] Capt Edwards whom you know [who had been trying to get on by keeping a store at Batavia – and in corresponding with ^Mr H^ before he left the Cape – had expressed that he was not doing much and thinking of moving again to somewhere else before long] “to come and superintend the people there” – “well suppose he comes here why not let him stop with them – whilst you take the trip home I will assist him in keeping off annoyance from them and we two being Sailors may eventually deal more successfully with Sailors than you could do – nay – even your absence would be an advantage as enabling us to represent that we have undertaken to keep them out of harms ^way^ in the meantime” – “there is something in that – no doubt but I am afraid I could not feel easy to leave them here” – “well I should recommend you to think upon these considerations as there is time enough. The Hippomanes will not be going home before the latter end of April or May nor the Borneo before August” – certainly I shall think over the matter as you propose” – Mr Ross proceeded to Batavia – learnt there that Capt Edwards had left and gone to South America – proceeding from Batavia towards Sumatra – Mr Ross called in at the Cocos – found Mr H – partly from fear of what Mr R had told him – would be the probable fate of himself and the people at the Andamans from the insalubrity of the climate and hostility of the Savages – and partly in hopes that Mr R would become his auxiliary instead of Substitute – also imagining that he might derive pecuniary advantage from the trade proposed to be carried on by Mr R – ^had^ resolved (altho’ he said only thinking possibly) to remain on the Isles and ^Mr Ross finding him^ evading all conclusions in conversation – wrote to him immediately before leaving for Sumatra – a letter calculated to elicit something decisive – but – Mr H's reply – tho' incidentally affording such on some points important to Mr R evaded most of the others. [f.182r p.71] The Hippomanes called at the Cocos in May – en route towards England – but Mr H did not go with her – the Borneo returned from Sumatra in August – and Mr R – in conformity with his promise given to Mr H's brothers urged every consideration that could be thought of on his attention for inducing him to go in her – but all ineffectually. So – Mr Ross – dispatched to the ship – and after a few days delay in trying to induce Mr H in carrying on some business – did – on finding that he would not – proceed to settle himself and party on the S.E.rn Isle of the Chain as being the furthest position from that occupied by Mr H and his people – greatly to the displeasure of Mr H who had been hoping that he would be permitted to assert (to use his own expression) “Lord Paramount”cy over the Isles and all persons who might settle on or resort to them – a somewhat angry correspondence in writing ensued in between them – which terminated by Mr H acknowledging that he was discomfited (in argumentation) and abandoning all of his pretensions of that nature – intended to leave the Cocos &c. The latter however was no more than sham as Mr R – at the time suspected that it was. However very soon after Mr H’s people perceived that Mr Ross was settled in full independence of Mr H’s dictation – parties of them resorted to him with beseechings to be taken under his protection from Mr H’s oppressions – of which the following particulars were the most important – to wit – constantly kept short of rice – and that only given to be eaten along with a large proportion of grated coconut kernel – mixed with it before being divided among them (a mixture only digestible by very strong stomachs) therefore improper for the weak the women and the children) [f.182v p.72] – one set of clothing (their cotton stuff) allowed for a year – and of course reduced to rags before the end of that time by walking through the jungle forest &c – their children taken from them as soon as able to walk and confined within a small space (adjoining to Mr H's dwelling or “Bivouac” as he had at their first interviews denominated it to Mr Ross – as thus “I am only Bivouacing here”) stockaded all around – and tended only by an old man and woman – who cared about nothing for them – Not allowed to raise or rear any article of subsistence for themselves – such as maize – pumpkins or fowls – all hutted close together within a huge stockade from Sunset to Sunrise – N.B. – this was the main body of these people thus kept on the West Island – about eighty in number – the remainder – about twenty (in five families) selected from the whole number as being the most “trustworthy” ^were^ kept on the Eastern Isle at Mr H's personal occupancy) they ^the fugitives^ at the same time appealing – to Mr R’s – own knowledge of their not being slaves but free people who had ^been^ maneuvered out of their liberty by Mr H – when at Bencoolen on the way to the Cape – “but said they if you think we are slaves take us as slaves we know and can trust you for treating us fairly – but we cannot bare Mr H's treatment” – “I do not desire to have you (he replied) I do not desire to interfere between you and Mr H – I have no authority for doing so but you may stop for the moment – until Mr Downie (their then overseer) comes to look for you – when I shall write to Mr Hare a report of your statements of grievances – and if he promises to materially modify or redress those – you must return to him” – Mr Downie came and acknowledged that all their said statements were true – not all exaggerated – and Mr R sent him back with a letter [f.183r p.73] as he proposed. In reply Mr H evaded parts – excused others as caused by want of supplies – denied that the children were not properly cared for and gave as his reason for confining that “if allowed to run about the children would go into the Sea and be caught by the Sharks – and by climbing the Coco trees befalling and breaking their necks” – but promised to modify and redress all as far as possible – and on that – Mr R – sent them back this was in the latter days of Novr more than six weeks after Mr R had settled on the S.E.rn Isle – Mr H's schooner soon after arrived with supplies – but he made no alteration in his treatment of the people – and disagreed with Mr Downie because the latter persistently refused to keep the people at work on Sundays (N.B. the work was not of any profitable description but of what Mr H in letter to Mr R denominated “fiddle faddle” or “trying to work them so as to make them sleep all night”) – On this disagreement with Mr D – some more of the West I. Party having gone off – and Mr D not chusing to look for them – without orders – and one of the “trustworthies” having run away from Mr H's Bivouac to his – he wrote in reply to a note from Mr H concerning the last mentioned fugitive a letter which – Mr H sent to Mr R – enclosed in one from himself – in which among other palavers he wrote “the enclosed will shew you better than I can hastily express – how things are with Downie of said enclosed the following is an exact copy [f.183v p.74] “Sir”

Pa Punot [the runaway trustworthy] came here yesterday I would not have let him stop but for saving me the trouble of going all the way to Captain Ross' Island – as he intended to go then if I did not let him stop here – but as to “his eating our rice” that is not possible – there being none to eat [Mr H had sent a note to Downie – telling him not to let any runaways from his (Mr H's) quarters stop with his party and be eating their rice] the rice allowance that you send is still too small in quantity to last out the week – I think it would be better to give them enough now that you have plenty – for there is three or four runaway from here within these two days – whether to forage for themselves or apply to Captain Ross I know not as yet – without enough of rice it is impossible to do any amount of good with them – their clothes are also very bad – I am ashamed at the women – their nakedness being visible through their rags – you may I understand yet get a supply of tobacco from the Captain of the Molucko [Mr H's vessel that had just brought the supplies] if you intend giving them any more of that item.

I have took an opportunity of going onboard ^Leda^ [i.e. the bark from New South Wales for Batavia that had come in for water] to ask Captain Northwood for a passage for Java – as you have refused to give me one by the Schr [the Molucko] I remain yours Oby (signed) JAs Downie” N.B. Mr H told Captain Northwood that he could not let Downie go just then but intended to let him go in the Molucko which however when the time came – he refused – and Downie had to remain. [f.184r p.75] The three or four runaways mentioned in the forgoing letter had run to apply to Mr Ross – and on learning that they had – Mr H wrote to Mr R – again on the subject – in which his letter to ^on the first occasion^ he expressed the following opinions &c “if you do not at once shew them a stern countenance and refuse listening to them – you will have all resorting to you – and you will find – they are more corrupted by their communications with the Cape Boor’s slaves than you can have imagined – to which Mr Ross replied that never mind their going to the woods so it be not your woods – the essential point is to get them away from frequenting your islands &c” and in this his second letter he writes “I told you how it would be – if you listened at all to them – instead of hounding them back on the instant &c” to this Mr Ross replied that their treatment appeared to be such as would be deemed harsh if not absolutely illegal in any slave holding colony – that living with his family – his party and his slaves – all only under thatch – he did not choose to make vindictive enemies of these people – they knowing that he knew all the particulars connected with their engagements to Mr H – would naturally conclude that he was acting the part of an accomplice in that treatment if he acted by them as Mr H desired him to do – therefore again insisted on his fulfilling the promise of doing so – and Mr R sent them back to him – where – instead of redressing – those particulars – he took them and all the large party which had till then been Bivouaced or stockaded on the West Isle and removed them to Horsburgh Isle which being separated from all the other Isles by a broad space of navigable sea – they could not – from thence fly again to Mr Ross on learning which ^that breach of his promises^ Mr R wrote to him – that he recommended him to be careful to keep them there – for the future – because if any of them came again to seek his protection while their grievances remained unmitigated he would certainly grant that and which if once granted – he would not recall – nor refuse to all – or as many as might come to him to beg for it – as the former parties had done – [f.184v p.76] These occurrences relating to the subject of the people took place in the latter days of Decr 1827 and first days of Jany 1828. Nothing more occurred after it having reference to Mr Ross until March 1829 – when Mr H’s boat having been cast adrift in the night one of the “trustworthies” – he laid the blame on one whose footmark at the place – where the boat had been – he knew or supposed that he did – and therefore by way of punishment had a raft of spars (of a spongy species of wood) made – on which he ^had^ tied the man tied and then had it anchored in the bay about 1/2 mile from the shore next morning the man was seen up to his neck in the water (by the spars having become waterlogged) he then had him taken off to Direction Isle – where no person was residing and there set in Stocks – at night the man's brother went to the Isle cut the stocks to pieces – and both betook themselves to bush ranging for some time – they helped themselves to rice from Mr H’s store which he kept on a small islet somewhat distant from the others and all but inaccessible to bare footed travellers by the extensive bed of sharp (growing) coral by which it is surrounded – but Mr H – having ^or finding out the matter^ removed himself and Seraglio onto that Isle and thereby garrisoned it – these bushrangers broke into Mr Ross’ store for a supply – he then sent a note to Mr H – recommending that he should get them out of the woods by promises of forgiveness – promises which it would be well to perform – otherwise he Mr R would cause them to be informed that he would receive them under his protection – with promise not to send back to him (Mr H) again. He accordingly sent an emissary to find them out and persuade them to return – which partly on the messenger swearing to them that he would be answerable to Mr H's promises and partly by assuring them that Mr Ross was about to come with his people and dogs to catch and send them back to Mr H – [f.185r p.77] He succeeded and Mr H found it advisable to abide by his promises of forgiveness. No more of that sort of occurrences took place until August 1830 – when one of the “trustworthy” party who after Mr H removing to the rice house Isle remained at the original biouvac and proceeded to and fro daily in a boat to the said Isles where they were employed in constructing for Mr H dwelling in what his overseer denominated “a wigwam palace” (all the materials being parts of the Coco tree trunks and top branches) one of that party I say – having ^one morning^ delayed the others a while Mr H fell to scolding him until becoming irritated thereby he answered with “unbearable insolence” on which he ^[was]^ ordered him to wade onto a small sandbank Islet close by (on which one bushy tree had found room to grow) and to throw sand off it into the sea – Mr H assuring him that he would have his eye on him and if he did not work well at that employment – would have him severely flogged in the evening – the man kept at it till sunset and then was allowed to return to the Bivouac with the others whence as soon as he had got something to eat – he set off and came to Mr Ross – early on the following morning and told his story and begged protection – at the same time declaring that – if that – was not granted he would betake himself to the woods and not be taken from thence alive whilst he had this (a Parang to wit a heavy large knife or Roman sword-sort of tool used by the Malays both as a chopper in the woods &c and as a weapon in deadly strife) “stay – now (said Mr Ross) don't talk in that style to me – look at these (pointing to two large dogs) and these (point to a pair of pistols) I would soon take you out of the woods and alive too – if I had to set about it – but you may remain till Mr Ogilvy (Mr H's then superintendent) comes as no doubt he will – to look after you – and I hear his account of the matter.” Next day – Mr Oy came and said “one of our men has run away – Mr Hare said – he did not think – he had run to [f.185v p.78] you – knowing that you have always sent back those that leave but I have traced his footprints all the way up to a little way from your house” – “The man is here – and likely to remain if his story be true – it is (so and so – repeating the man's statement) is it true?” – “I believe it is tho' I was not present being at Horsburgh's Isle at the time – but Mr Hare says that his insolence was unbearable – and that if he had not always behaved well before – he must have had him flogged severely” – “oh indeed! Well I suppose that the man had told me the truth – and it seems that Mr Hare has forgotten the caution that I gave him – some more than three years ago – when instead of redressing the people's grievances – as he had in writing promised that he would – he transported to Horsburgh's Isle – I have therefore now determined – to check effectually and put a total end to the system which I have much too long permitted him to act upon towards those people – and for that purpose have drawn up this paper – demanding of him an engagement that he shall not – in future – go – in his treatment of them – beyond what the laws of British-slaveholding colonies permit – I have cited those of Demerara of which I have a collection – and that not only shall he sign – but authorize you to sign it also as becoming jointly bound with him for the observance of every particular – and on your part ^to^ refuse to carry into effect any orders of a contrary tenor if he signs and directs you also to sign it – and then return it to me I shall hand back the man – if not he shall remain under my protection and as many more as may ^come^ to request that – shall receive it – when – Mr H himself has very strongly told me in writing – all who can will resort to me” – “If Mr Hare signs [f.186r p.79] and directs me to sign I shall do that very willingly – as it will authorize me to decline carrying out any orders of the sort that he sometimes gives – and I cannot refuse obeying – whilst the responsibility rests with him” – “As for the responsibility – I apprehend that you would be held to share in it for any illegal acts. Every man is presumed to know right from wrong in all plan and intelligible cases – and therefore if he commits wrong by the dictates of another man – a private and unauthorized individual – he is held to be an accomplice and punishable as such. However this I say at present only as by the bye” – In reply to Mr Ross’ letter which he sent with the paper –Mr H employed – reiteration of promises – long arguments and indirect threats so hoping to evade the demand for his signing the paper –but Mr R replied – only by an assurance that he would enter into no arguments – regard no promises – other ∧than∧ thus discussed and ∧would∧ disregard all threats ∧ “Sign – or refuse to sign is the only conclusion that I will attend to ∧ (said he) ∧ – and be assured that if it be sir that of your refusing the latter – I shall act as I have told you with respect to the man at present here – and of all others that may come on the same errand – and further – as you have now an opportunity of writing to your agents by the Blora – (a Java vessel that had called in with supplies for him) write therefore upon that certainty – if refusal be your decision” – Nevertheless Mr H continued to write – arguing &c – but Mr R refusing to give heed to any more of the sort – Mr H –finally refused – alleging that “such a paper so signed would be derogatory to his character” – to his character forsooth! – but before he gave [f. 186v p.80] gave the refusal – the Blora had sailed. No sooner was it known to the party of “trustworthies” at his bivouac – that Mr Ross had received under his protection the one who had gone to request it – and had refused to send him back – then all started off to seek it and of course were received by Mr R – Mr H being left by all (exclusive of those on Horsburgh’s Isle) except his ancient subwife – modern duenna and quarter mistress general – and a nominally adoptive daughter – who, when a child he had got at [Affenam] (with the three slaves whom he bought there and smuggled on board the Borneo – as elsewhere mentioned). These fugitives ^were^ received ^by Mr Ross^ only and expressly on the footing of being free people – and at their instance he promised not to send them away from the Isles ^(except in the event of their being guilty of serious misconduct)^ – they being afraid that if he did – and they were found out by any of Mr H’s agents in the place or places to which they might be sent – they would be taken up and sent back to him as the two who swam ashore across from the Hippomanes and made their way to Bencoolen had been – at the instance of his agent in that place. Receiving them so Mr Ross told them that he would employ them as might appear to be needful or advisable and tho’ that work might not afford wages sufficient to pay for their subsistence – he would pay them as much as would suffice for that – and supply them with all necessaries at prime cost and charges but that – wherever they might be employed in any way yielding profits to him – he would increase their pay in proportion – so that they would in effect share with him in any such profits – that for each family he would have a comfortable habitation created and a plot of ground annexed sufficient to yield as much of such things as the [f.187r p.81 soil could be made to produce – and that ^they^ might rear further stock or any animals that could be reared and of all these the garden produce inclusive they might freely sell to strangers or to one another – but that he claimed all the naturally yielded produce of the Isles as his property, but allowing them to take as much as they wanted for their own use – but none for sale to strangers or any other persons whatever – except to one another in the way of the exchange barter or sale. I surely need not stop to remark that such terms proposed to people who had requested to be taken under his protection as slaves if he declined to receive them on any other footing were readily and most thankfully accepted by them. NB. This first party of refugees consisted of six men, five women and nine boys, girls and infants in all twenty which therefore was the foundation on which I reported that “the Malays [one hundred and eight to wit] deserted in a body to Mr Ross” of course the reader will understand that it was very ^fit and^ proper for me to apply the dyslogistic term “desertion” to the escaping from compulsory servitude.

On learning that Mr Ross had received the people on the principle of being free and accorded to them the terms above-mentioned – he ^Mr H^ sent to him a long-winded and most vehement protest against his doing as he had done in those respects alleging that he was acting most unjustifiably in so prejudging a case which could only be lawfully decided upon in a court of Justice and warning him that he Mr H intended to bring it into one – as soon as he possibly could – and therefore Mr R was in the meanwhile bound in law to retain [f.187v p.82] them in the same condition as they had been in with him. To that Mr Ross replied that for all the purposes that Mr H ^could have^ had in view – when drawing up his protest – he might have saved himself the trouble of writing more than the tithe of it – that he guessed – that the “meanwhile” of which Mr H wrote would be far too long a while for him to delay doing what he Mr R deemed proper in the case – that he must either have forgotten the Bencoolen his manoeuvres at Bencoolen with respect to the rights of these people or supposed that Mr Ross was either uncognizant of – or had totally forgotten ^said manoeuvres^ – that he Mr H was probably as well as was Mr R ^aware^ that if he ever carried the business into a court of justice he would very quickly perceive that he could not too soon withdraw it therefrom if possible, and so forth – of course he paid no respect whatever to such an at once impudent and foolish protest.

With respect to these allotments of garden ground I have now to observe that no vegetable production of any significance ^can be raised^ other than the coconut maize and pumpkins expected – and these only in a season or two after the ^coco^ nuts have been cut down – as the sun and rain soon exhausts the trifling quantity of vegetable earth or hummus existent on the surface and all beneath is some sand– in which the coconut tree and a few sorts of timber trees specially adapted to that soil only flourish on course Burrows isle alone and that on a small portion of its surface – some of the coarser species of banana and papayas ^and the soft purplish sugarcane, from which sugar is not made^ are produced on the natural soil.

But on every voyage which Mr Ross makes to Mauritius &c he brings back a quantity of clay which he distributes to the people for improving the soil of their gardens and [f.188r p.83] a small quantity of that earth when mixed with the calcareous sand fertilizes the latter they – the holders of those gardens – have consequently been enabled to raise sundry varieties of fruit in quantities nearly sufficient for their consumption – and here I may observe that it was malapropos for our object – mine and Mr Darwin’s, to wit – to notice this fact – yet rapt in his geological limbo – Mr D so far forgot it himself that he blundered into an incidental acknowledgement of it in a note to his text in which latter having been writing that every particle of these Isles is calcareous, he adds this note – “I exclude of course the soil which has been brought here in vessels from Malacca and Java” – I must however admit that in writing it – as he has done – our readers might be led to suppose that it was not brought by Mr Ross but by vessels bringing it to exchange for (most probably) coral – of course, to have made any observations on any particular connected with these Isles would have been to make an anomaly in our reports – and accordingly the reader will be prepared to learn – that not one ounce of soil or earth of any description has ever been brought ^thither^ from Malacca – but I must not cannot on this occasion refrain from declaring that Mr Darwin did not back me at all so stoutly as he ought to have done in mere return or quid pro quo for the two invaluable pieces of information which I gave to him – The house post sinking story and the mode in which the thrice “wonderful reef building polypii” have kept the supermarine portion of these Isles above the level of the sea during many centuries if not thousands of years, whilst the foundations were constantly sinking towards the centre of the globe – the 1 st being that which supplied the basis of his [f.188v p.84] his Super-Sublime theory of the origin and progress of low and lagoon islands of the coral formation – in the 2nd that which enabled him to account to himself (he has not done that to anyone else so far as I know) for their surfaces aforesaid not only ^at first^ getting raised above the level at which the coral builders can work upwards – namely that of “low water or spring tides.” – but kept above it – yea above the reach of the highest surge ever occurrent with high waters of those tides during ages – whilst the foundations were sinking all the while – “but for which” as he with as much truth as belongs to the theory at large – avers – “the Cocos would long ago have been submerged into the profound depths of the ocean” and of course all the other Isles which have been similarly formed of similar materials. But – revenons a nos moutons – I beg or at least would have begged Mr Hare’s favour for ^so long^ leaving the theme of his people’s fugitation (desertion I mean) to Mr Ross and hasten to resume.

At some short time after the exiles on Horsburgh’s Isle learnt that Mr Ross had afforded protection to the party aforesaid – two of them swam away from thence to Direction Isle – a distance of two miles over a navigable Seaway and resorted to Mr R’s location with their prayer for reception – that he accorded to them – but apprehensive that lives might be lost by the sharks taking them if more of the others people followed their example, he proceeded to that Isle calling at Mr Ogilvy’s bivouac, by the way, and taking him on to hear and report to Mr H what he Mr R was about to say to the people there – to wit – that if any more swam away or took Mr H’s [f.189r p.85] boat from Mr Ogilvy for the purpose of getting away he would not receive them – but that if they remained quiet some time longer and obeyed all lawful orders that Mr H might issue to them through Mr Ogilvy he would hold them to be as much under his protection as those who were with him at his dwelling place and protect them accordingly from all illegal attempts that might be made upon their personal freedom. All this they promised to observe and trust to. Mr Ross returned and landed Mr Ogilvy at the wigwam Palace to report. On his doing that Mr H exclaimed “he might just as well have taken them off at once – they will consider themselves as only obeying his orders when they are nominally obeying mine through you. It’s very unfair of him to do all this now – when he knows that I have no means of communicating with my agents.” “Why!” Rejoined Mr Ogy “I must say this - that he strenuously charged me to assure you that in the event of your refusing to sign that paper he would certainly take the people under his protection and therefore that before the Blora left you should decide and write accordingly to your agents – and I certainly did not weaken his words in repeating to you what he said – and what he told me to tell you – to ask yourself if you had ever known him to abandon any undertaking – that he had fully entered into.” “Bah! Bah! I could not persuade myself that he would venture to take the people or at least keep them for more than a few days for the object of inducing me to sign that paper – so derogatory to my character as assuming [f.189v p.86] that I had been designedly treating the people ill whilst he knew that it was and still is owing to the irregularity of my supplies and the want of proper assistants that caused my proceedings to have that appearance.” “I do not think rejoined Mr Ogy that you could expect him to allow that whilst having a vessel always at your command under your own orders and agents in Batavia ready to do or send whatever you required – and as for assistance – I think I have performed all that you required or seemed to require in that way.” “You mistake my meaning – under my present system you have indeed given me all the satisfaction that I could expect but as I have told you before, I always contemplated establishing a completely different one – and overseer to every 10 of the people and everything carried on with the regularity of clockwork – but it’s no use talking of that now – I must write to him. He did so complaining strongly of this – namely that Mr R was acting unfairly – knowing that he had no means of making his situation known to his agents.” “You are well stocked with impudence (replied Mr R) otherwise you would have been quite unable to charge me with acting unfairly in this case after giving you as I did ample and repeated warning to write by the Blora but being disposed to prefer your room to your company I proceed to shut your mouth on this point by offering you as I hereby do – a loan of my little vessel (with which as you know I have very lately made a trip to Bencoolen for ^the^ rice of which you [f.190r p.87] receive a part.) I offer her on the following conditions that you give me a bond to pay her expenses whilst under your orders and in the event of her being lost in your service or not return to me as soon as she returns from Java you to pay to me [illeg] 1,000 as being her value – accounts of her building and “equipment.” This offer he accepted and Mr R supplied a crew for her with the Mr Leisk (of my report) as commander. She made Bencoolen well enough, but after leaving that place for Batavia kept so near ^the coast^ that he was driven ashore by a The vessel could not be got off but he with the crew got a passage from Bencoolen in a vessel going to Batavia and by Mr H’s agents there a barque called the Rajahwalli belonging to them was sent to Mr H – In her Mr Leisk returned but the crew getting an advantageous offer to proceed to Australia embraced it, and hence one cause of the paucity of “Christian inhabitants” on the Cocos at the time of my visit and the consequent necessity for my overcoming my “scruples” to make move as I did – but of this more anon.

It was in Feby 1831 that the Barque arrived at the Cocos and Mr Hare immediately proposed to her Capt (Vanoss) that he should arm his crew and proceed to compel the people on Horsburgh’s Isle to embark on her. I am afraid replied the Capt that I cannot consent to do that. The [f. 190v p.88] the owners, your agents, cautioned me strongly against doing anything concerning those people that might be found to be illegal – and Mr Leisk has informed me that Capt Ross denies and is prepared to prove that they are not slaves – and has moreover promised to protect these people ^on this isle^ against any attacks that may be made upon their personal freedom. It will therefore I think be best that I should see him ^in the first instance^ and hear what he has to say upon the business.” – “You are sent here to obey my orders (rejoined Mr H) not to question the legality of my conduct with respect to my people Mr Leisk’s information is false Capt. Ross has taken the party that he has on quite different pretexts that of the ^one or two^ Strollers in the woods going to become bushrangers - dangerous to his property and so forth. And this, you’ll find he’ll tell you when you see him which as you say you can do nothing before – you may do – of course he wants to keep the people – and will speak and act as may best suit that purpose.” – “Well then I shall go – but I wish you would let Mr Ogilvy and your son come along with me so that there may be no doubt on what may be said by Capt. Ross and myself on the occasion” – “They may go – but I tell you before hand that there is no use in their going – or yours either.”

NB this was his son ^(and his only one)^ by his first and only legal wife – a Malacca woman of a respectable family who separated from him (on account of his setting up a Seraglio). Of course the son had imbibed some of his mother’s feelings on the subject and was not at all disposed to assist and abet in the object of keeping these people in his ^father’s^ hands. [f.191r p.89] Well, they came up to Mr Ross’s place and Capt. Vanoss opened the subject to him – and he replied, “Mr Ogilvy knows (said he) that I have from the first acquainted and warned these fugitives that I did not want them. I took them only in self defence – and shall be well pleased if you can persuade them to go back with you to Mr Hare – but I tell you most decidedly that having promised to protect them – I will not permit the employment of force to compel their return – and without not merely my permission, but even with my assistance – your crew even if they were Europeans instead of timid Javanese – would get the worst in making the attempt. Battas Lampungs Dyaks honest Malays – Buggeses Balinese &c are not the people to be captured by less than a fourth of their numbers of Javanese. But I will call these that are here and speak to them on the point of voluntarily returning to Mr Hare.” The people being called Mr Ross said to them, here is the Capt of the ship that Mr Hare has ordered to go away in to some European settlement probably Bencoolen and wants ^you^ to return and go along with ^him^. [Great impatience and murmuring expressed at hearing this] you know I have always told each and all of you that I did not want you – and you know that I would have had all – both you and the rest some for years ago if I had ^then^ pleased to receive you under my protection. Now Capt. Vanoss is ready to promise and I will be answerable for his observing it that he will go with Mr Hare [f.191v p. 90] and you to no other place than a European settlement probably Bencoolen but whether that be Dutch or English, you will have your complaints received and justice done on the subject.” “We will rather die than go back to Mr Hare and we trust to your promise that you will not compel us.” Mr Ogilvy then essayed to address them, but they instantly drowned his voice in their outcries and ran off to the adjacent wood. The party returned and reported to Mr H. – “Ah! I told you – it was of no use. But you see, he said nothing in denial of my rights to the service of these my people.” “That point, ^said Capt. Vanoss^ did not come in the way of being noticed by him on the occasion – so we do not know what he would have said upon it – but in avowing that he would not permit force to be employed to compel them to return to you – and would take upon himself the responsibility of authorizing and if need were – assisting them to resist he surely believed that he had warrantable grounds for making that declaration.” “Bah! Bah! He knows that he has none – he only talks big to deter you from assisting me as I have a right to expect that you should.” – “Now then (interposed Mr Ogilvy) we may I suppose, go and try the people on Horsburgh’s Isle – perhaps they may be more tractable as they have always been respectful to me.” – “You may go certainly but I expect no good results from it. Capt. Ross has you know given them their lesson and part of that was to the effect of being obedient and respectful to you personally so that has been nothing but seemings on their part. [f.192r p.91] The party viz Capn V Mr Oy and Mr He Junior proceeded to Horsburgh’s Isle but the people flatly refused to embark. Mr Oy then speculated that they should be compelled – “better not try that – Mr Ogilvy – we have our Parangs that Capt. Ross gave us when he told us that we might defend ourselves if we were attacked by any persons not duly authorized to make any such attack. Mr Hare should have known that we would never put ourselves again voluntarily into his hands – and if he had held any good right to keep us in Slavery – no doubt he would have got policemen or soldiers to compel our obeying him as before.” The party ^thus^ returned bootless – and Mr H e had to leave with the two women, as we mentioned – threatening ^ of course ^most grandly that he would soon return with the force of police and soldiers ^when^ he should have every man flogged in the first instance and have Mr Ross arrested and carried off to answer ^in a court of Justice^ for his conduct, &c. &c. &c. – he proceeded to Bencoolen and with some difficulty obtained permission to dwell there under surveillance but assuredly was not permitted to run on any lawless career what ever during the three years ^up to^ the time of his death there – three years after quitting the Cocos – not as according to my report at Batavia one year afterwards.” – And here the Reader will observe that as Mr Ross returned to the Cocos from England in Feb y 1827 and Mr H left in March 1831 my chronological ideas must be somewhat antediluvian [f.192v p.92] as appears from my denominating four years as “a very short period” with reference to the subject on which I was writing.

The question may here perhaps be asked – Why did Mr Ross bear with Mr Hare’s presence and conduct not only causing to him a heavy loss of valuable time in the prime of his life, but also additionally irksome to him as being a believer in the doctrine that “those who permit oppression share the crime” and therefore well disposed to share in the glory of him who could declare that “He delivered the poor that cried to him and broke the jaws of the wicked and plucked his prey from between his teeth?” The reply would at full length be too long for our present work – but a few particulars may be given here.

1st he was not aware of the extent to which Mr H had gone in the rejection of all good principles – that being of course concealed by every specious pretext which his cunning could supply.

2d, he had from unavoidable and unforeseen circumstances left a large sum of money in the hands of Mr H’s brothers, Jn & Jn Hare bankers in the house of Robt ^Scott^ Fairlie and Co in London, and he had hoped (fallaciously as that turned out to be) that he would recover it if he refrained from so quarreling with him ^Mr Hare^ as to drive him away – he having it seems – as in fact it was the case the power of dictating to his brothers on all business carried on by them and money matters connected therewith

3d, he was quite ignorant of the fact that Mr H was ^even^ whilst writing corresponding with him on ^apparently^ quite friendly terms animated with the most astonishing fury of ^implacable^ hatred toward him merely because he had not and would not submit to his dictations as absolute proprietor and master of [illeg] on all the islet chain or in his own words, “Lord Paramount here.” – Pretensions [f.193r p.93] founded solely according to his own declarations on the expression of an intention to collect for his own advantage the spontaneous produce of the soil! And this accompanied with the most equivocal expression of design not only to do nothing with the view of benefiting any public or maritime Interest – but of intending to prevent any trading business from being carried on at them.” But and to “shut the door (the harbor to wit) against the intercourse of Shipping” and bitterly resenting and virulently scoffing at Mr Ross declared intention of assisting Vessels in distress for repairs or supplies, that resentment and scoffing being however carefully concealed from Mr Ross at the time and only being afterwards discovered in his own handwriting which accidentally fell under Mr Ross’s cognizance.

4thly seeing that Mr H was not only determined not to change his principles for the treatment of the people, but avowedly intending to carry them out to a greater extent whenever he could get instruments in the shape of overseers – drivers &c – to effect that – he, Mr R, foresaw – that the people would ’ere long resort to bush ranging – in which they could fully subsist themselves with occasional depredations on his stores – to prevent which as he could not safely brave their enmity whilst living under thatch in wooden habitations he must receive them into his protection which would have the effect of ridding ^ridding him^ of Mr Hare’s [illeg] the manager/ overseer.

And lastly – tho’ ^it was^ not the least of his reasons for exercising patience and forbearance he was loth to throw away the [f.193v p.94] scabbard in quarrel with a man – by whom indeed, he never ^had^ been laid under the slightest obligation of any description whatever but with whom he had formerly been on friendly terms – even intimacy – as far as their very different tempers – dispositions – and principles – permitted – and as aforesaid being unaware of the depth of hatred nourished against him by Mr H – still imagined reconciliation to be possible – seeing that he was doing no actual injury to Mr H – but actually instead as had in two or three instances been the case warded off very important annoyances ^and imminent dangers^ from him – annoyances by visitors from ships who being received by Mr Ross and from the following brief sketch of their former connexion to which I allude with will make this reason sufficiently apparent informed of Mr H’s wishes to “remain in unvisited reclusion” refrained from visiting him – and danger – of being assassinated or made away with – in some mode or other – by these people of his – they having openly declared to their overseer Mr Dowries – that the thing would have been done – but for Mr Ross’s presence on the Isles and his having intimated that in case of that being done – he would hunt out the perpetrators – and hang them upon the nearest convenient tree. Of this Mr H was also aware. They had on one occasion attempted to poison him by putting verdigrease (scraped of an old copper vessel) into his curry but the quantity was so large that in the first spoonful he was aware of it by the taste and on examining the curry found some traces of it undissolved – whilst Mr Ross was at Sumatra before finally settling on the Isles – Mr H having supposed that he would set down on Direction isle set to work at putting up a hut upon it by which to claim a prior occupancy – and having no headman at his bivouac proceeded daily with the party of four in a canoe to and from that Isle – the way ^from [illeg] where he was bivouacked^ lies all over shallow water but the head of the deep water cove comes close up to the nearest point of Direction Isle – by which the canoe passed. The party then laid a plan of getting rid of him – by rowing out from the shore on to the deep water and there upsetting the canoe from which [f.194r I] [first of 3 inserted pages headed “pages additional as per note on page III”]

which they could swim ashore – leaving him to be drowned - he being totally unable to even keep himself afloat in the water – they were then to report that the canoe had been accidentally lost and Mr H – instantly seized by a shark – but as it had always been Mr H’s policy to act on the maxim of Divide et Impera, they were all at such discord with each other that there was no mutual trust amongst them and therefore it was agreed by the party to first take an oath to observe secrecy – and that oath being one of the most or rather the most binding on Malay consciences – preliminary preparation had to be made for its realization – and in the meanwhile Mr H’s favourite concubine (for the time being) got sent of the plan – and of course gave him inform ^information^ of it – he affected to take no notice of it – but took care to go out no more in a boat with any of the men – ^indeed^ from the very first moment of his landing – he never trusted himself to stop at or in the vicinity of the place where the main body of the people were set down – and – after being visited once or twice by a traveller from the West Isle he removed to the little isle on which he kept his rice – as above-mentioned – yet ^that^ it was no pleasant trip for a traveller to make from the West Isle bivouac to the Eastern one may be seen by the following extract from a letter dated 19th May and sent by Mr H. to Mr R whilst he was at Sumatra and when at Padang he received it - “here is a fellow just made his way round from ^the^ West Island ( to see his children) from 4 o’clock in the morning to 3 in the afternoon arriving half dead – and yet I am plagued with trying to make them work so as to sleep at night.”

The following is a brief sketch of the circumstances of the intimacy above alluded to as having previously existed between [f. 194v II] Mr Hare and Mr Ross. In May 1812 the southern whaler Baroness Longueville of London, S. Chace master, put into Coupang Timor Island for water and refreshments for the voyage homewards (having got a full cargo of sperm oil in 16 months from England). In her Mr Ross was a harpooner and acting ^occasionally as^ 2 mate during the illness of that officer. *[20] In the Roads a brig called the Olivia belonging to Mr Hare but chartered to the British Javanese govt (on a charter terminable only on six months’ notice [illeg] at 1800 $ per [illeg]) as dispatch vessel and conveyor for the coasting trade (having originally been a French privateer). She was lying there in want of a commander and first officer and the Resident having been accessory to causing that want – was very anxious on the subject – and applied to Capt. Chace for an officer from his ship to take the command – the pay being an 150$ per month – the two mates being married in England declined, but Mr Ross accepted the offer and with a Manilla Seacunny for mate took her to Batavia via Bencassen and Sumbawa. At Batavia he saw Mr Hare who appeared glad at finding that his [illeg] on the voyage had been fully approved by the master attendant and the secretary to the Govt. In process of time Mr H, with the sanction of the Govt, offered him ^and he accepted^ the command of the H. C. C brig Mary Ann from which having been long under repair the former commander and officers had returned to India. She was appointed as Commodore of the flotilla of three Sch r gun boats and five armed row boats appropriated to protect the coast of Borneo against the Pirates who were then both daring and numerous. In the course of that service Mr H had made two passages ^under Mr Ross’s command^ between Java and Borneo – he being “Commissioner General” of that Island – [ illeg]> of Banjarmassin and independent Rajah of three provinces of that Sultandom – gifted to him by the Sultan and comprising the SEly quarter of the island – but – having been nearly depopulated by piratical attacks Mr H induced the British Javanese Govt to establish a Malay convict settlement upon it – on the last [f.195r III] last of these occasions (passages ) Mr H was “deeply cogitating on the subject of his Rajahship and convict ^colony^ because of the news of Napoleon’s reverses and the consequent prospect of peace and of the restoration of Java and its dependencies to the Dutch Govt – and having asked Mr Ross’s opinion as to how the colony might be made to defray its own expenses (of which it had not then as yet defrayed a single rupee – but on the contrary had cost thousands to the Govt) – “Are you sure (said Mr Ross) that Borneo will be retained by the British or British Indian Govt?” – “Oh quite sure if it’s establishments can be made to pay or be shown to be sure at no long time to pay their expenses – the Dutch had abandoned Borneo ^long^ before we took Java – consequently have no claim upon it and our Govt will not abandon such a valuable acquisition on any other consideration than deficiency of it’s revenues to pay its expenses of which the Settlement is almost the sole cause at present” – “well then I think that if you remove if not all – at least the majority of the settlers – [about 1500 in all] from those barrens where they were placed down to the alluvial soil along the course of the river towards the Sea coast – that part of

[ note marked off from the text and signed JCR] The portion written on the foregoing pages from 68 to 95 – had been confusedly copied from the original which was written in pencil – the copyist having inadvertently copied the sheets belonging to near the latter part of this work instead of the ones belonging to this place – and – he having written more compactly than I have done – the extra pages of this are marked accordingly I II III – by J.C. R. [f. 195v [blank] [f.196r p. 95] of the country was destitute of population (having been formerly ^ as aforesaid ^ ravaged by the pirates) set them to clear the forest and jungles raise rice, sugarcane, pepper, and spice trees – at the same time preserving the good timber met with suitable for building a ship – adapted both for fighting and trading round the Island. This vessel (the Mary Anne) is a heavy sailor and doubtless will be sold when the British government retires from Java) – that timber so secured during the dry season – to be used up in the construction of the ship during the wet season – the results ought to be more than enough to defray the expenses.” “Good – excellent – all this no doubt – but it is not possible to expect that I can find a person at once able and willing to carry out the plan – would you engage in it?” Why – yes – I never propose for others to do anything which I cannot myself do – or direct the doing of.” “Well, I am happy to hear you say so much – on what terms would you undertake it?” “That my pay be continued at the present rate – during the time – the amount to be invested in the ship for such a share as it may cover all of her total cost – you engaging to place under my orders – as many of the people as I can employee and you can spare – or say – 150 working hands.” On these terms the affair was concluded – Mr Ross resigned the command of the Mary Ann to the chief officer to take her to Java – and Mr H went thither with him. There (the Peace in Europe having taken place) she was sold out of the Government Service – en suite – Borneo was abandoned by the British Indian government – and Mr Ross left to finish the ships (then only in frame) with the convicts whose periods had elapsed – and a number of others who fled into the jungles – when the British Commissioners for effecting the abandonment – were about embarking them for Java – and after their departure came in to Mr Ross – were received by him – and all employed and treated thenceforth – as free people [f.196v p.96] receiving weekly wages – Mr Hare had also devolved upon him – the charge of his territorial Rajahship – the convict settlement having been placed and the ship laid down on it – all – at his (Mr Ross’s) sole risk – as being unsupported by any Governmental authority. Having finished the ship he proceeded with her to Java – thence to Bencoolen and Cape Good Hope with Mr Hare – his brother John Hare – and these Malays – as already has been mentioned. From the foregoing, it may be inferred that Mr Hare and Mr Ross stood in common on a friendly footing – and that if any obligation had been incurred on either side – it certainly was not on Mr Ross’s – and with reference to this point I may further mention that whilst commanding the Olivia he had been offered by his friends (Messrs Deans, Scott and Co of Java) and at Mr Hare’s earnest solicitation declined the command of a fine ship (the Eugenia) belonging to them. Perhaps if obligation has lain upon him – he might have added another example to those which may be found in human history – of acquitting that by means of making a quarrel – and certainly in that view – no fairer or more inviting opportunity could have been desired by him – than the state of affairs at the Cocos anent those people presented from the very first – after his return from England – in February 1827 – But be that as it may – or might have been – certain it is that he wished to avoid quarreling with Mr H. (and of course with the Messrs H. his brothers) altho’ determined to keep clear of any business connection or special intimacy ^with the former^ – well knowing as he did – that Mr A. H.’s principles were exceedingly bad – and his conduct restrained – solely by the hesitation and procrastination attending upon a cowardly disposition. In short, after mentioning one of its most obvious traits – namely – atrocious lying – it is not needful to farther describe the character of his mind – for the object of showing that to be as wicked as Satan himself could have desired. [f.197r p.97] ^[Nevertheless]^ I must here declare – and aver– that had I being aware of Mr Hare’s having been – not only – in his own proper person a Borneot Rajah regularly recognized as such by the British Javan Government – but also a British Indian Government officer – of such rank and high importance that a British frigate (H.M. Phaeton) had been specially appointed to convey him to his government &c. – That he had been the table companion of Governors General – Lieutenant Governors – and Commanders in Chief Naval and Military and was – from 1820 to the time of his death the proprietor of a landed estate in South Africa – I should have worded my notices of him very differently given in virtue of his said estate – he had a perfect right to the title of Esquire.” In sooth I’m very sorry – that death has precluded the utility of my saying or doing any word or thing more than the foregoing – in this way of making to him the “amende honorable” &c &c &c

X. “From that time Mr Ross and the Malays lived peaceably – collecting coconut oil – turtle – tortoise shells and bicho-do-mar – and occasionally sailing to Mauritius, Singapore, or Batavia to dispose of them and by necessaries with their produce. Another Englishman Mr C. Leisk, who had served as mate of Mr Ross’s ship lived with him and they both had wives(English) and children, the whole party residing together in a large house of Malay build, just such a structure as one sees on old Japanned work – At the time of our visit Mr Ross was absent on one of their trading excursions – and his deputy Leisk was left in charge of every thing.” X. “From that time Mr Ross and the Malays lived peaceably but “the devil was vexed such order*[21] to behold.” So sent a Gallant Captain bold “Avast there Mr Ross – by all the intimates of my college days (the gods of Greece and Rome I mean) all except – The One – to whom St. Paul observed a solitary altar inscribed. Comparisons are odious. Similitudes much the same. I’ll none of them. So just go ahead, and tell “a plain unvarnished tale.” Oh! I see now – I see you know – what you are saying. Go on – go on.” But I must here request the reader to observe that if His Densest Darkness – the Pandemonium really sent me to break up”

[f.197v p.98] order and so forth – He made almost as great a mistake as when he got his nose injured in the jaws of the Saint’s red hot tongs – It seems indeed that if he ever had the faculty of prescience – he lost it – otherwise he would have known that I was only intending to sham enmity – and that the little disturbance which for the accomplishment of my real object – I could not help making – would result in the establishment of even better Order than that by which he was so vexed.

By then elsewhere I at the Cocos hitherto unheard of process of “collecting of coconut oil” – there hangs a tale – as doubtless the reader has suspected. Well, I shall out with it, by and bye. As for Turtle, Mr Ross never had nor has carried for sale to any place – a single turtle – in the course of his life. Of Tortoise-shell – not a scale. Of Bicho-do-mar – not a slug – had nor has these Malays ever collected for him. It is indeed pretty well known though until just now – I knew it not – that Tortoise-shell (Hawk-bill) and Green Turtle are never found together in any considerable numbers, and consequently the former are so scarce at the Cocos – that one or two only had been seen – up to the time of our visit. Bicho-do-mar there are – and Mr Ross had in 1828 – a party of three Chinese brought in from Java to cure it – more by way of experiment as to whether it would pay, than from any sanguine expectations of profit to be had from it. But the best sorts were found to be too scarce, and at the end of the year – for which they were engaged (1829) he sent the party back.

Mr Ross pretends not to the title of “Englishman” being as he is – no better than a sort of half-caste – originated between an exiled Kelt and an immigrant Norwegian – but – the wives –^ and most of their children^ were English – and it will be presently seen that my eagerness in acting towards Mr Ross – the part of a warm friend – under the guise of a malignant enemy – led me to risk their lives – but with the Reverend Fathers of the company of Jesus who however are not alone in the opinion hold that “ends sanctify mean” and therefore should have retained my con- [f.198r p.99] -science ^[2 words illeg]^– if the risk had been realized into a catastrophe.

My mention of the “house in which the whole party were residing together” would certainly not be worth noticing here otherwise than as an instance of my indefatigable attention – and ready ingenuity – in noticing and turning to account every particular that appeared at all susceptible of being so turned – according ^ly altho’^ I saw in reality two houses yet for convenience in describing these so as best to serve my main purpose I made one out of the two – and then – I had no difficulty in making that one – considerably unlike either. That one (in which the whole party were residing) had been constructed for Mr Leisk’s habitation – and certainly had nothing very large in its aspect or dimensions – being no more than thirty feet by twenty on its one floor – and about ten feet from the ground to the eaves of the roof. The other was Mr Ross’ – standing then on the S. E. Islet – uninhabited at the time – awaiting his convenience for removing it to the Island – on which he had recently placed (as he had always intended to place) the Settlement. Its floors and partitions had been put together so as to be removable in compartments, floated down to the Settlement – and there again set up. Mr Darwin and myself having visited and slept in it a night I can therefore speak as I do from personal observation. The beams were of Norway deals brought out from England by Mr Ross. The floors and partitions of Singapore boards and the pillars of the Island timber. Two Englishmen (Thomas Deeley and George Bailey) of the part brought out with him – the one a Carpenter, the other a joiner – prepared – and the rest of the party assisted in putting together and setting it up – and except in putting thatch on the roof – no Malays were employed on its construction. But even these were not Malays – but Javanese whom Mr R. had brought to the Isles. The form was, and is – [f.198v p.100] a square of forty eight feet on the ground and twenty feet thence to the eaves of the house. The resemblance of the entire fabric to such a structure as one sees represented on old Japanned work was – no doubt – exact – provided that the said representation corresponded to the foregoing – but if not – why then – not.

I have already shewn who was – or had been mate or mates of Mr Ross’s ship – and Mr Leisk not having been one – I may add now – that he was an apprentice to Mr Ross and together with the other three retained at his and their request – when the ship left for England. He had indeed a good reason for desiring to be retained as being on the voyage out – an attendant in the cabin – he had obtained favour in the eyes of Mrs Ross’s maid – whom he married with Mr Ross’s consent in the following year – and the “Service” was performed by Captain Sandilands of H.M.S. Comet. Mr Ross never left any other than Mrs Ross “in charge of every thing” – and on the occasion in question Mr Leisk had been left to carry on the outdoor work – under her orders. [Of course in the estimation of a Globe circumnavigator &c &c voyages of two thousand miles or more on the Indian Ocean could not be fitly mentioned – by any other designation than “Excursions” of picnic ^parties^ “on pleasure bent” &c.

XI By some strange misconception (not intentional act of injustice) Mr Ross had refused to give Hare’s slaves their freedom for fear that the executors of that man should demand their value from him – but he paid them two rupees a week in goods (at his own valuation) provided they would work for him both men and women as he thought proper. Mr Leisk told me this and said that many of the Malays were discontented and wanted to leave the XI I trust that none of my friends have imagined that I intended to affront them – by assuming that they were so foolish as not to perceive my real meaning in the first two sentences of the opposite paragraph – but – seeing that they may fairly ask – why I condescended to throw over it a make-believe veil however flimsy – I must now explain as follows – Knowing as I do from most Noble, Official and therefore
[f.199r p.101]  
Island. No wonder, thought I for they are still slaves and only less ill used than they were by the men who bought them.” Unquestionable authority - that – the Cocos is “without the pale of British institutions” – consequently that its inhabitants cannot be admitted to bring a suit into any [column continues on full width of page]

English Court of Justice – and sensible that if Mr Ross had been living in England – when I charged him with not only having committed – but in persisting in committing – intentional injustice – he could have put me into the hands of a lawyer to be brought into a Court of Justice – where being totally unable to make any rational defence I should have been dubbed – “a convicted libeller.” Now – seeing that I could as “a Gentleman and an Officer and a man of Honour” – bring such an ^apparently un-^ ambiguous charge in print against him, though residing on the Cocos which I would not have ventured to do if I had been residing in London – I therefore threw the veil over it in the former case, which I should found needful in the latter. True it is – no doubt – that any tolerably clever lawyer would notwithstanding have got a verdict against me from any Jury of English Gentlemen. He would have needed to do no more, for that result – than point their attention to sundry other particulars and the general tone of my report – concerning Mr Ross – for convincing them – that the words – “some strange misconception – not intentional act of injustice” – was clearly nothing more than a shabby device to keep myself from being convicted of having – without the slightest provocation, willfully and maliciously – written, and published – in that report – a series of libels upon him of which this was perhaps the most glaringly false. Knowing however that as abovementioned he could not have me ^so^ brought up – I also knew that I should have ample time for informing him of my real object in all these implications of his conduct and character.

Next as to the motive – which I attributed to him for mak - [f.199v p.102] -ing the refusal &c which I have imagined him to have made – “Fear” – to wit – Putting out of view the consideration that if it was – “a far cry to Loch Awe” – it is a farther still to the Cocos. So many of my friends as have a tolerably correct notion of the Malay character – must have smiled at my doing so – in this case especially, if they knew much more of Mr Ross’s character career than I did – “what (they doubtless exclaimed) fear of Mr Hare’s “executors” living in England! Entertained by a man who was without the pale of the Institutions of any country – with his wife and children dwelling amongst Malays – destitute of resource to any human protection whatever – there – or elsewhere – other than the moral influence of his own character upon their minds under the Supremacy of Divine Providence! A Man who has been on intimate terms with the Dyaks of Borneo – and had on that Island – successfully governed some hundreds of accidentally emancipated Malay convicts – as is elsewhere explained – who had moreover been a peculiarly successful harpooner of Sperm whales &c &c &c How he must have grinned when he saw this motive assigned to him! Bah! Captain Fitzroy cannot be such a Booby, as to have been in earnest in attributing such a motive to such a man under such circumstances.” – Nevertheless my friends aforesaid were altogether wrong – and thence having spoken so many “words without knowledge” because of their having looked only at one side of the shield – as doubtless they will be forward to acknowledge – after viewing the other which I am now about presenting to their view.

Whenever any man can only guess at the probable motives for the actions of another person – he naturally does – and must in the absence of any other clue for his guidance – resort to imagining himself – as being that person and occupying the same position, amidst the same circumstances. Hence reverting to the fact that all Education * all Legislation - and perhaps [f.200r p.103] I may be allowed to add – all Religion – Orthodox – Heterodox – Revealed – or Artificial – is based and proceeds on the principle that Fear is the most powerful agent that can be brought to act upon the minds of Mankind. Surely it becomes clear that while imagining myself (for the nonce) to be Mr Ross &c – I could not have so much dreamt of any other reasonable motive for committing such “intentional injustice” – as I have alleged that he was committing towards those Malays. However –

It is with feelings considerably gratified by contemplating the Politico-Economical doctrines which I set forth so fully though at the same time so briefly – in the paragraph I am at present noticing – that I now specially request my friends to reperuse and ponder upon these tenets &c – after which they must be free to acknowledge – that is not altogether originated in my own mind – I have adopted and improved upon all the former theories which have been concocted on these subjects – and forasmuch as that some obscurity seems to involve them – in result of the incidental mode in which they are enounced in my first Edition – I proceed here to point them out so clearly that – the admiration and laudation which they deserve may not be fairly withheld.

1st That – whenever during the time that Slavery was a legal institution in the Colonial department of the British Empire – the slaves of one British subject fled from him to another that other was bound in Justice to give them their freedom – and either send them back to the land – from whence they, or their ancestors had been brought – or concede to them – on his Estate that species of freedom which has been right prithily des- [f.200v p.104 -cribed in a couple of short sentences. There was then no King in Israel every man did that which was right in his own eyes.”

N.B. It appears that the Red-Republican system is of an ancient a pedigree as that other venerable Entity “the Wisdom of our Ancestors.”

2nd That the Executors of the man whose slaves had been so freed by a private, and altogether unauthorized fellow subject, would have had no claim upon that subject for the value of those slaves. True it is indeed that as above mentioned – the Cocos are not of quite ready access to Sheriff’s officers – Moses and Aaron*[23] – but that circumstances does not subtract an iota from the ingenuity – or value of this my newly discovered tenet, or axiom, or law – which latter if it is not – I say that it ought to be.

3rd That where no third party is present, or within reach of reference – to act as competitor – or deserving to be fully trusted in approving in the just prices – not the sellers– but the buyers of commodities should put upon these their own valuation – or price. Perhaps the reader may here ask – Did I establish this maxim or law between the purser and the crew of the Beagle? I readily answer that I did not – for as much as that in the first place – I set forth the doctrines as being applicable only to a Malay population – and in the second – that even if I had meant to recommend their general adoption among all Peoples – I was not my own Master in all respects – and had not leisure to preach up the Equity – the Propriety – or – in short – the Socialistic fitness of these principles or tenets &c.

To be sure, Mr Ross paid the people in weekly by pay notes which they either exchanged for the currency wherewith to purchase what they wanted – or when they went as crew of the vessel – which they did by turns – laid it out in purchases made by themselves in the Port to which she proceeded – but – of that – I say as I did of the foregoing, ^it^ does not at all detract from my reputation for [f.201r p.105] wisdom and truthfulness – nor invalidate my pretensions to the possession of extra-ingenuity – or as my friend the Editor of the London Examiner has very correctly expressed it – “my wonderful role of Genuis.”

>4th That wages should be paid by all employers of labour to all employees (who may offer themselves for such work) as the latter – not the former – might be pleased to deem proper – and tho’ I admit that people of the Lord Eldon (the first) cast of mind may feel some doubts as to the true character of the forgoing tenets &c I defy any rational being to conscientiously deny that this is – a genuine Red-Republican – and no mistake.

But now – before going farther ahead – I must repeat most emphatically – the fact that I never imagined – these doctrines – could be at all applied to – or by – any other people besides Malays. It would indeed have been a fatal indiscretion on my part, if I had, and therefore in my manuscript papers handed to Mr Literary Fag – I had, as expressly as words could do – restricted that application to them – Mr Fag however allowed the proof sheets to pass through his hand, without observing that the compositor (who is probably a rank socialist) had omitted all that. Of course the first moment that I received the first copy – I perceived the horrid omission – and instantly (imagining that I saw the First Lord and Master of our profession with the Volume in his hand – and heard him exclaiming to the other Lords – after reading these enunciations – “What! A Post Captain R. N. printing and publishing these ultra-red-republican doctrines – in the face of our declaration recorded many years ago, in the annals of Parliament – that “any amount of wages (however much less than the market rate at the time) which Masters may be pleased, or find convenient, to pay to Servants, compelled by them to perform at their pleasure – whatever they may be pleased so to direct – takes that servitude entirely out of the category of Slavery, or Slave service and places all such compelled Servants [f.201v p.106] completely on the footing of freeman”! Thank my stars, I say – that put me upon starting off on the instant post-haste to Mr Fag’s garret – where I grabbed the manuscript papers – and – thence hied to the Lord High Admiral –Tut – I mean, Mr Secretary to the Board – shewed him the trick, that had been played upon me and received his infallible assurance that he would explain all to their Lordships – and take care that no damage should result therefrom to my professional Interests in time coming. By the bye now I rather think that in my inadvertently giving the Title of Lord High Admiral to Mr Secretary – I was more in the right – than the wrong – For is it not well known, that Secretaries are to Boards the same as are Organists to Organs? Howbeit – I shall now proceed at once to fortify my correct position and to give my soi-distant friend Mr Darwin the important credit of enouncing the same doctrines – of course with sole reference to Malays – seeing, that he (an M.A. & F.R.S. – who is – or has been, Secretary to the Grand Geological Society and will most probably be, in due time – dubbed a Knight, or perchance even a pickanninny Baron bold – alias Baronet) cannot be at all suspected of intending, that these doctrines of ours should be adopted and carried out by the horny-palm’d castes of the British peoples – And – I am farther – in this conclusion – at once confirmed and rejoiced by the certainty that “Headquarters” must have been satisfied, that no such application could be made – nay – nor even dreamt of – as otherwise instead of handing to his a thousand pounds Sterling out the proceeds of Imperial taxation for the rearing up and sending forth to the world – his batch of the Beagle’s precious litter – they would have directed Mr Attorney General to hand him ex officio into the court of Queen’s Bench – there to be convicted, of having written and published rank Sedition and shocking blasphemy &c &c &c.

Being up to his eyes, in the operation of licking the Whelp – ycleped – “Theory of the origin of low and lagoon islands of the Coral formation” – into a shape, which should bewitch the European-Philosopher-Squad and tempt the worthy ^Glasgow^ Professor Nichol to volunteer acting the part [f.202r p.107 of trumpeter of the Superlative merits of “our Darwin” – Being so employed – I say –my Friend had not time to write much upon the subject of Coco-ian statistics – but, so much as he did write– is as the reader has seen, and will now again see – apt and apropos to the Subject.

“The Malays are now nominally in a state of freedom and certainly are so – as far as regards their personal freedom – but in most other respects they are (both by Captain Fitzroy and myself) considered as slaves.”

Now I having certified, that they also enjoy religious freedom having themselves the election of their Priest – and having been by Mr Ross supplied with a Koran – what remains for the completion of their freedom? The Political Department – to be sure! Mr Ross has therein certainly committed “Intentional injustice” by not inviting those Malays to get up Caucuses of Congreesses, or in short – ultra red republican practices, to the end of allowing – “Every man to do that which seemed right in his own eyes” – and has thereby fully warranted our Super-Sapient “consideration” aforesaid – as also my aiding – as far as I dust the plan of setting them to get up these doctrines of ours, into full operation.

I also take this opportunity to acknowledge the second part of this – quid pro quo – given to me by Mr Darwin – in return for my furnishing him with a point d’appui for his coral Isle formation theory – the Story of the subsiding house posts – to wit – and – with the suggestion of the mode or manner by which his truly wonderful Polypii – keep those Isles above the Sea level whilst their basements are perpetually “subsiding into the profound depths of the Ocean.” Here it is – as per his Volume (the third of this Narrative batch of the Beagle’s litter) entitled “Researches in Geology and Natural History”

“From the discounted state of the people – the repeated removals and perhaps – a little mismanagement – things are not very prosperous – on the Cocoa-nut the whole prosperity of the place depends.” [f.202v p.108] The discontented state – and repeated removals – having been already investigated – we may pass on to the mismanagement which may be possible enough – seeing that Mr Ross has no pretensions to the possession of Infallibility. Pity it is however, that my Philo Sophian Friend did not go on to point out some instances. Had he done so – Mr Ross assuredly would not have ventured to imagine – as he probably does – that, if placed in the same circumstances – not only would not Mr Darwin – but even I myself – would not have managed much better than he has done. The two last sentences – of Mr Darwin’s dictes however would seem to transfer the blame of mismanagement from Mr Ross to “the Coconut”. Doubtless these said sentence are – at all events – entitled to be classed with “the words of the wise and their dark sayings” but whether so or not – it is fortunate for the Shipping which resort to the Settlement for aid &c that the coconut exonerates them from contributing to bear the expense of its establishment – as they would have to do – there as elsewhere if those establishments had to be maintained altogether or in great part by such contribution.

Nevertheless it is not quite certain that the condition &c of the Colony at King George Sound (an older one than that on the Cocos) – established and maintained by the Imperial Government – justified us in expecting to find the latter – which had been established and maintained by a private Individual at his own expense and risk – flourishing in a condition of prodigious prosperity. To save my readers from violating the repose of my First Edition Volume by taking in down for reference – I here copy my report on said Settlement for their convenience.

“A few straggling houses, placed in an exposed cheerless situation (from which their removal to a better position would scarcely have been blameable) were seen by us – as we entered the harbor – and had inclination been our guide, instead of our duty – I certainly should have felt much disposed to put the helm up, and make all sail away from such an uninviting place.” [f.203r p.109] “The country around King George Sound has a dull uniform aspect – there are no mountains or rivers *[24] – few trees are visible white sandy patches, scrubby bushes – bare masses of granite and a slightly undulating outline – meet and disappoint the eye of a Stranger.

“Next day however we found that these appearances (of the country) were worse than the reality; for behind a hill, which separates the harbor from the Sound, a thick wood was discovered in which there were many trees of considerable size – and in the midst of this wood, I found Sir Richard Spencer (the Governor’s) house – much resembling a small but comfortable farmhouse in England. This sort of isolated residence, has a charm for some minds, but the loss of Society – the numerous privations and the vastly retrograde step taken in civilized existence, by immigrating to perfectly new countries are I think, stronger objections to the plan, than usually occur to persons, who have not seen their consequences in actual operation.

“At this time in 1836 there were about thirty houses, or cottages, in the neighbourhood of the Sound, and Harbour, some had small gardens but generally speaking there was no appearance of agriculture (in the Colony) excepting immediately around Sir R. Spencer’s house – where a few fields had been cleared and cultivated in the midst of the wood.

“During our stay at this place – we caught plenty of fish of twenty different kinds, with a seine – yet with such an abundant supply close at hand the Settlers were living principally of (imported) salt provisions!”

When a person who had just represented himself as being deputed and “left in trust of every thing” came forward in the absence of his principal, and entruster – to volunteer statements tending to the prejudice of that person. Surely no one [f.203v p.110] but a ninny ^or first cousin to a booby^ could have failed to surmise, that he was concocting some treacherous plan for the success of which he was endeavouring to obtain the Authority of my rank &c by leading me to utter expressions which he might be able to employ for that end. Of course – I being the very reverse of a ninny or a nincompoop ^ &c &c &c^ saw at once – what he was “after” – I indeed said to myself – “If this fellow be even a Pharisee of the Pharisees – par excellence – with a conscience tender as gauze paper – the utmost that he need do for its preservation – is to leave these people free to come and make their complaints to me” – but for the same reasons that will be exhibited by and bye – I deemed it proper to give him all the support and aid – which I could in my position venture to afford – hence altho’ I have only written that – “I thought to myself – no wonder” &c &c – I could safely enough have added after the word “myself” the word “aloud” – The fact being that knowing as I did – that my thoughts if unexpressed aloud could not be of sufficient – or even of any – importance, to the Plotter – and knowing as I think I did – that some of those Malays could speak – and nearly all understand English – and of whom some were within earshot – I therefore hesitated not to utter my thoughts to Mr Leisk – whilst walking to and fro with him in the shade of the coconut trees. A Peripatetic Academical mode, which I preferred to any other – 1st as being classical and 2nd that altho’ near the house – the walk was far enough distant, for our not being overhead by Mrs Ross – who however (with true woman’s tact) guessed by our gesticulations and squintings alternately towards the Malay bystanders and the towards the house – that our confabulations were not of any – very fair – aboveboard or honourable nature – and expressed her suspicions thereof to Mr Ross when he returned – he however could not bring himself to believe, that any man possessed of an average (common) sense – much less a Gentleman – and still less an officer of my rank and responsibilities – would have so ^even^ inadvertently [f.204r p.111] countenanced anything at all improper or unfair and he was right – for altho’ I did all that – yet it was ^not^ done inadvertently, but advisedly, from my being prescient of the fact that it would ultimately produce beneficial results to him and his interests ^and^ as will be shewn by and bye – that prescience was almost quite correct. Mr Leisk indeed, could have told me – had I been consonant to his views the following circumstances.

In 1829 when H.M.S. Comet called in at the Isles – as aforementioned – Captain Sandilands went to see Mr Hare – who was then living on Rice Islet. Mr H. made the interview as short as possible – but whilst he was standing on the beach talking with Captain S. the part of trustworthies came up to them, and one who spoke English, addressed himself as spokesman to the Captain, vehemently complaining of their treatment by Mr Hare – to whose immediate orders to “be off to their work” they gave no heed whatever. Captain S. was considerably surprized at the scene – but desired them to withdraw for the present – and on the next occasion of his coming to that Isle he would able to understand the subject. They retired accordingly, and he then told Mr Hare, that having been applied to – he must enquire further – so as to be able to make a proper statement upon it to the Admiral when he returned to India – and therefore, would come on shore again on the following day – when Mr Hare would be prepared to give the requisite information – which Mr H. said he would do.

On the following day he informed Captain Sandilands that “the people were his slaves in all respects – that he had divested himself of the power to seel them – that they would have thought of making complaints if they not been rendered dissatisfied by Mr Ross’s people” &c and when Captain S. desired to see the documents on which he held them as slaves – Mr H said that he had determined (in consequence of Mr Ross’s proceedings) to produce them to no one – [f.204v p.112] nor anywhere – till called upon to do so in a Court of Justice. “Well sir (said Captain S.) I have neither time nor inclination to go at any length into the matter – but if these complaints are well founded and these Isles be recognized as under the British Government – you will ‘ere long have to give more satisfactory information. I shall however see Mr Ross and hear what he may have to say upon it.” – “Oh – he will doubtless (as we are at variance on this very matter) say the worst that he can imagine” “Perhaps but I shall let you know what he does say” Captain Sandilands accordingly came to Mr Ross’s dwelling and when he returned – had to tell Mr H. that “Mr Ross declined, under the existing circumstances, to say anything whatever on the subject.”

Now certainly these men who were bold enough to come forward to Captain Sandilands in Mr Hare’s presence, with their complains would not have hesitated to come forward to me in Mr Ross’ absence with complaints against him – if any reasonable cause for making such had been in existent. Again – in the latter part of October 1834 – Mr Ross proceeded with his vessel to Keeling’s Isle – to embark (for taking to Mauritius) the stores of the British Brig “Earl of Liverpool” that had been wrecked there – and which had been saved and housed on the Isle at the time by him. For the object of embarking those articles quickly (there being no safe anchorage at the Isle) he took with him all the young and able men of those refugees from Mr Hare. When close to the Isle a calm took place – which lasted until the vessel had been carried by the current far to the N.W. of it – when the S.E. trade wind set in strong and then finding her too light for beating up – he stood away on the wind for Sumatra intending to call in at Crooe for ballast and provision. When about within 70 miles off that place a N. Wester came on, with which he resolved to run at once to Batavia – and get all supplies that were wanted at the Cocos. He did so – and being very unwell when he arrived there – went immediately on shore – leaving Mr Leisk in charge of the vessel and people – two days afterwards intelligence arrived of Mr Hare having died at Bencoolen. [f.205r p.113] Mr Ross then directed Mr Leisk to acquaint the refugees with that occurrence and inform them that if all or any wished to leave, and remain in Java, they were at liberty to do so, and such one that did, should receive from him, a discharge and certificate of being a freeman. Not one accepted the offer but all desired to be taken back to the Cocos on the same terms as before.

True it is certainly, that by merely saying to Mrs Ross “Do you think that none of these Malays are discontented and want to leave the Cocos?” I should have received all of the foregoing information from here – with the following addition thereto – “Captain Ross besides the officer takes no other crew but individuals of these people in the Schooner – and in such places at Port Louis, Penang, Singapore and Batavia – if they demanded to be discharged – he could not – if he wish (which he does not) refuse that demand. On the last voyage to Port Louis – a young man (one of the family of Blacks) because of not being likely to get a wife from among the Malays here) was at his request discharged there. Two years ago a widow woman and her young daughter, left for Java in a British vessel, and on his present voyage Capt Ross has taken with him at their request – a man and his wife to be discharged and left at Singapore. Indeed, expulsion from the Islands – being the penalty threatened for disorderly conduct. It would be very inefficient – if the people wished to leave.”

All this, I say, would have been thus easily obtained, and it’s correctness ascertained – merely by my saying to Mr Leisk, “Mrs Ross states that &c &c” when he would have felt himself compelled to acknowledge it’s truth – but against taking this course, there stood the following insuperable difficulties –

1st I had reason to believe that – Leisk was telling me lies which I wished to accept, instead of truth.

2nd I am in no respect allied to that class of sailors to whom the sight of a petticoat is more interesting than any other object that can be mentioned – except the wearers of that [f.205v p.114] garment in propria personae. On the contrary – I take credit to myself for having at College imbibed a large portion of the Genuine Classical taste – which preferred masculine society and beauty – to feminine – and which led to the elegantly classical practice of, the Gentlemen at meals and drinking bouts – reclining on couches – lolling on each others bosoms – slobbering each others beards &c whilst their womankind were cooped up in pigeon-hole-chambers and backyard cribs – spinning, sewing, weaving, washing &c Hence – agreeing as in sentiment I do with the sublimely aristocratic officers of the – th who did not condescend to dance with any – but the elite of Almacks – then only as a peculiar favour to those “females” it was clearly impossible for me – to hold any rational conversation on such subjects with a woman – who if she had ever heard of Almack’s – had probably been led to believe it to be, an exhibition of the Exeter Street class – a performance by trained and dressed up Baboons, or some other outlandish sort of Animals. No! No! No! clearly I could not – but I am willing to admit that the woman was very well qualified for a sailor’s or immigrant’s wife – a neat active little body (N.B. I suspect little women are generally more active than tall or large) A Gloucestershire born lass – just learned country work when her parents removed to London – where she further learned the trade of glovemaking by which after the death of her father and the captivity of her brother – she supported herself and her mother. Thus it was that she could cook, bake, and brew – and all well too, manage the poultry yard, cut out and make her own and children’s clothes – and neither when (with her mother) she left England to accompany her [he] Sailor to their Oceanic home – nor ever since – hath she cast one lingering look behind nor longed to return to that most aristocratically, and par consequence most wisely and justly governed country – especially with reference to the Interests of the Industrious classes. All the foregoing remarks I however repeat, merely from hearsay but [f.206r p. 115] which in this instance – may perhaps be almost as trustworthy as though “it had been the results of my own inquiries” – howebeit revenons a nos moutons

In saying that “these people are slaves” &c I virtually said and was by Mr Leisk understood as saying – “in retaining these people under his Authority – Mr Ross is intentionally acting most unjustly and illegally – you will therefore be perfectly justified in persuading them to free themselves from it – and from all control of his, over them. Altho’ brought to these Isles in cribs, under sentry – precisely as though direct from the Bight of Benin – “they have” I assure you “as good a right to the Soil – and its naturally yielded produce as he has who first Explored and Settled them at his own risk and expense” – In very deed – I could hardly help saying so much – at all events – I sailed as near the wind towards that point as I possibly could, without being taken aback – and that, as the reader knows already would be about three points or four at most – Howbeit – I accomplished so much as sufficed to produce the same effect but all was done, and said, solely for the excellently good reasons already alluded to. Had I really been in earnest on this point, I certainly should have called these Malays together – and offered to take them all to Anjier in the Beagle – knowing as I do, that the exact Geographical position of Crockatooa Peak, the Grand fair way mark in Sunda Straits had not been ascertained – the effecting of that object – would have formed an excellent reason for my making the trip. Lastly – I have to add here that the “two rupees a week” was and is – paid only to the aged decrepit incapable of performing any heavy work – the others being paid by the piece or quantity and when employed on work not admitting of that rule then according to the average of their earnings by piecework – Indeed some of the nut collectors actually earned from half to one and a half rupees [f.206v p.116 per day – and accordingly – if necessity occurred for their being otherwise employed they were then paid accordingly – lastly that the week’s work time for those working by the day – consisted, as it still does consist – of fifty four hours. No work being done on Mr Ross’ account from noon of Saturday to sunrise of Monday – except the attending on the Steam Engine on the Saturday afternoons.

XII “These Malays were allowed to rear poultry which they sometimes sold to Shipping. They were also allowed the produce of a certain number of coa-nut trees – and might catch fish and turtle for their own use – but the sale of turtle to shipping – and the immense crops of cocoa-nuts which are produced annually on all the Islets of the Group – were monopolized by Mr Ross for his sole advantage. One daily task imposed on the women was to “husk” a hundred nuts collected for them by the men, who extract a gallon of oil from every ten.” XII Here I must in the first place be allowed to take some considerable credit on behalf of my ingenuity – by way of set off – against some slight mistakes which I now find that I have made whilst writing the opposite paragraph – Thus 1st By the mention of the “poultry” alone and by the insertion of the word “sometimes” I have indicated the inference to be drawn by my readers – namely – that the Malays were not allowed to rear any other creatures – and that they not always freely permitted to sell those to shipping – or one another – at their own pleasure. I may add that [column continues on full width of page]

I intended to state the fact that they were prohibited from rearing swine – seeing that I needed not to have inserted after the word “prohibited” the words “by their religion” the omission of which would have led – at least nine tenth of my readers – to conclude that the “prohibition” was one of Mr Ross’ imposition but if I had the – the inference might have been made that – they were allowed to rear any other creatures – for example – Geese, turkeys, ducks, pigeons, sheep, goats &c I might indeed have put the two former [f.207r p.117] on the prohibited list without adding – that they could not be reared on the Isles – the chicks and goslings dying off – whilst young – even ducks are very difficult to rear or keep alive for any length ^of time^ and on all these points of my compass – not made nearly such long stretches to Port (ie my landsmen readers “to the left hand”) than I had previously done.

Again – I very adroitly changed (in the case of the womens’ employment) piece-work into task-work but now for my errors the acknowledgement of which proves the rigidity of my respect for truth. Altho’ I made so sure of the point as to place inverted commas on each side of the word “husk” I find that I made a stupid mistake – assuredly if I had mentioned to those females my view of that work – the wicked, saucy and withal seductive creatures like their sex in general – would have giggled outright at my trés-Sage-face and exclaimed that they could “husk” a thousand instead of a hundred per day – yea, and would undertake to husk ten times the number in that time if I would be bound in something handsome to extract – or procure to be extracted – a gallon of oil from every ten. In sober serious style I must however add here than Mr Ross actually pays wages to those baggages – at a much higher rate than that for which the men would perform the same work. For the excuse of this very unEnglish practice he alledges that as the women cannot get work enough in striking the shells of the kernels unless the very gentlemanly disposed*[25] men bring in the nuts he expects that they will not only imitate Punch’s Mrs Caudle but also at mealtimes Scott’s borderess’ warning “Hough’s in the Pot” as to the husking [f.207v p.118 indeed if Mr Ross wished the nuts to be brought in unhusked – he would have to pay the men at a higher rate per hundred – it being very much more advantageous for them – to husk the fruit on the spot – where it has fallen from the trees – which accordingly they do. Firmly wedded as I am to the notion that no man is fit to govern others if he be not disposed by way of manifesting his talents – and sustaining the dignity of his position ^to^ exact unnecessary and useless laws – especially if he have no force adequate at his commend adequate to compel their observance to at least some considerable extent – and therefore – feeling that I was rather over than under- acting my part towards Mr Ross – I somewhat inconsiderately assumed in his favour that he had issued a law of that description (in the case of the coconut trees) but I find that I had given him more credit for his Governmental talents than he is entitled to – or even disposed to claim on this point for himself. Indeed I rather imagine that when he read this – he exclaimed “Why! His Honour seems to think that he cannot possibly dash it on deep enough. Surely Nature intended him to be a Painter of the Salvator Rosa School – and if some foolish guardian or other – had not sent him to Sea I have not doubt that he would have made himself known by the Cognomen of “the Gorgeously Great Painter.” Whereas in these luting and fluting times – that – except any National Government gets mad enough to force England into a war – which in that case would be popular among the British people and in that event woful to the aggressor – that exception excepted – these times are likely to last until some hundred millions of the debt “National” [par] mensonge politique – “Broughamonger” in common parlance – and landed Interest” in fact *[26] has been liquidated or broomed and by that time he will probably be out of date he has very little prospect of [f.208r p.119] becoming known to Posterity as the Gloriously Great Captain. But he will ^at all events to be sure^ repose comfortably enough – on the laurels which he gathered in New Zealand – with these literary works for his pillow – and this Supplement under his ear redolent as it must be of pleasant dreams.”

With respect to “the monopoly for his sole advantage” – I have in the first place to inform the reader – that I have the honour of being the original of my brother officer Captain Marryat’s “Nicholas Easy Esqre” and of course never took nor take – act or part in in the monopoly of Oysters, Salmon, Deer, Hares, Pheasants, Partridges – in short the wholesale and retail Ferae Naturae which were fed at the expense of the working classes up to the blessed year 1846. Howbeit I have been assured by Mr Ross that if I will come under an engagement to take for myself all the income – and pay to him all the expenditure – both sides of the account being previously substantiated by indisputable documents – he will engage to pay me the sum of seventy thousand rupees by way of bonus upon the transaction.

Of course I have instructed my lawyer ^attorney^ to conclude the bargain on my behalf – not doubting in the least that independent of the bonus – the result by balance will reimburse to me the outlay that I incurred in my explorations of South America – which the Shabby Snobs in possession of “Headquarters” at the time refused to pay!*[27] As for the “monopoly” itself – he declines to abandon that because firstly [f.208v p.120] as my friend Mr Darwin has observed – “On the coconut the whole existence of the place depends” To be sure instead of the word “existence” he wrote the word “prosperity” – which was evidently a gross mistake – he however goes on to say that things are not very prosperous at it. Neither of us having seen any signs of prosperity about the place – but quite the reverse – this word “very” was also very foolishly inserted – however he adds something in the way of redeeming his errors viz “the poor people seemed poor and their houses destitute of furniture” This was pretty wisely observed considering how well stocked with furniture Malay houses are all throughout Indonesia – but I am unable now to account for the omission made by both of us – namely – that the people were swathed in rags – surely that must have been the case – if they seemed poor – par excellence!

2ndly Because Mr Ross says that in respect to the interests of the inhabitants – he knows not of any change that would be advantageous for them situated as they are on these “Remote” – “Lonely” – “Sequestered Isles” lying in the middle of the Indian Ocean (not the most placid of any on the Globe) at nearly a thousand miles from the nearest market in which their produce can be exchanged for the necessaries and convenience of human subsistence.

But – altho’ I have not suggested any such change – nor have as yet discovered any of a feasible appearance – yet I must be allowed to say that – in repeating the epithets which I applied to the Islets – merely as so many verbal flowers for the ornamenting of my language he has taken what seems to be a somewhat unfair-looking advantage for his argument – Knowing, as he could not but know – that a first chop Maritime Geographer could not have been in earnest in applying such epithets to Isles lying as the Cocos do – exactly half way between India and Australia – on the direct and shortest line between those two Continents – as also on the general track of Maritime Commerce round the Cape of Good Hope, to and from Sunda Straits – the grand gateway of communication between the Indian Ocean and the Seas of Indonesia and China &c [f.209r p.121] Not at all approving of the setting of any person to task work or not to be allowed to put in a word of his own – which must be the case with the reader of my book – wherein nothing is left for him to do in the way of amusement or relaxation I have in the course my work left several little things of the difficulty-class for him to solve for himself – and here I have given him the power of making a choice the two following Statements and their Corollaries.

1st These Islets are mere Skeletons little better than Coral reefs &c

2nd Immense crops of coconut are produced annually on all the Islets of the Group.

Now he either choose the 1st and conclude that these mere Skeletons are as they must be if they be such incapable of yielding any produce worth mentioning or the 2nd and conclude that these Islets are very much better than mere Skeletons – altho’ perhaps not quite so much as to yield immense crops – but I must warn him that he cannot be permitted to take like King James’ Bishop “baith together.”

I must in very deed on review of these two sets of statements allow that an error has been committed in sending both forth to the perusal of the reading public – and must in my own defence lay the blame where it has been incurred – namely upon my deputy – Mr Literary Fag – who is inexcusable in the case – after having spent three years in putting together a narrative out of materials prepared and arranged in perfect apple-pie order – previously to being handed over him. But it may be said to me “How came you to indite these contradictions and inconsistencies?” I must just make a clean breast of it by confessing that I was in the practice of looking about in the afternoons for subjects of observations – and in the following mornings (whilst the docks were being washed which as every person who has been on board Ship at sea will testify is the most disagreeable time within the [f.209v p.122] twenty four hours round) composed, and wrote down my remarks and comments. These naturally took the tone of my mind at the time– whereas had I reversed the practice and instead of writing in the mornings before breakfast when most Commanders – whether Captains or officers – are crusty, bilious and splenetic – I had done that in the after-meridian time – when the circulation having been revivified and the crusts cleared away by the juice of the grape – or Good old extract of Molasses – everything appears to have a bright and glorious aspect – of course my writings done in that time would have partaken of its cheerfulness and good humour. Howbeit these materials I had written ^and arranged^ in those morning times on such slips of paper as were most handy – and had tied all up into bundles which I handed over to Mr Fag – taking for granted that when the proof sheets came to pass under his revision he would observe any contradiction and inconsistencies which might then be observable amongst those notes or statements and by cancellation or alteration reconcile them to the general drift of the narrative – according the rules of common sense and probability. That duty he evidently neglected on several occasions – but on none so egregiously as in arranging this report of mine on Mr Ross and the Cocos &c. To any person not quite a fool it must be clear that when he came to the statement “Immense crops *[28] of coconuts are produced annually on all the Islets of the Groups which are monopolized by Mr Ross for his sole advantage” he should have turned back to the statement that “The Islets are lonely – remote – sequestered – mere skeletons – little better than Coral reefs on which broken coral and dust have been driven by sea and wind till enough has been accumulated to afford place and nourishment [f.210r p.123] for (a few) thousands of coco palms – with the produce of which coconuts and oil Mr Ross sails occasionally to Mauritius, Singapore or Batavia and buys necessaries with the proceeds” and when he did so turn back – he should have changed the first into downright prose (for which the plan of the Isles have given him sufficient information) as follows – “The Western side of the lagoon is formed by one Island which is about seven miles long by about a fourth of a mile in breadth – the Southern and S. E. sides are likewise formed by one Island nearly of the same superficial extent. The Village (or Settlement) Isle and Horsburgh Isle are also – each of rather considerable area the soil on all is not inferior in depth or quality to that of other low Isles of the coral formation – such as the Chagos – the Maldives &c In truth these Isles affording safe and convenient anchorage with abundance of good fresh water – are most favourably situated – lying as they do – in the track of commerce with Eastern Asia – and midway on the direct line between Ceylon and Western Australia – on which ‘ere long they must afford a half way station for Steamers running between those countries.” After which he (Mr Fag) should have had ability enough to change the second of those statements into a bit of pure poetry by cancelling all about the “buying of necessaries” &c and adding after the words ”for his sole advantage” the following: “He occasionally sailing to Mauritius – Singapore – or Batavia with the produce (of these immense crops) and there disposing of it for Bills on England – which he remits to his Bankers in London – in whose hands he is from this source – rapidly accumulating an immense fortune – “Alas! Whatever has been done through the printing press becomes very difficult to be undone – even though aided by the hangman and his torch – Mr Fag having got his payment, laughs in my face and says that I will be sure to take care – and get up the materials for my next Volumes of narra- [f.210v p.124] tive in the P.M. instead of the A.M. portion of the nautical day – and myself revise the proof sheets. Ah! How strongly I do wish now – that instead of “meditating” on the Moon’s waltzing antics, with the tides – I had devoted my attention to the revision of my “Narrative of Surveys” &c &c &c

And now my Dear Friends I am about to confide to your safe keeping – the important secret being always present to my mind has already – been almost let out – before I had secured your silence upon it.

Whoever supposes that I was in reality playing at blind man’s buff in pretending to be at a loss where to steer for finding the Cocos – can be no better than a sheer Simpleton – No – my dear Friends the secret is this – From my crow’s*[29] nest on the main topgallant masthead I saw on the 30th (March) what I felt certain was land and that of a most extraordinary complexion – I at once resolved to say nothing but take my boat and a trustworthy crew and pretend that I was going to try for soundings on what appeared from the mast head to be a bank. I did so – got to the land an hour before sunset – when leaving the crew with orders not to stir out of the boat till I returned – set off to make a hurried inspection of the Country. By that I perceived at once that is was most unmistakeably the identical one Captain Lemuel Gilliver discovered, and made the existence known to the rest of the world under the name of Brobdignag. There I saw the coconuts of which every ten yield a British imperial Gallon of oil and that – not by the operose modes which are necessary to extract it from the nuts grown on the Cocos and elsewhere but by merely shoving a tube into the eye of the nut [f.211r p.125 ] through which the perfectly [formed] pure oil runs off into the vessels carried for that purpose from tree to tree by the oil collectors. The inhabitants have become reduced from their former unwieldy size to about ten feet in height on the average as also has that of all other subjects of the Animal and Vegetable departments This has been accomplished by the Great Paracelsus – who losing patience with the incredulity of his contemporaries – threw off his European or Caucasan Arab envelope started away to the site of Paradise (for which see Ben d’Israeli) dug up and took to himself the one which Adman was compelled to quite (in the day wherein he ate the half of the forbidden apple) proceeded to Brobdignag and declared himself to be the future Emperor and Chief Pontiff of all the Brobdignagians – took for Empress the Princess royal commenced first upon her the process of reduction – and afterwards performed that on all the subjects of his Empire. I was conducted to his palace as presently to be mentioned and my arrival duly announced but of course I could not be allowed to enter. The Emperor however made me hear his voice very distinctly – when he spoke to the following effect – “Most favoured of Mortals – though has been permitted by special favour to visit this sacred land – which no other has been since the days of Captain Gulliver – Know thou that whenever ships are seen approaching its shores I send forth a storm to drive them off and if they persist – increase it to a hurricane – which either effectually disables them from reaching within sight – or sends them to the bottom.”

“On the 27th thy ship was seen making this way and the gale was sent out at once but being aware of thy wonderful merits I merely caused it to take thee aside – and leave the ship becalmed whilst I afforded to thee an opportunity of visiting this most excellent country. I should indeed have permitted thee to come to anchor at it – with the ship – and made the amends by fetes &c for thy treatment by those scurvy creatures at King George Sound – but knowing that – if I did Mr Darwin [f.211v p.126] would so overload the Vessel with the bones of the ancient Brobdignagians that she would inevitably founder in the first fresh breeze that came on after she had sailed beyond the limits of my authority – I refrained from doing that – So now thou must return. Keep thy secret well for the present – I have warned thy boat crew in a voice of thunder that if ever from this time forward they breathe a word of – or concerning this visit to any living ear or to one another or event to thee – Death and D-----n shall be their instant doom – as for thyself thou mayest hereafter boast at home That henceforth shall no stranger come – to “break the silence of the tomb” as it may be denominated – at least with reference to the ancient men of Brobdignag and now a Genii shall go with thee – take on thy boat back to the ship and remain in charge of thy mind at the Cocos or even longer if he sees his presence to be needed” I have further now to inform my friends – how and by whom I was met and announced – I had walked a short distance from the landing place when the path took me into the entrance of an indescribably superb avenue of most elegant and magnificent orange and apple trees (these being in fact of the real ancient Hesperidian species) and directly I saw advancing towards me – two persons of most august personal appearance attended by a splendid retinue – all dressed in cloth of gold – which appeared merely in specks – amidst the invaluable jewels with which the dresses were covered from top to toe – As for the attire of the two chief personages I cannot attempt to describe that – just at present. Suffice it here to say that I found I could no more look steadily upon them – than upon the face of the Sun shining in zenithian splendor. These has been commissioned by the Emperor – to receive and entertain me – the one being Chief Pontiff and the other High Treasurer of the Empire – I at once instinctively recognized the first as being the famous Baron Emmanuel Swedenborg and the second Herr Christian Rosencruz. Besides the information above mentioned they of course communicated [f.212r p.127] a vast amount in the department of Natural History of the Country –both in its organized and inorganized divisions also on its historical – political and religious aspects together with a complete description and drawings of the Emperor’s palace – his chief city – and ^of himself and his^ principal officers of state – all which shall be fully and with perfect exactitude detailed and copied for you my friends in my forthcoming work. Perhaps however it may be thought by some outrageous Sceptics – that I had not time enough learning and obtaining all this – But since they know – or ought to know – and believe as I am inclined to do – in what a short time the Prophet Mahomet made his visit to Heaven on Al Borak – heard and saw so much as he did – they must confess that this my report is not less credible than his – seeing that I was not placed in less – though very different – miraculous circumstances than he was.

So now, reader thou knowest how it was that my wits seemed to have been wandering a wool gathering (when I was approaching the Cocos) in the story of the Boobies – the discrepancies in the ship’s Journal and my stating first “there are two Groups of these Islands” and next that “one” of these two groups is a single low Island” &c&c&c

From the paragraphs next following in the first Edition extracts are sufficient until we come towards the conclusion of the Theme.

“To catch the turtle a party of these Malays go in a light boat and look for a fine turtle in a shallow and tolerably clear place (clear of coral I mean) Directly one is seen they give chase endeavouring to keep it out of the deep pools till it begins to be tired by its exertions” From this my friends will be able to estimate for themselves the immense amount of profit resulting to Mr Ross from the turtle portion of his monopoly – viz by deducting the tear and wear of the boat upon the sharp and jagged coral – the time wages paid to the men – and premium of one
[f.212v p. 128]  
“to escape – then watching a favourable opportunity a man jumped out of the boat and seizes the tuturle. Away it dashes with the man on its back grasping its neck until he can get an opportunity by touch ground with his feet to turn it over and secure his prize – only the most active man can succeed well in this kind of fishing.” rupee per turtle – and then looking in my “Appendix Volume” for the price that I paid for each of these “five animals” Vide licet – four shillings and four pence Sterling – two fifths paid in cash, the other three fifths in ship’s biscuit at two pence halfpenny per lb all to be deducted from the net proceeds of sale.
“From my unsuccessful attempts to detach and bring up pieces of coral from the outer face of the basement reef – I concluded that the coral was not alive at a depth exceeding seven fathoms below low water.” If the wall had been below the depth of seven fathoms composed of dead coral – no difficulty would have attended my attempts to detach and bring up pieces. There my conclusion was an unsound one – and without here noticing Mr Darwin’s discussions [column continues on full width of page]

on the subject I may say that Mr Ross could have shewn us on a clear and calm day – coral growing outside of the reef in fourteen or more fathoms below low water.

“Fresh water is not scarce on the larger Islets of the group.” My readers have I should think been rather surprized by the information that fresh water is[column continues across full width of page]

not scarce on “Skeletons of Islets little better than Coral reefs” &c but so far from dissolving that surprize – I must add to it here – that the Villagers dig their wells in the spots most convenient to their cooking huts and bathing sheds – never doubting that they will find good water in abundance even to within a few yards of high tide mark. Perhaps however between myself and Mr Darwin these facts can be fully account for – as thus – by his employing his truly “wonderful polypii” to throw up fresh water [f.213r p.129] through the coral mass – whilst they carry on the process of wedging it up from its submarine foundation – and next by my employing the sea and wind to drive on coral dust and sand to hold it on. Altho’ the place from whence the coral dust and sand was driven whilst these reefs remained at the level of low water spring tides (above which Mr Darwin very truly tells us that even his wonderful polypii cannot “carry on their work”) must for the present remain a mystery.

“As if in speaking of these singular – though so mail Islands – where crabs eat coconuts – fish eat coral – dogs catch fish – men ride on turtle and shells are dangerous man traps *[30] any thing more were necessary to ensure the voyagers being treated like the old woman’s son who talked to her about flying fish – it must yet be said that the greater part of the sea fowl roost on branches ^of trees^ and that many rats make their nests at the top of high palm trees. N. B. Rats and mice swarm on those Islands.” My friends have seen that I have taken the utmost care to “nought enhance – nor ought set down” which has about it the least smack of envy, malice, or uncharitableness especially not of the former of these qualities. Envy indeed! Certainly no sane person whether friend or foe can suppose that I was actuated by any feeling of that nature – but surely it does not follow – that whilst pondering over the foundation that – this sometime Master of a Merchant’s Ship was laying for becoming his own Master – I did not think – if not say – as upon – a not totally dissimilar or non-analogical occasion [column continues across full width of page]

did say – one of that illustrious ^ly sage^ race – of whom some witling or other has written that – “– all were Knaves and one a fool” (just as if it were possible – that a really wise person could be a Knave) “What wants this Knave – that a King should have?” and regret the departure of ^of the [illeg] good times in which he could wind up^ with “Hang up that fellow and all his Kith and Kin along with him.” Perhaps if I had felt much [f.213v p.130] less favourably disposed towards Mr Ross than I really did – and see –what I confess I did see – but not sufficiently heed – the arrogance and presumption to wit of founding a Settlement on those Isles not only without the express orders of “Headquarters” but even persevering in establishing it – after having been duly snubbed for the attempt to obtain their assent – I should very probably have done all that could have been in these modern times safely attempted in the way of imitating the foresaid illustrious precedent – waited at the Cocos to wit until his return which was daily expected and (did in fact occur a few days after I left) arrested and taken him home to answer for such seditious conduct – a proceeding which would have been completely effective in breaking up the Settlement and dispersing the Settlers – whereas the half-measure which I preferred viz the encouraging of discontent and insubordination among them – utterly failed to accomplish that object – but doubtless might not have ventured upon taking the more perfect course after recollecting the progress which “democratic inclinations” have been making even since the rather recent times – wherein a Noble Captain was very much annoyed for having landed a British Pariah upon a desert rock in the West Indian Seas – and worse still a Colonial Governor actually treated and executed like a common felon merely for having ordered an extra role of the cat to be played on the back of a fellow belonging to the same low caste – moreover certain pestilent men – who make it their business to watch, report and comment, on all interesting occurrences – more especially the doings of rulers and their officials – might have noticed mine in terms which neither I myself nor “Headquarters” could have tolerated – and accordingly if I had acted as I might – and perhaps should have done – they – or some of them – very probably would have exclaimed thereat “The trés Sage Captain has indeed stated that – he has been credibly informed (indirectly we presume) on the authority of the late Captain Horsburgh – that those Isles had been seen by a certain English subject who held a commission from “The Most High [f.214r p.131] and Mighty Prince James” the first “to serve the East India Company but he surely could also have stated on the direct authority of Captain Horsburgh – vide his East Indian Navigation Directory – that their value to navigators of those seas remained unknown until they were by Captain J. C. Ross in 1825 first explored – found to afford a good harbor – and their Settlement forthwith commenced by him – and we cannot but think that conduct so enterprizing and of such beneficent tendency deserved much better consideration and treatment on the part both of the trés sage Captain and his “Headquarters” &c In short I believe it is rather to be – by me – deemed fortunate than otherwise that my latent good will towards Mr Ross restrained me from doing more than I did in the way of intimating that only on that ground – could I have felt justified in refraining – from more severely punishing his arrogance & c as aforesaid. But all this being said – I go on to say that my friends may most readily believe that “rats make their nests on the top of coconut trees at ninety to a hundred feet above the ground” but if I did not tell them – they could ^not^ divine the cause for these animals doing so – which is this – Altho’ the varmints had been quite recently immigrated (from their hiding place under the ceiling of a ship’s long boat – which was hauled on shore to be repaired) they have since that time – multiplied at such a prodigious rate that there is no room left on the ground for making any more nests. N.B. Specimens of each of these curiosities the man traps and the rats’ nests along with some Patagonian mares’ nests and a pair of the Monster Shark caught at the Rock Islet of St Paul in the Atlantic were deposited by me in the British Museum – where if any curious visitor can’t find them – he may certainly find something else as curious. Perchance some learned person’s activity in business for the doing of which he is paid by the year. N.B. In saying that “Rats and mice swarm on these Islands” I really meant that there are some rates on Direction Isle and some mice on the Village Isle which last were carried from Java in crates – [f.214v p.132 but if the reader has not supposed my meaning to be that “Rats and mice swarm on all the Islands” it is by no fault of mine that he has not.

“Besides the palm there are upon the larger Islets other trees particularly a kind of Teak – and some less valuable wood from which a vessel was built.” I trust I shall not be set down as an egotist for merely pointing attention to the ingenuity of authorship which I have so frequently exercised in this report – the fact being that if I did not[column continues across full width of page]

do that – no one else could – and my readers would be deprived of the pleasure derived from fully understanding the particulars – and observing how cleverly I can make prose do the work of poetry. “I would not say this in favour of my own inventions if I did not feel certain that my friends will find the recognition very useful to them – therefore that somebody ought to point it out – and certainly nobody can do that so well as the inventor himself.”

Had I worded the opposite extract thus “There are upon the largest Islets trees of other sorts – particularly a kind of teak of which Mr Ross built the vessel that he navigates on their excursions aforementioned” prose alone would have been employed. Whereas by wording it so that the vessel should be supposed to have been built out of “the less valuable wood” and by remembering to omit all intimation of the when – and by whom – she was built – I left the poetical inference to be drawn – that she was a trashy affair far worse than the worst New Brunswicker that ever was slammed together – and that Mr Ross was not the builder – calculating that (my friends would reasonably think to themselves) “if he had been – Captain Fitzroy would surely have mentioned it.”

XIII “A word about the Inhabitants and I leave the Keelings. No material difference was detected by me between the Malays on these Islands and the Natives of Otaheite or New Zealand. XIII On looking back over the foregoing discussions and statements I am led to think that we have already not only had a word – but many words said – about the Inhab-
[f.215r p.133]  
I do not mean to asset that there were not numbers of men at each of those Islands to whom I could not trace resemblance (setting individual features aside) at the Keelings. I merely say that there was not one individual among the two hundred Malays whom I saw there who, I could have distinguished from a Polynesian Islander had I seen him in the Pacific. Two boys attracted my notice particularly – because their colour was of a brighter red than that of any South American or Polynesian who I had seen i.e. bright by comparison – their colour was that of copper in its reddest state without any tinge of yellow – and upon enquiry I found that these two boys were some of Alexander Hare by a Malay woman. -bitants – and also very many more wholesale assertions than detailed realities. However no one can have too much of good and trustworthy information – and accordingly my friends will here be informed that the Otaheitans and New Zealanders contrary to what has hitherto been asserted by voyagers and Savans – are among the most – if they be not the very most – mixed population of mankind. This inference inevitably results from the following facts of the nativity of these two hundred inhabitants of the Cocos.

1st There was a native of Mosambique of the perfectly African variety – and his wife a Negress of the Papuan variety and their seven sons and daughters.

  2nd Natives of the Lampung and Batta countries of Sumatra.
  3rd Dyaks (Natives of Borneo)
  [column continues across full width of page]

4th Buggesses (Natives of Celebes) 6th [sic] of Sumbawa 7th of Coepang (Timor) 8th of Malacca 9th of Java 10th Javan-Chinese – and about fify two young men, women, boys, girls, children and infants – the offspring of unions of individuals of the ten classes of nativities just mentioned – scarcely two of the parents being natives of one Island or of a division or distract of one Island or Country.

As for “the two sons of Alexander Hare” I am now assured that one of the two only – was a boy – the other being a girl [f.215v p.134] that the boys’ mother was a very dark skinned Malay woman – the girl’s mother was a very light or pale -coloured Dyak – and her ^the girl’s^ father was Mr Ogilvie – Mr Hare’s overseer aforementioned – who, as well as Mr H., was a fair haired man and in two instances besides these – there were also children of Javan Chinese women by European men. Now, if the reader does not agree with Mr Ross that I have the eye of the Titian for colours – and of a Raphael or Angelo for features and proportions – of the human face and body – in short – that my physical and mental perception are not on a par of excellence – I shall be very much mistaken in my – I must say – very reasonable anticipation.

Howbeit I confidentially trust that due credit has been or will be given to this second manifestation of my classical and I may surely add dignified clerical and prime saintly predilections – firstly in having mistaken a girl for a boy (“the wish being father to the thought”) and next – for not having included among all other words about the inhabitants of the Cocos Settlement even so many as one respecting the forms, features, complexions &c of the “womankind” – diversified as the individuals thereof were in the these respects belonging as they did – or do – to the various races – and Unionites resultant from those races – abovementioned must in all those respects have been or be. Whilst well aware was I that information on these particulars are interesting to mankind in general but in particular to my protegees “young sailors” to wit – But the omission had moreover ^at all event^ the good effect of strengthening my right to denounce Seraglio-keeping and harem-establishing – as being a lawless career – albeit the locale be not in Western Europe – but in Eastern Asia.

Mr Darwin however – altho’ an M.A. and over ears in love with fossil bones of the lower animals – as for the high – the genus homo – I can safely affirm that if he had picked up even but one specimen which he could at once have referred to an ante-recent period – he could instantly have set his cat to play the fiddle and mounted ^on^ his cow’s back have danced over the Moon – He – I say – not [f.216r p.135] -withstanding this pre-engagement of his affections – could not or at least did not – refrain from uttering the following very unclassical sentiments respecting those same “womankind” – “Some of the women showed a good deal of the Chinese character of complexion and feature – I liked both their general expression the sound of their voices.” Researches &c p. 545.

I may add here – that looking at the information which I received and stated in my paragraph already quoted viz “that the party of Malays brought to these Isles by Mr Hare was “a small party” and that “two hundred” was not a small party to be carried about the Indian Ocean during more than six months in a vessel of 300 tons with her hold full of cargo – and brought to the Cocos merely as servants to a private individual. It may be supposed that I am surprised that I did not enquire farther upon this point – but if I had – I should have seen the list of the fugitives – and on it seen that their total number – men, women, and children – was one hundred and eight. I should then have had to ask of Mr Leisk “What other people are those who make up the number of two hundred?” “Oh they are some few born since 1831 and the others are people brought from Java by Mr Ross of which are three Carpenters and a blacksmith for the building of the vessel (the Englishmen having left before he had to undertake that –) and ^these^ are to remain so long as they may please – after one year – but when desirous of returning – he is bound to take them back – free of charge.” “Ah! But how is it that I see no difference made in their treatment – and that you did not mention something of this to me when you told me that “many of the Malays were discontented and wanted to leave the Islands?” What answer he would have given I need not surmise for as much as that altho’ – for my Theological Essays comprising the last two Chapters of my Volume – it was needful to make enquiry concerning those “two red boys – sons of Alexander Hare and a Malay woman” the other particulars were not only not needful to know but would if known have been quite mal a propos to [f.216v p.136] my main object.

Now being about to leave the Cocos – I think we may attach to this word about the inhabitants – a brief narrative of the revolt that broke out among them upon the basis of the encouragement which my predilections [predictions] afforded. When it approached the crisis – the prime mover – Knowing somewhat more of Mr Ross than his seduced accomplice (the British American) did – lost heart and took himself off to Java in an American Whaler telling the other that he was going to arrange for having supplies forwarded but as soon as he got there – with an introduction obtained from Mr Ross to a friend of his (in ignorance of these proceedings) took an employment which that friend got for him. The first overt act was performed sometime after his departure by a party (at the head of whom was the British-American not for himself as he said – but for their behalf) who came and demanded of Mr Ross that he should double their rate of wages. “No (he replied) I shall not do that – nor increase it at all – your work does not pay for what you are receiving now but all or as many as are discontented I shall receive forthwith on board the vessel and proceed with to Bencoolen or Batavia whichever you choose.” “No, we won’t leave the Islands we know from good Authority that we have as much right here as you have – and we shall remain and do what we please for ourselves.” “You do know all that, Eh? And who told you so?” “Oh (said the B.A.) you may find that out for yourself.” Mr Ross then called all the people and directed all who did not choose to obey his Authority as theretofore should go on one side – and all who did – to the other side – only about two-fifths went over the disobedient side. A result which their leader did not seem to have at all expected. Having the majority with him Mr Ross could have coerced the revolters not perhaps without some little phlebotomizing of the leader &c and if that mode had been otherwise – the most feasible – he would not have hesitated long on the point of – to do – or not to [f.217r p.137] do. He saw however an important object – as likely to be gained by having ^the revolt^ quashed in a different way – so at once started for Trincomalee and laid the case before Admiral Sir T.B. Capel the British Naval Commander in Chief &c He being a Gentleman in character and motives very different from me and mine – after examining into all particulars, told Mr Ross that he should direct H.M. Pelarus Captain Harding (which would return from Maulmain in the end of the season and was then to proceed to Australia to call at the Cocos – investigate and settle the matter and for keeping order in the meantime gave Mr Ross a warrant to exercise authority at the Isles.

From Trincomalee Mr R. proceeded to Madras and engaged a party of invalided sepoys &c to proceed to the Isles and carry that authority into effect. On his return to the Settlement all were summoned to hear the warrant read and receive assurances that any disallowed proceedings on their parts would if attempted by any of them – thenceforth receive due punishment. On this being so made know several of the revolters came to beg forgiveness – and of those such as were ascertained to have been merely seduced ^were pardoned^ and then they came out with all that they had heard and been told – of my confabulations with – and by – Mr Leisk. Still of course Mr Ross being unaware of my motives, could not believe that I had done more than listen – and perhaps shake my sage noddle possibly said an unguarded word or two – which Mr Leisk had exaggerated to serve his purposes – indeed he could hardly accredit the supposition that Leisk himself had gone so far as they averred – seeing that on account of certain acts of his towards them he could not expect to be trusted by them in doing any business of theirs – acts for which he had been by Mr Ross threated to be expelled from the Isles. Therefore I say he could scarcely suppose that Leisk expected to be their broker in selling the fowls (which they were to rear by cutting [f.217v p.138] down the coconut trees and raising maize*[31]) to the American Whalers whom (he fondly believed) would come in fleets to the Isles. Because when the South Atlantic whaling had become unprofitable they had in 1835 shifted their ground into the South Indian Ocean when several ships came to the Cocos – the Commanders being then ignorant of the facility and cheapness with which they could procure all that they wanted at Anjier and Lombok Island. That he had misrepresented and mis-stated every particular in which he imagined such to be conducive to his objects of obtaining encouragement from me – could not be doubted. But Mr Ross could not believe until he was compelled by most certain evidence – that I had gone to the lengths that I did – nor would it be believed by any reader of the following passages in my volume page 460 with reference to the wreck of H.M.S. Challenger – while ignorant of my secret motives such conduct ^on the Cocos^.

“This conduct (thieving from the chests and boxes belonging to officers) occasioned Captain Seymour to call the crew together on the beach and causing one man to be corporally punished. This one act of necessary justice executed so properly upholding character and even of preserving many lives – for when once anarchy begins, who can foretell all its consequences.”

And in the my report on the Navigators and Feejee Islanders my friends will also have observed the following “Remarking on the criticisms of such as have animadverted an officers found themselves obliged to take harsh measures in self-defence La Perouse whose humanity and good sense not one individual among the nations which regret his untimely loss ever questioned” [f.218r p.139 says “I am a thousand times more angry with the philosophers who extol the savages than with the savages themselves. The unfortunate La Marion whom they massacred – told one – the very evening before his death that the Indians (meaning the natives of the Navigator’s Islands) were worthier people than ourselves.”

“A Navigator on quitting Europe ought to consider the savages as enemies – very weak indeed – and whom it would be ungenerous to attack, and barbarous to destroy – but whose attacks he has a right to prevent, when authorized to do so by well-grounded suspicions” and to this I have added the remark that “at some Islands and other places they (the inhabitants) are comparatively timid – though seldom less treacherous.”

Looking then to the facts that the most docile of the people called by Europeans Malays (with the same sort of propriety that continental Asiatic apply the name of Franks – to all Europeans) the Javanese are but “little less than semi-savages – that – among the Dyaks as already mentioned a newly decapitated human head constitutes the Trousseau of a virgin bride – and that the Battas are actually cannibals – not only feasting on the bodies of criminals, prisoners and strangers *[32] but also – on their own aged parents. Looking I say to these facts and – to that of my country-women and their children – residing in the midst of these “two hundred Malays” – without so much of a guard as a watchman at their habitation even in the night. – The reader will surely admit – that my faith in the correctness of my motives was quite adequate to effect the removals of moral – if not of material mountains.

XIV “Excepting the two English families I have mentioned – all on the Keeling's in 1836 were Mahometans XIV Besides these two families there were with Mr Ross in the vessel – the mate – the British American
f.218v p.140  
“one of their number officiated as Priest but – exclusive of an extreme dislike of pigs – they showed little outward attention to his injunctions. As no Christian minister had ever visited the place, and there was no immediate prospect of one coming there I was asked to baptize the children of Mrs Leisk. So unusual a demand – occasioned some scruples on my part – but at last – I complied and performed the appointed service in Mr Ross' house – where six children of various ages were christened in succession. This and other facts which I have mentioned – shew the necessity that exist for some inspecting influence being exercised – at every place where British subjects are settled. A visit from a man of war even once in a year – is sufficient – merely in prospect to keep bad characters in tolerable check – and would make known at head-quarters the most urgent want of the Settlers.” (a Christian par excellence) the Gunner or second mate – and two Christian apprentices and the cause why there were no more on the Settlement at the time of my visit was ^as aforementioned^ – that those of the British party who left with Mr Leisk as crew in the little Schooner which he lost as aforementioned – did not return – and that the two boatmen – the Carpenter the Joiner and the Blacksmith – had – whilst the Malays were still with Mr Hare asked leave of Mr Ross to go and get wives for themselves from among them – in defiance of Mr Hare – and Mr Ross refusing to give them permission – they after some time demanded – and of course received their discharge and left the Isles. The Blacksmith had an English wife – but nevertheless supported their demand and left also – and they had not been gone long when Mr Ross heard that they had – during the interim been by [column continues across full width of page]

Mr Hare (who was aware of their views on his Seraglio) through his overseer at the time tampered with – and rendered discontented – “You are (said he) great fools surely – to be stopping here – working hard for mere monthly wages without any sure prospect of even getting your condition bettered by Captain Ross – whilst in Java – you would get the management of works – at high salaries – and be making fortunes for yourselves – having choice too of much finer women than any [f.219r p.141] that Mr Hare has got” &c &c. This incendiary proceeding was being carried on – whilst Mr Ross was still refusing to shelter the refugees – but as just mentioned he did not become aware of it – until Mr Hare had decamped. He then wrote to the overseer who had been engaged in it (and was then by Mr Ross' recommendation employed in an English Firm in Java – and also had previously received important obligations from him) blaming his conduct as it deserved. In reply – acknowledging and begging pardon for – his culpability – he made use of the following expression with regard to Mr Hare – “I sold myself to that demon of hell” – this had reference to Mr Hare's practice of indirectly intimating to his overseers and that one especially – that they might confidently expect to be – after no long time – put by him into ways of making their fortunes – provided they unscrupulously exerted themselves to please him &c in the meanwhile.

Mr Ross had however arranged with his brother – for having a British party of families – brought out as Settlers – but the refusal of the British Government to recognize the Settlement as being under the protection of the flag prevented that from being carried into effect – Mr Ross being well satisfied that British Settlers could not be retained in order without the recourse of appeal to some constituted authority – of a Supreme Government – and therefore he was forced to substitute a Malay for a British population. There are however at this time eight families of professing Christians and it is to be hoped that some of them are – or may be – really such.

The question may be here put “how was it that such people as these – did not make away with Mr Hare's life in some mode or other – while experiencing such treatment by him?” The answer is – that they would most certainly have done so – if Mr Ross and his party had not been on the Isles – and that – not only Mr H. himself – but also his overseers knew well the first quarrel with Mr Downie (his first one on the Isles) took place as follows – [f.219v p.142] >Some of the people were repeating their complaints to him – on which he got into a passion and exclaimed – “D-n you why don't you go to Mr Hare and complain to him – instead of annoying me continually in this way?” “You know it’s of no use our going to him – he won’t listen to us.” “Then d-n you I suppose, you would cut his throat?” “Ah! That would have been done before now – if Mr Capt. Ross and his people were not here – and no chance of our getting away &c.” This colloquy came to Mr H.’s knowledge – and he of course remonstrated to Downie somewhat sharply on the impropriety of uttering such expressions – on which Downie getting into a rage exclaimed “it’s no more than you deserve at their hands and I wont be your tool in their treatment a single day longer. ^He was however pacified at that time and consented to remain under [as Superintendant] standing between them – but ultimately on account of refusing to keep the people at work on Sundays [3 words illeg] and^ He then went to Mr Ross and asked to stop with him – till he got an opportunity of leaving the Isles. “You may – but you must get a note from Mr Hare certifying that he has no objections to it – without which he will be saying – that I enticed you away from him.” He went and Mr H. gave him a note for Mr Ross – saying in it that – “he was very glad to be quit of the fellow.” Mr H. also knew that they had scraped verdigrease off an old Kettle-drum and put into his curry – but the taste of the first mouthful saved him from the intended effects. They had also discussed several plans among them for the same object – but as the most feasible – involved the need for more than one – to effect – and they – being distrustful of each other in regard to secrecy afterward – it was deferred for the time. That plan was this – after Mr Hare had moved on to Rice Islet he had proposed to put up a house on Direction Isle for his overseers habitation – and had gone several times in a canoe – to direct the “trustworthies” in its construction – they in consequence knowing that he could not swim – proposed to upset the canoe when crossing the deep water of the cove and leaving him to his fate – swim ashore themselves and report that he had been immediately upon the canoes upsetting, seized by the sharks – by whom they had themselves been very near taken – but whilst they were putting off for a favour- [f.220r p.143] -able opportunity his favourite concubine overheard some talking amongst them from which she inferred that something of the sort was in agitation and ^informed him after which he^ did not again trust himself with them in ^either^ the canoe or the boat.

Mr Ross had also been made aware of such designs being entertained among them – and had taken occasion to mention so as that he knew they would be informed of it – that if Mr H. was made away with, he would have the guilty one or more hunted down and hung up on the first convenient tree. Of course he would not have done so – but would have taken the criminal (one or more) first to Ceylon and if the case was refused admission into the court of justice there then to Batavia, and if also refused there – would have landed them on Engamo Island and left them to the pleasure of its savage inhabitants.

It has been observed by me that these Malays – enjoyed religious freedom under Mr Ross’ rule – and that he had purchased a Koran for the one who assumed the office of reader-expounder and chief performer of ceremonies. (Mohammed imitated Jesus in negativing the institution of a priestcraft in his religion – but 'cute as he was – he did not properly estimate the stupidity of the many – and the cunning of the few.) Howbeit Mr Darwin having testified – as aforesaid very positively – that they also enjoyed “personal freedom in all its reality” it is clear that the non-institution of Caucus' and Congresses – or – of that Species of political freedom which the Great General Joshua bequeathed to the chosen people – as already described – must have been the reason for which I headed my page ^now here under notice^ with the word “Slavery.” As for the attention or inattention paid to the “priests’” injunctions – it has to be remarked, that in the Malay head – the place of the phrenological organ of Veneration is generally as flat as a pancake – and accordingly he does not care to perform the prescribed gesticulations and genufluxions and thinks with the English sailors – that God knows better – what is good for him than he does himself – as also perhaps – that in fair weather it is not wise to pray – lest their sins be brought thereby to [f.220v p.144] remembrance and in bad weather they have not time for it” – so leaves the work of praying to be performed by the Priests ^who living on [slaves at ease] are paid by the state treasury for doing that for all other men^ all which is so well known to the Continental Indian “true believers” – that they will not – when on shipboard together drink water from the same cask with the “Jooah Malays”*[33] and with respect to their horror of pigs – I dare say they had no taste for catching those of the large English breed – supplied to the Beagle.

If a Christian Minister belonging to the Society of Friends or to that of the Baptist persuasion – had visited the Isles they certainly would not have thought proper to baptize little children or infants but Mr Ross has not had nor would have any hesitation – in “performing the service” himself – if the parents desired it to be done after hearing his reasons for believing – that the Baptismal Commission stuck upon the tail of Mathew's Gospel – is a post-apostolic fabrication – and that – one is one – and three ones are three. Reason which altho’ he had never seen the inside of a College – he has not yet met with an opponent, who could fairly refute.

That the demand occasioned some scruples on my part may ^however^ be taken for granted – by the readers of – “my remark (doubtless not the only one of the sort) made to a friend – whilst walking over the vast plains of Patagonia – composed of rounded gravel – several hundred feet in depth – firmly imbedded in diluvial detritus.” “This could never have been effected by a forty days flood” – no – nor as I might have safely enough added – by one of forty times forty days – forty times told – but – Mr Ross has not my excuse to plead for his heretical opinions – Ignorance of the Bible to wit – he having read in it at his mother's knee – when he was little more than five years old – and having scarcely ever had any other important book in his possession until he was about twenty seven. Ah! Woeful is it to believe as believe I must – after looking at this statement – that whenever the [f.221r p.145] wish of the always well meaning – tho’ often mistaken – George the Third – “that every child in his dominions might be able to read the Bible” gets in the fair way towards accomplishment. “The Church will be “really in danger” – and its priests and supporters at their wits’ end – because of events well known to them – as to be then certainly forthcoming. Meanwhile from all this it may be seen how great is the need – and how small the encouragement for doing that – which therefore should be done ^a la mode d’In [illeg]– on the Cocos^ – the erection of a cathedral and the establishment of a Puseyite Bishop with Chapter complete – or better still – a pure Calvinistic “Holy Willie” one. If the former furnished of course with tons of extra holiness to be infused into the wells – for general use – and the Kema shells ^to be all consecrated^ for baptismal fonts – ^and used in part to [illeg]^ patent-constructed confessionals &c. If the other – then with sufficiently capacious cisterns of Fire ^charcoal^ and brimstone and an inexhaustible stock of Lucifer matches – manufactured out of Adam's original sin – all to be employed and used &c, on these “Lonely, Remote, Sequestered Skeletons of Islets little better than Coral reefs” &c. N.B. having an eye to the mitre of “H. Exeter” falling upon my head whenever that first-chop Saint shall resign his diocese and finish his disputations at the command of Death.

I have been particular in stating – that I did not baptize these children in the mode adopted by the Spanish friars in Mexico – but in regular succession one after another. Now however being assured – that Mrs Leisk had only three children – at the time I am puzzled to guess how it was – that I baptized six. Perchance I baptized those three twice over first in the name of the Total Trinity and next in that of the last person – who as the forsaid first-chop Saint well knows – has much more to do with “the Service” business – than either of the other two – apropos the mention of his Right Reverend Reverence – leads me to favour my readers with the – to them probably novel information – that from henceforth the English Judges and Magistrates are to send all ascertained bad characters – alias convicted “gents” to Exeter from the Home and [f.221v p.146] Western circuits ^to Exeter^ – and to Oxford from the others – there – to be “regenerated” and made snow-white children of Grace – from thenceforth forever and a day – instead of being sent as heretofore – to the Old Bailey – Newgate – the Hulks and the Trans-oceanic lands – in the latter to become contaminators of the preciously good characters – afterwards immigrated amongst them – in the former to complete their education in criminal science.

The results of my “inspecting influence” exercised at the Falkland Islands – and in a minor degree – at New Zealand – holding as I did an independent commission – and therefore free to act according to my own discretion – would scarcely have induced me to represent such influence as being of “absolute necessity” at every “place where British subjects are settled” if I had not calculated on being myself appointed to the office of Inspector-general – with a salary proportioned to the extent of my Jurisdiction. When of course I should have selected Infallible Sages to command the “men of war” employed under my orders – and have had railways laid down and carriages constructed for the conveyance of the war Ships which should be sent to inspect – among the recesses of the American Rocky Mountains – the wilds of Tartary – and Africa &c. Knowing – that – if not Englishman yet – Scotsmen and Newcastle grindstones are spread over the globe. Hence the real English meaning (not un-Englishmenlike as is the ballot – when proposed for admission to be members of parliament – but genuine English – as is the ballot – when employed by officers military and naval and noblemen and gentlemen for admission to be members of their clubs &c common and poor men ought to march in boldly and give their votes viva voce – because forsooth ^that is^ becoming to their English courage – but not so – these rare Gents – lest their gentle natures should get in the way of being ruffled &c) of the term or phrase “British Subjects” (other than those laid out on anatomizing tables) having been already intimated – I have only farther to add – in reference to it – than this – that since according to the diction of the “High Officers of legality” which like the Pope with his tiara – put on infallibility – along with their [f.222r p.147] Attorney and Solicitor General's wigs – “British Subjects carry with them British Majesty's laws [in as many waggons as may be required for the conveyance] to whithersoever they proceed to settle themselves on the face of the Globe” therefore – seeing – that most emigrates are ingrates ungrateful Radicals – I mean – and that the claim of right to control – involves the performance of the duty of protecting – Those fellows would be apt to guffaw horse laughs at my verbal or even Scriptoral attempts to enforce the one – if I was unprovided with the means of performing the other – I must ^therefore^ have – some fifty to sixty regiments of military placed under my orders to Scout and Patrol between those railway lines – ever and anon stepping out – to the tune of “O'er the hills and far awa' man.” I calculated I say on the institution of such an Inspector-Generalship – because – it has long been evident enough that the Colonial quarter of “Headquarters” have already more business than pleasure on its hands – and therefore must have been expected to have said of and to me – as Pharoah said of and to Joseph – forasmuch as this most wise proposal – hath been made by thee – there is no other man so wise as thou art – and therefore fit – to carry it into due execution.” This then being concluded – I return to say that altho’ in the course of this Supplement – several indications of the respective characters of myself and Mr Ross in other respects than Governmental – have been afforded – yet as it is only in that are common capacity – that the Public are interested – It is much better that we should respectively adopt that – which has already been drawn up for us – by able and disinterested third parties – than draw these for one another – as mutual friends or foes – do – in the reviews. These then my friends shall have laid before them presently. I must however admit – that after being fully assured – of the beneficence of my main motives for enacting the part – that I did – towards his interests – yet with reference to this – my winding up denouncement of him – as being a “bad character” – Mr Ross might in the words of a certain equivocally received wooer exclaim [f.222v p.148] “It might be right to dissemble your love – but you needed not attempt the kicking me down stairs.”

“N.B. For those who take interest in the course of Storms I subjoin extracts from Mr Ross' journal given to me by Mr Leisk.” N.B. For those who take interest in the course of Storms (which I feel to be no interest of mine – H.I.M. the Emperor of Brobdignag having given me perfect knowledge
  [column continues across full width of page]

on that subject) I got those extracts from Mr Leisk – and those interested folks – may be assured – that in respect to correctness – these are in perfectly good keeping with almost the whole of the information – which that Gentleman supplied to me – that on the Oceanic tidal movements above mentioned especially inclusive – I am indeed at a loss now to guess why I did not make up these storms ^which I have reported upon as happening at the Cocos^ into perfect hurricanes – perhaps it happened in consequence of my ^professed^ disbelief in the occurrence of any such – any where – Pamperos excepted – as vide my appendix volume – but I could have easily put Mr Darwin upon finding unquestionable evidence of their having committed enormous devastations upon those Isles. I am sure it would have been no more than a fair return on his part, for my having furnished him with information of the mode by which those wonderful polypii – the coral reef builders – have kept the surface of these Skeletons of Islets above the sea during these many ages whilst the submarine mountain basement has been sinking inwards – to the centre of the Globe at the rate of several inches per annum – as per the house post story for which he has given me due credit – in his most temerarious work on the subject. Nothing more would have been needful for him to have said – than merely the inserting and adding of a few appropriate expressions to his grand poetical flourish about “hurricanes tearing up” &c.

But here – the readers curiosity may have been roused to ask for a description of the mode in which those thrice wonderful polypii have maintained these Islets above the sea as just mentioned – I therefore hasten to inform him that it is done as Mr Darwin [f.223r p.149] now understands – by pressing newly formed coral wedges in between the coral reef-coping and the top of the basement – exactly as large ships are (or were in times past) elevated in the docks – Videlicet – by wedges forced in between the double tier of blocks in which they were placed. N.B. I suggested this explanation to Mr Darwin whilst he had fallen into a densely deep-brown study to find out something plausible but the moment that his ears caught it – he jumped up - threw his hat in to the air – and made some half dozen Somersets (in less time that I could say “Jack Robinson”) bellowing out all the while “Eureka – Eureka – Eureka” &c concluding with – Bravo my dear Captain – we’ll keep this a secret just now between ourselves – the sinking house post story and the earthquakes will do for the present – but when the Philosophers begin to rub their eyes and ask – “But pray Mr Darwin how is it that these Isles have not sunk along with their foundation down to the level of low water spring tides above which you yourself tell us that the ^said^ wonderful polypii cannot carry on their work?” Then out I shall come with this clincher to the question – and – be assured that you shall have the credit due for the invaluable suggestion.”

XV “On the 12th we sailed carrying a good sea stock of cocoa-nuts, figs, poultry and turtle – maize and sugarcane might have been had if wanted. We first went round the Northern Keeling group. On this Island about a mile across and but a few feet above the ocean – two English vessels have been lost since 1825 – and probably other ships met a similar fate in earlier years when its existence was hardly known.” XV The reader has seen the sort of acknow-ledgement which consistently with the part I was acting – I have made to the man who “first made known the value of the Isles to Navigators” on the Indian Ocean – before which time (as I somewhat simply state) their existence was hardly known – but he will be able to do – what I could not for that reason – do in my own proper person – I have not until I came to look over the opposite paragraph recollected to inform my[column continues across full width of page]

[f.223v p.150] readers that immediately on our arrival – the Genius of the day – who had by the Emperor of Brobdignag been commissioned to go on with us to the Cocos and there to make amends to Mr Darwin for his disappointment in the matter of the giant's bones – by dictating to him – even to “our own Darwin” (as the bonhomme Philosophic Professor in Glasgow University – very irreverently claims him as being) – and to that personage the credit is due of concocting the Theory – which has been so greedily received by the European Philosophers – this Superb Theory – to wit – of the origin and progress of low and lagoon islands of coral formation – but I am now reminded of it – by being led to think that he (the Genius I mean) did sometimes also dictate to me on several points of my narration – as here – for instance – there having been but one vessel lost on Keeling's Isle in so far as we know – the other one was lost on the S.W. side of the Cocos – both ran ashore in the nighttime under all sail – moderate winds and clear weather – owing to the commanders having committed gross errors in their reckoning – and no lookout being kept. The Master and crew of one were taken to Batavia by Mr Ross – and those of the other got a passage to Mauritius bound thither from Java – which had put in at the Cocos with supplies for Mr Ross and the settlers. My part of actor being now finished I proceed to declare – the why – and wherefore – I assumed the part – a declaration for hearing of which – the reader's attention must by this time be straining on the qui vive.

Having well conned the history of my Genealogical tree – I had clearly perceived that attachment to it – was much more frequently than otherwise – fatal to the attachés. Hence I concluded – that after the breaking off – and withering of the central trunk (^and a propos^ as some plant or other – no matter which – grows during a century – before it produces its flower – and then dies – so I am proud in having to say – did that tree conclude its life most characteristically – in a Priest – to wit) it could not be predicated in what branch vertically or diagonally preceding from the root that property of the tree would continue. I scarcely however suspected that it could attach to me – [f.224r p.151] altho’ I fully believed that the child who knew its own father – would in point of wisdom – be a match for Solomon himself. But after my interference in favour of “poor Brisbane” at the Falklands – had turned out so sadly as it did – for him – and my efforts to put down the mutiny on board the whaler at New Zealand – had been worse than useless – I felt convinced that the fatality had indeed descended to me. Hence being instinctively aware of the fact – that his ancestors had – because of their attachment to the trunk aforesaid – been totally ruined and forced to hastily escape from their country – and hide their endangered heads – on those Isles – of which the Poet wrote as being – “tho’ less remote – yet scarce more known” (“wild” perhaps is the word – but that is much the same) than those of the Farther or Eastern Polynesia – I felt in proportionate strength – the necessity and equity – of my assuming the part of an enemy towards him – and altho’ I also knew instinctively – that – in his family there runs a tradition tale of some wizard origin – to the effect that – their personal enemies should be unfortunate – in some way or other – and he being the leading shoot of their tree it most likely attaches to him – yet – I resolved to take that hazard upon myself rather than damage him by my friendship. What other motives indeed than such as this could have induced me to undertake the enacting such a part towards an absent Stranger – from whose beneficent exertion I was one of many brother-seamen who had been benefited? For am I not a first rate Biblicist? Am I not a true son of England's Mother Church? Do I not ex officio fill the unspeakably dignified position of a priest – among her children? If then I am all this – yea and more – which I feel that I am – it is not possible even to imagine – that I was unheedful of the declaration set forth by my Head – I was going to say – but recollecting his affirmation that no one can serve two Heads – I can only apply to him the title of Teacher. Howbeit “Woeful is [f.224v p.152] the condition of the world because of offences (aggressions) but altho’ it must needs be that unconscientious, selfish and reckless men will commit aggressions – yet woe unto them for committing any such” this indeed is a paraphrase – rather than a literal version – but I am quite satisfied – that it is somewhat more agreeable to the truth of the original – than some specimens of professedly literal translation – which might be pointed out if need were. True it is to be sure – that it is my professional duty – “to kill as enemies – men I never saw” – But for that it is the Lord Chancellor for the time being who is responsible – whether that be done en masse or in detail – the guilt rests – if guilt there be – entirely upon him – not upon me – who – am bound to obey the orders of “Headquarters” – and – tho’ I have capacity enough – and to spare – for discussing the question – Is it right? Is it wrong? Yet I have neither the requisite information – nor inclination to imitate Captain Thrush’s example in that respect – all this however – does not apply to the case in hand – in it I was holding an independent command – and appointed to work for the object of saving men's lives – not at all for that of destroying them. However I trust that my conduct will henceforth – since my motives have been made known – be applauded – to even a greater elevation and extent that it has been doubtless hitherto reprobated – and it is with no ordinary sort of satisfaction – that I find myself able to report that exclusive of near pecuniary loss – and that – only for the moment ^as will presently be shewn^ it was productive of a balance of benefit to Mr Ross. – He got rid of all the worst and most irreclaimable of those emancipated slaves and had his authority more firmly established – than it had previously been. It is true that against this – there has to be put the pecuniary loss by the cessation of all productive labour during about six months just at the time when he had got machinery – ready for being applied to the oil manufacture – and – the expenses two voyages to and from Trincomalee and Madras – and to and from Bencoolen and Batavia. But I should not deserve to be accounted a Gentlemen [f.225r p.153] and an officer of Honour bright – sans peur et sans reproche – if I did not make full compensation to him in that respect. I write in the future tense – because – an amicable dispute between us as to the amount is yet unsettled – he putting it at – what I deem far too low a sum – and I at what he deems far too high. I am however about to propose – that we shall halve the difference when the amount will be about ten thousand rupees – and if he agrees to that I shall forthwith hand to him a check for the sum on the Imperial Unfracturable Bank of Elegancia – at all events – this matter will and shall be settled – by the time – that my second Edition – or new work – is handed out to its’ publisher. –

I have next to acknowledge the favour exhibited towards me by those friends who have – without any call on my part direct or indirect – voluntarily come forward and acted the part of auxiliaries in my sham war against Mr Ross and his interests – and that object to “improve the present occasion” – by explaining on their behalf – such mistakes as they have fallen into, under the impression that my hospitality was anything rather than feigned for the nonce. Of these I as yet – (besides Mr Darwin) know no more than one but he is a legion of himself to wit my honoured friend and brother officer (and if justice had been done to me for the modes and manners according to which I executed the functions of Governor of New Zealand – I should have been enabled to add – my brother Knight) Sir Edward Belcher – Captain R.N. ^to wit^ To his performances in that capacity – I now therefore address myself.*[34] [f.225v p.154]

I. “having completed water and supplies – we took our departure from Anjier – on the evening of the 16th July [1845] shaping our course for the Cocos or Keeling's Islands.” class="Body A" >II. “Our object here [at the Cocos] was to obtain – magnet^ical^ and astronomical observations – to connect it – with the Cargados Garajos.” I. This paragraph is quoted – that we may begin at the beginning and also because it has to be referred to – from a subsequent one. II The Knight – ken'd what was what fu' bravely – and accordingly takes care to state the reasons for his visiting the Cocos – and – from the same kenning made his stay as short as possible. Well – the subject[column continues across full width of page]

on whose account the Cocos are (it seems) to be avoided – may comfort himself with that offered by the great Poet “think not thou – the King disclaimed thee – but thou the King” – or – “Thank Heaven for that – there are more Kings – yea and Emperors too – than one – in the world.” – Nevertheless – all that being as it may be – The Knight's velocity in the taking of the magnetical and astronomical observations a quantum sut. in little more time – than twenty four hours – must be "the envy and admiration" of all his brother observers – especially so – for that – he at the same time – reversed (as of course he did) the proverb that "the more haste – the less good speed " –

III “Capt Ross the resident was absent at Batavia – we were however visited by some of his establishment – and after the duties of the day were over – paid a visit to the Settlement.” – III The Knight having my volume in his possession – Mr Ross was disposed to believe – that in giving to him – these – de facto – titles as being – de jure – the Knight meant to convey a sneer – at all the other officers of the Royal Navy – Ad[column continues across full width of page]

-miral Sir T.B. Capel included – who had officially given these to him – but – I have, as fully on this, as on any other occasion – averred that – the Knight meant – the bona fide meaning of these terms or titles – and nothing else. [f.226r p.155]

IV “The Keeling Islands – properly so called – appear to have been discovered by Captain William Keeling employed in the service of the East Indies Company in 1608 amongst the Moluccas or Spice Islands. It was on his return from this service – that these islands were discovered by him.” IV Until the reality of the Apparition – reported by the knight as having appeared to him – has been somewhat more satisfactorily authenticated – than even his Knightly assertion can effect – this question of names must rest where we have left it – on a previous page. But since the learned Knight*[35] has given occasion for this [column continues across full width of page]

reference I may add to what has been aforesaid on this point – that – when new Settlements are made in a previously inhabited land – the native names should be adopted – such as are difficult of pronunciation – being abbreviated – so as to retain their meaning – and be of tolerably euphonious expression – and – that when any such Settlement is made in a previously uninhabited, or unoccupied, land – the first Settlers – if making it at their own expense – and risk – have the right to adopt and apply – any name or names which they may be pleased to choose. Howbeit – altho’ certainly I am not deficient in the quality of self-confidence – yet I indicated my dubiety in respect to the credibility of my "credible information" on this point – by resorting to "the Universal History" for a longwinded extract – on the presumption of it’s affording, or seeming to afford – a corroboration altho’ it affords not an iota of that nature – merely stating the fact – and circumstances of a voyage having been made by Captain Keeling in 1608-9 from England to the Moluccas and back – but not containing a syllable or indication however slight – of his having made the discovery of any Island at all. I say therefore – that ^seeing^ the Knight writes so much more confidently than I did – and to induce the supposition that he may have [f.226v p.156] obtained some additional evidence of Captain Keeling's having not been the first discoverer of any of these Isles – but – of his having at all seen one, or other, or both (speaking here of the Cocos Chain forming as one) of these Islands. If so – the sooner he publishes that – the better for both of us. –

V “In 1825 Alexr Hare an Englishmen – whose pursuits bear a very doubtful character – took possession of the Southern Keeling Island – bringing with him an Establishment of Malays – including a Seraglio.” V Altho’ my beKnighted friend has here added two years to my date of Mr Hare's debarkation on the Cocos – yet if he has no better evidence to produce for his statement of Captain Keeling having been their discoverer – than he can possibly have for the assertion [column continues across full width of page]

that Mr Hare came to these Islands before the middle of 1826 His Knightly credit for accuracy of assertion – will be sorely shaken. For the "possession" &c vide previous pages of the present writing.

VI “In 1826 – Mr J.C. Ross formerly master of a merchant ship – settled on one of the eastern group – and finding – Hare's Malays in the condition of slaves – countenanced their desertion of his interests – their complaint being that they were deprived of their women – whom – Hare secluded on a separate Isle to which they were denied access. Hare then resigned to Ross and quitted the Islands.” VI In his ignoring – as I had done – the information given by Horsburgh in the East India Navigation Directory – and in his abs extracting my words in this paragraph – with no other than trifling variations – such as "formerly" instead of my "sometime" – I had not much difficulty in persuading Mr Ross that – as the Knight could not have intended to go beyond me in assertion – or at least not quite so far – as to employ the [column continues across full width of page]

word “encouraged” as it stands in his book – that – he certainly wrote the word “discouraged” and the substitution ^had^ been made [f.227r p.157] by the Compositor (perhaps somewhat similar disposed towards him as his lieutenants appear to have been) with the object of getting him into a scrape – as also – omitted – after the word “Interests” the words “but was ultimately – per force of circumstances – induced to admit them under his protection.” In all which I firmly trust that my beKnighted friend will fully bear me out – because Mr Ross being rather apt to call assertions and assertors appropriate names – something pretty considerably ugly in the way of utterance by tongue and pen – and so forth – might or may be – consequential – if the Knight does not confirm my assurance on this head. Indeed I had – as I have said some little difficulty – in effecting my object – Mr Ross observing – that – besides these untoward and omitted expression my beKnighted friend – by here – recurring from the “Captain”cy to the “Master”ship – meant to intimate that he employed the former to convey the sneer abovenoticed – and also – that there was no Mr Leisk – then at the Cocos to tell him, any stories of the sort. I however insisted – that the Knight had evidently copied my words from memory – and without giving any special heed to their import. "Ah well (said Mr R.) see that those alterations and omissions be corrected in the next Edition of the Knight's book." "That (I of course replied) I shall certainly see to being done."

All about the “complaint” – the “resignation” of nothing to be resigned – and so forth – has been already discussed – and declared. But an "Eastern group" of the Cocos is nothing less than a new discovery – and I must admit that – by it the Knight has gone far ahead of me in the line of discovery – a feat which I had imagined to be very difficult of accomplishment – after I had made a single low Island into a whole group – but certainly the making of a whole group of Isles is a non pareil exploit. – [f.227v p.158] The application of the Dystogistic term Desertion to the escaping from compulsory servitude having been above noticed – I need not say more upon it here – than merely to remark that my subsequently enounced doctrines of social economy – shewed – that I employed it unawares – but – those doctrines being (as perhaps was to be presumed) quite the reverse of those held by the Knight – he seems to have used it in the sense in which it is used by all the transatlantic Gentlemen – South and West of Philadelphia – as also by many other gents who think with them – that the most proper mode of obtaining labour is – not by paying for it – the market price but – by Stealing and Robbing it from it’s proprietors – in short – that “those should rob who have the power – and those should be robbed who have it not” – and – doubtless is strong in the opinion that – the man of Uz – acted very improperly in “breaking the jaws of the wicked and plucking the spoil out of their teeth" delivering the poor that cried unto him for help – and those that had none other to help them”– well – everyman has a right – and most especially a Knight to hold opinions – and we may add – that – Steam seems to be employed in rendering such as these into perfect smoke and consequently harmless – ^even^ if cousin Jonathon should ^ever^ be pleased to concede the claim of Searching and Grabbing. –

VII “Since that period – affairs have gone on smoothly – the Malays catching fish and turtle and rearing pigs and poultry for the consumption of those vessels which may touch at these Islands.” VII My beKnighted friend seems not to have heard of the gale in these affairs – almost amounting to a hurricane – which quite as successfully as ever Lapland or Chilote witch elsewhere – I evoked at those Isles – somewhat in the Lapland[column continues across full width of page]

Manner too – as I gave to Mr Leisk the thread of power – loosely knotted – for him to disentangle according to his wishes. Howbeit – if my said friend – had any thoughts of attempting to follow my example in that way – the attempt would certainly have been made in vain – more than three fourths of the inhabitants being now native born [f.228r p.159] Cocosians – and being such – not liable to be acted upon in that way. –

As to the Pig-rearing by the Malays (who it seems have laid aside “their extreme dislike to those animals”) I understand that my beKnighted friend – did not see – or at least did not recognize any specimens of that rearing – ^doubtless^ because – it being the autumnal season – all the full-grown herds were out on the far hillsides preparing themselves by feeding on acorns and beech mast for fattening in the winter on coconut kernels and turtle steaks. Nevertheless – I have good reasons for opining – that – if those Malays had no other employment on those Isles – very considerably more productive of earnings – that those of ^which^ the Knight has specified – their village – eke their personnel – would be very finitely inviting.

VIII “I certainly expected to find the residence of Capt Ross after the lapse of twenty years – in a decent condition. It presented however – nothing more than such a House as could be rapidly raised from the timbers saved from a wrecked vessel – and gloomy beyond conception – being completely overshadowed by coconut trees and as a natural consequence swarming with mosquitos. The Malay village was infinitely more inviting.” VIII “Blessed is he who expecteth little for he shall not be disappointed.” I trust – not only for my beKnighted friend's sake – but also for my own – that this axiom or adage &c hath no converse – for indeed if it have – I must admit – that I should be justly included – and that too – for the heaviest share – seeing that my report of “the immense crops of coconuts produced annually on all the capital Isles of the group – being monopolized by Mr Ross for his sole advantage” – furnishes ground to some considerable [column continues across full width of page]

extent for the Knight's expectation. But – he seems to have pitched them higher than even that would warrant. Howbeit this one conclusion is certain – that – Mr Ross did not come to the Cocos with any intention of employing himself in [f.228v p.160] Palace-building – and accordingly instead of the real Corner-stone for the erection of one or more on the sublimest “Pecksniff” model – he has been and is in the practice of importing Clay (to fertilize the Settlers’ plots of ground – wherein to raise from it &c for themselves – acting then on the presumption –that the youngsters would rather have plantains to chew – than Palaces to view. –

The context shews that the Knight employs the word “decent” to convey the combined sense of the words Elegant and Magnificent and Superb we therefore need not stop to farther notice its employment on this occasion – but go on to express the opinion – that even with the aid of a Press-gang to collect labourers for him to superintend – he would find the job of raising such another House from the timber saved from a vessel of some 200 tons measurement – wrecked in the lofty rolling breakers on the exterior margin of the Coco reef-wall – not of such quick accomplishment – as he has imagined – seeing that the work includes the obliterating of all treenail, bolt, and spike holes, – yet leaving the timber altogether in its natural naked colour – moreover – the size small tho' it be would have required much more straight timber than could have been obtained from the Brig wrecked as abovementioned. Indeed – I surmise – ^that^ if the Samarang had been broken up at Sarawak – instead of merely swamped in the river – enough of such timber could scarcely have been obtained even from her materials.

That the Knight is an adept in Natural History, may be asserted by any person who chooses so to do – and yet – his conclusion that “the swarming of mosquitos is a natural consequence of the shade of Coconut trees” may not be deemed admissible by other persons who are well informed on the point. Howbeit – seeing that the trees in question – stand in front of only one side at twenty feet distant therefrom – it seems all but certain – that if their leaves completely envelope the House – they must be of Brobdignagian species – the nuts having been doubtless drifted to the Cocos – there picked up and planted by Mr Ross. The mosquitos too – have [f.229r p.161] probably also come from that country – embarked on the nuts– and are of that species of which a certain Voyageur hath reported that “they ran up the trees and barked at him.”*[36] It seems however very likely that in common with the Boobies at these Isles – those mosquitos have kin-ly or Clannish feelings, and welcomed the Knight after their fashion – on the presumption that he was not adverse to being licked ^tickled^. –

The proposition that gloominess may – in some cases – exist not in the spectacle but in the eyes of the Spectator – there are good reasons for admitting – but it is a curious phenomenon in the Knight's mental manifestations – That he having (as of course in performing the Priestly part of his duty – he must have) a full conception of – “a darkness that might be felt” – and has also conceived of the Idea of Infinity – could not conceive that – of a gloominess resulting from the leafy crowns of a row of coconut trees. It is devoutly to be hoped that is not one of the family of that Personage of whom a great Poet hath reported that – “Where he gazed – darkness pervaded space.”**[37] Howbeit the Malay village having been laid out and constructed under Mr Ross' direction – and the cost defrayed by him – a portion of its infinitude of invitability may surely be admitted – to form a set off against a portion of the repulsiveness of his own dwelling or troglodytic Hovel – the latter appellation being by much the most appropriate for a dwelling whose gloominess exceeded even the Knight's most uncommon powers of conception –

IX “Here we noticed a very rude mill in which they were grinding coconuts for oil – and in every direction – groups of turtle lately captured. Some of these we purchased but the price considering the profusion was rather high.” IX Ohone! Ohone!! Ohone a Ri!!! Another indecency! Who could have wondered – even if the finely polished debonair blandness of demeanour – (for which the Knight has even in print – before now – been celebrated) almost failed to preserve his equani-[column continues across full width of page]

[f.229v p.162] -nimity at the site of a very rude mill – only eight sailed (or vaned) self-adjusting to the wind – no gilt pillars or pilasters – no elaborate carving – no mahogany pannelling– in short – no nothing decent. Query – did the Knight ascertain – that this construction was also rapidly raised from the tinder saved from a wrecked vessel?

On Turtle part of this paragraph – it has to be remarked – That – altho’ in the year 1825 these animals frequented the beaches and ^were to be found lying^ laying thereon at all times of the day – not even moving away from the people coming to them – yet in 1836 – when I was at the Isles – they had become so shy – that they no longer came to bask on the shores but had to be hunted over the shallows of the Lagoon – as vide my description of that hunting – and quite correct observation that – “none but the most active men could – at that time – succeed well in catching them” If therefore nine years later – they could be got in such perfusion of groups newly caught lying about in every direction – they must have become quite domesticated – swimming up to the boats as soon as seen in the daytime – and in the nights answering the hunters call of “turtle ahoy where be ye?” “here sir – here we be” – but perhaps for viewing them – the Knight used by mistake – a multiplying instead of an opera glass – and also mistook for groups of turtle some parcels of the half-grown pigs (which ^it seems that^ these swine herding Malays keep about their houses as pets) lying heads and tails, basking in the sun – or reposing in the shade – or another perhaps – maybe hazarded – a shoal of turtle tried a race with the Sumarang from Sunda Straits – and beat her by a day – but so fatigued – that as soon as they entered the Lagoon – and the Malays had nothing to do but pick them up by boatloads – or – yet again – Perhaps the whole sentence is one of pure poetical prose – at which the Knight is of course “a Dab” having ^doubtless^ penned many a ^bright^ sonnet on the theme of his Dulcinea’s eyebrows. Ah! But “the price was rather high”*[38] yes indeed – that [f.230r p.163] was to be expected – the sale of the animals being monopolized by Mr Ross for his sole advantage – at the same time the Knight would naturally have, in his mind’s eye for comparison the price charged at the British Settlement on Ascension Island.

X “As the Malays did not venture off to the Ship to sell their commodities I suspect that the general produce passes through the hand of Ross’ family.” X “Suspect” – Ah that assuredly is not a Knightly feeling – the word written was doubtless suppose – and the displeased compositor substituted this other. But even the supposition is not so proper[column continues across full width of page]

as I could have wished. “Having completed laying in supplies from the very cheap market at Anjier and moreover purchased “some groups of turtle” at the Settlement – It is not at all likely that either the Knight – or the Ship – held out any temptation to the Malays to venture losing their day’s wages – by going off to her – unless the knight would have sold to them some of those supplies at a moderate advance on the Anjier prices – which certainly they would have preferred – to the selling of any of theirs to him at those prices – except indeed – their pigs – some number of these (I.e. the grown up ones – not the half grown pets) They doubtless would have willingly sold at his own prices – but the animals being as abovementioned – far away on the distant hills – and he only stopping for one day – there was no time for fetching them in from thence.

It being certain that judging of Ross’ disposition and doings by the only standard which he seems to have consulted – his own – to wit – no such paltry conception as his words might indicate – could have found admittance into his mental womb – a few dozens of fowls and eggs sold to a ship or two in the course of a year – passing – and being mulcted on their passage – through the hands of Ross’ family – Faugh! Impossible – The Knight being certainly of the same way of thinking as was the Noble Roman – “I cannot wring from the hard hands [f.230v p.164] of peasants – their toil won earnings – by any indirection” – No – No – I say – what the Knight really did mean was – to compliment Mr Ross by attributing to him – the Imitating though on a microscopic scale His Betters of the Mac-Aristocc family – through whose Briarean hands – vulgarly yclessed custom houses – Excise offices &c &c &c The general produce of the industry of the Mac Demos or ^swinish multitudes^ – is mad to pass with the effect – of leaving in those hands – from – some three fourths of its amount or more – down to proportions too small to keep the mulcting machinery in grease.*[39] But altho’ Mr Ross has not – and is not disposed to go – into the said imitation – yet for attributing that to him – he is bound to thank the Knight – even as he has thanked me, for my attributing to him a governmental “prohibition of the Malays from taking more coconuts for their own use – than the produce of a certain number of the coconut trees” – But – here I imagined – that I was accosted by the voices of many good people – with the question of – How is a Revenue to be obtained for the Support of order at home and defence abroad – otherwise than through those hands – of which you speak rather equivocally? And – I imagined – that I answered them out of the Holy Bible “Thus saith the lord God of the Heavens and the Earth – The land is mine – ye shall not presume – ever to sell any part of it – to become the heritage of individuals among you. The land is mine – ye are in my presence – strangers and sojourners upon it – as the generation of your fathers and all the preceding generations were – and all succeeding will be. Therefore I say unto you – Ye shall not presume to sell nor permit to be sold any part of the land to become the property of Individuals.” Surely a word to the wise is enough. [f.231r p.165] Besides the foregoing – the Knight's report contains the statement that “the Western tongue of Direction Island [the N.E. of the Cocos Chain] lies in 10˚5'31” South Latitude. Hence the fact being that it is in 12˚&c. The guess that I have made respecting the state of the compositor's mind – whilst he was at work on (at least) this Section of the Knight's book is sufficiently verified. – ^and so bonjour – to his Knightship^ –

The two concluding chapters of my volume – the “Fitzroy” – to wit first Edition – on the theological themes of the Creation &c and of the Deluge were intended merely to serve of ^as^ specimens of what may be expected – from the grand work which I am inditing – to prove that – “every word in the Bible is true – and will be – some day or other – proved to be so” – i.e. on that day when my work shall be published. True, I am not perhaps quite at home among Hebrew, Greek, or even Latin scholars – but – I feel quite certain that I can in perfect security trust – to the honesty of the translators of the English authorized version – after carefully reading as I have done – their preface and dedication addressed to King James the First – so well exemplifying as it does – their obedience to one of the commandments contained in it – namely “Call no man Master – for one (only) is your Master even (I the) Christ and all of you (my disciples) are brethren.”

Mr Ross’ services are not – therefore any farther indispensable – and being accordingly about to take his leave – and go away to pay his respects to Mr Darwin’s coral formations – has by way of farewell suggested to me – That in none of the two if not three – fragments of different versions or traditions – which make up what is now known as “The history of the Deluge” – is any mention made of Noah’s having laid in any stock of fresh water. Ergo – the Ark floated on a fresh water Sea – which Sea was the present Persian Gulf – the Isthmus by which it was previously separated from the Ocean having been broken up by the combined effects of a hurricane – an enormous [f.231v p.166] fall of rain and a general thaw of the snow and frost – on the vast amphitheatric range of mountains from which the waters descended into the^at^ Gulf.

That – if the rite of circumcision was miraculously or Divinely instituted ^and commanded^ to Abraham and his family – and again given as a law of Divine authority – by Moses – How is the fact accounted for – that Moses did not at any period – during his forty years Government of the Israelite order that law to be obeyed – instead of – allowing it to be neglected as completely – as though it had never been promulgated? and why did Joshua – when he caused the Israelites to be circumcised assign – as the reason for his doing so – not at all – that it’s observance had been ordered by the God – but solely – that the Egyptians were reproaching them [calling them Pariahs – probably] for having dis-used it? Query – whether the tale of Abraham’s circumcision be any other than a Jewish one? Whether the Israelites in Egypt had not adopted circumcision – because Joseph’s family were circumcised – as being connected with the Egyptian Priestly caste? And did not Moses discourage its observance – because of the Egyptian-born Israelites hankering after – and mutinying to return to Egpyt – and did not Josphua re-establish it – because of the hankering of the desert-born – for peace and alliance with the Canaanites? N.B. We need not conclude that we have the true history of the alliance with the Gibeonites.

That – Esau is not reported – as having ^had^ a red skin – but a skin covered with red hair – an indication rather of an uncommonly fair – than ^of^ a red or black skin – and never seen on healthy persons of those varieties of colour. Therefore – Esau might perhaps have had ^red^ hairy – but certain not red skinned children. –

That – if the Canaanites and Egyptians being Hamites were black – the chief tribes of the Israelites – the Judahites and Jospheites ^to wit^ – must have been mulattoes – the mother of the latter being an Egyptian and the mother of the former Canaanitesses – and –

That it is all but certain – that the first mothers of all the other [f.232r p.167] tribes were also Canaanitesses – again – to say nothing of Ruth who surely was of at least half-Canaanitish descent – Solomon’s mother was a Hittitess – and – King Jehoram Ben Jehoshaphat’s wife a Phoœnician-Canaanitess – Hence if all these were blacks Jesus Christ must have had three fourths at least of their blood. –

So much for specimens of my new work on the Bible.

We may now – I imagine conclude – this somewhat lengthy task with presenting to the reader – our respective characters as above mentioned. –

Copy Extract
Of a letter sent to Captain Ross by Captain Harding of H.M.S. Pelorus rom the London “Examiner” (weekly periodical) for 21st June 1845.
« H.M.S. Pelorus Cocos Isles »  
“21st Decr 1837.  
“I avail myself of this opportunity*[40] – for informing you that my reasons – for requesting to have all the people on the Isles assembled in my presence – was that I might by personally interrogating each individual fairly and fully – judge for myself – how far there was any just ground of complaint against you – I wished to stand as an “According to the rule – that when things come to the worst – they must mend – we really think that reasonable hopes of the better Government of New Zealand may now be entertained – Captain Fitzroy – possessed by the Genius of misrule – in rare perfection – has so exhausted every error and blunder as hardly to leave room or opportunity or room for any new mismanagement of any magnitude. His Successor can hardly help going right – the wrong course being marked out – by such stupendous monuments of folly. It is a navigation in which the true channel may be traced by
[f.232v p.168]  
Arbitrator between both parties – but felt disposed to lean to the weaker side [that of the people morally speaking] in my interrogations – on Monday and Tuesday last – feeling it most equitable to do so – Yet not a particle – not a shadow of complaint for misrule – could be established against you – On the contrary each and every individual whom I questioned more and more convinced me – that you had been moderate – kind – and just in every transaction – and when the national character of the Malays (of which are the greater number) is considered – proverbial as it is for a dissatisfied – vindictive and treacherous disposition*[41] – I deem it not only a subject of congratulation the wrecks on every shoal – In the end – it may perhaps prove – that Captain Fitzroy was a great benefactor of ^to^ New Zealand – having in a wonderfully short space of time – by as wonderful a force of Genius – left no folly untried – or undisgraced. He has been the Spendthrift of misrule – every blunder in Folly’s treasury is now squandered – New Zealand may be considered as like a child – who has had its scarlet fever and hooping cough – It’s got over its Fitzroy. It cannot but do well now. We shall note the effects of the change of Governors in its flagstaff – so often cut down under the Fitzroy administration – a stable flagstaff in New Zealand, will be a sign of immense improvement.” – “P.S. The price

[f.233r p.169]

but also that much credit is due to your management – for discriminating judgment, forbearance under injury and philanthropy generally – His Exy Vice Admiral the Honble Sir T.B. Capel expressed[column continues across full width of page] offered for Governor Fitzroy’s head – by the respectable chief Heki – was it seems – an 100 acres (of land) – the New Zea^la^nd equivalent for a wiseacre.”

to me – previous to my quitting his flag – the interest he felt in your behalf arising from your perseverance and indefatigable exertions on these Islands, and I feel well assured – that his Exy will be gratified to hear – that by the arrangements now made – the removal of the [British] American – Raymond – and the troublesome characters whose minds have been previously poisoned and rendered dissatisfied became such at his instigation and example*[42] [in taking the part of their ringleader –] There is now every prospect of unanimity and contentment being re-established among those that remain. I beg finally to express – that the four days I have sent here and the insight I have in that time had into the Economy of your little community – has added much to the previous interest – I felt concerning you – and increased my respect for your character – Whilst wishing to you – and your family the well earned success of your exertions – I am – Dear Sir – Your Obedt Servt (Signed) Frans Harding”

“Captain J.C. Ross &c &c Cocos Isles” [f.233v] [blank page]

[Closing page marked in pencil “233ff. Mar, 1908 E.W.J. / Examined by C.J.G.”]

*[1]The Sage Ex Excellency's own suggested word. J.C.R

*[2] super-eminent Christians having improved on the Mosaic legislation by the consecration of a second sabbath in the week of seven days

*[3]This plan of the Keeling Islands will be found in the third (Mr Darwin’s Volume entitled “Researches in Geology and Natural History.”

*[4] The slope from the brim of the reef is sufficient for enabling a vessel to bring up on it in case of getting close to in a calm but such a case can but very rarely happen and not at all if the commander be a person of ordinary abilities.

*[5] these denominated “rollers.”

*[6]For said extract see first Edition the need for copying here – being set aside by the remarks on the opposite column. 1st Captain Horsburgh being Hydrographer to the East India Company had in his custody, all the Journals of their ships, or ships employed in their service, since the commencement of their existence. How then did it come to pass, that – he did not mention it in

*[7] on the North – the seaward side – of Horsburgh's Isle – boat from the ship Lonach Capt Driscoll.

*[8] The party of buccaneers with whom Dampier came across the Pacific from the West Coast of America – intended to stop at the Cocos – but missed finding them and proceeded to Trieste Isle – 60' west of Bencoolen.

*[9]Not withstanding my justly high veneration for Captain Cook we must admit that his undiscovery of Bass's Straits – with two vessels under his orders remains as a spot on his fame for completeness of exploratory investigation –

*[10] The wearers of crowns, being always plural – so likewise most surely – is – the Crown

*[11] Copied from the previous Editions.

*[12] That Government enacted – that all slaves should be registered in the Government offices (residencies) at each place, where one was established – and, that no person not so registered, within the period fixed for that being performed, should thereafter be claimable as a slave – but should in all courts of justice, be deemed of, as being a free person. In his office of “Commissioner-general” in Borneo – it was Mr Hare's duty to promulgate that law and cause it to be complied with – he did neither – and therefore at Bencoolen assumed – that not having done so the people were free in consequence – but had promised notwithstanding, to serve him all their lives &c which was a mere fiction – they never having heard of the law, nor ever been even asked to make any such promise.

*[13] Knowing the strength of the S.W. monsoon in the Bay of Bengal in August it was not desirable to leave the Cocos for the Andamans previous than the beginning of September.

**[14] “Pulo Paghi” “Isles of the Morning” so named in Malay because they are very rarely visible from the opposite coast of Sumatra except in the morning when the sky is clear.

***[15] In the term “European” North American is meant to be included. In fact with the exception of now and then a ship from England the trade was in the hands of the latter and those of the merchants of India – the Chuliahs and Arabs.

****[16] The sails cannot be safely unbent – because the coast being occasionally visited by strong winds or violent squalls and there being no perfectly secure anchorage – sails of any considerable size being forced to anchor well out – must be kept in readiness to make sail when shipped or drawn from their anchors whilst there are many places close in shore where small vessels can be in safety at all times under the lee of Point Islet J.C. Ross

*[17] that officer on the previous voyage was a cousin to Mr Ross – but being a very young man – Mr R. knowing the dispositions of English sailors towards young commanders – altho’ he would, if the vessel had been his own – have confidently trusted her to that person, did not choose to be instrumental in its being so given – after he had sold his share to the co-owners – therefore proposed that they should select a person to take the command at the Isles. They accordingly selected Mr R. M. Wichelo – Purser R.N. – but who had after the peace commanded merchants vessels in the Mediterranean trade (The former chief officer going out as second – to come home with him as first officer) Mr Ross having taken care to acquaint the crew with these arrangements when they signed articles – and Mr Wichelo being a capable and gentlemanly man – no difficulty received with them on the voyage homeward.

*[18] sixty or more thousand Spanish Dollars. SPD were the money denomination in which the British-Javan Government accounts were kept.

*[19] Mr D has probably for brevity sake left unnoticed – the circumstances their having been brought from the E.I.A. first – to Cape Good Hope – and thence to the Cocos.

*[20] at the soreness of eyes occurring always after such exposure to the sun in the travels

*[21] “Order is Heaven’s first law.”

*[22] At least until the time when the Radical Wilderspin appeared – [this footnote continues on the following page] and commenced to revolutionize the thrice Venerable system established by the Wisdom of our ancestors – received too in this particular from the Inspired King of Israel – and truly if ever the rod was needful to keep children in order – the Husband of 300 wives and 700 concubines – must in his own case – have severely felt that need.

*[23]The Sheriff’s officer in London and vicinity are frequently Jews – on the principle no doubt of “Set a cheat to catch a cheat.”

*[24] “Unless a few brackish – indeed salt water – brooks can be termed rivers.”

*[25] “De pig – he be de only genl’men in England – every oder ting work – man work – horse work – water work – fire work – smoke work – every ting work – but de pig – he eat – he drink – he sleep. He be de only genl’mem in England.” Jamaica’s negro’s report on returning from a visit to England.

*[26] The landed interests” as it is called having monopolized the legislation and in the exercise of that monopoly – contracted the debt – That interest alone is justly chargeable with its’ payment.

*[27] Apropos. Silly People apply the epithet “Shabby” to the Whigs and by implication “generous” to the Tories – but altho’ no lover of the Whigs I must ^say^ thus much on their behalf that in reality they have been ever since Walpole’s reign kept so much out upon the bare hill sides – whilst the Tories were gorging their bellies in the National clover field that they have had no time in the short spell that they got in ^side^ now and there – to become tolerably fat – and of course could not be generous to others before being put to themselves. To be sure in 1832, by the aid of the Radical bulls – they had fairly got possession of the field, but like foolish and cowardly asses they quarreled with the bulls, and had not in themselves the courage that was required for keeping possession – only let the Tories be kept out till they have sucked their paws dry to the bone – and then you shall see whether when they are let in – they will not be as shabby as ever the Whigs have been.

*[28] “Falls” would have been the more proper term – their being no cropping performed on the coconut and “daily” instead of “annual” – the nuts ripening and falling more or less every day of the year – the latter substitution would moreover would have rendered the whole sentence three hundred and sixty five times more poetical.

*[29] A sort of cage formed of hoops and battens and covered around with painted canvas in which the Captain or officer of the watch of the Arctic whalers sit upon the lookout for whales the movements of the Ice &c

*[30] Ghama Gigantea

*[31] Maize can only be raised on the newly exposed surface of the soil which after a year’s time (the vegetable mould being exhausted by exposure) no longer carries it to maturity.

*[32] As the Religious Society in England can testify – two of whose Missionaries who went into the Batta Country a few years ago having been seized ^murdered^ and eaten by these savages.

*[33] unless they are in numbers – many more than the Malays – they however take care to keep a clean tongue for fear of the Kris

*[34] Mr Ross has not seen the Knight’s book – These extracts were made from it – by a master of a Merchant Ship – and sent to him from Singapore – as likely to interest him by their contents.

*[35]Learned ^of course^ in the Super-Sublime Science of Heraldry. –

*[36]Vide Blofeld's book on Algiers and Algeria.

**[37] Byron Vision of Judgement

*[38]For its amount see extract (from my Appendix volume) given above

*[39] A poor woman takes a basket of eggs to market – very good – she pays no taxes on them – but when she carries the price to the grocer for her ounce of tea, pound of sugar, and a pipe full of tobacco to sooth her toiling man's evening – why it would have been cheaper to her – if a portion of the eggs and fowls had been taken instead – for in that case she would not have had to pay the interest of the grocer's capital – ^with^ with ^on which the^ taxes have been paid in advance.

*[40] the last time of the ship's boat being sent onshore – whilst the vessel was being got underweigh

*[41] In making the above remark – Captain Harding did no more than adopt the opinions held of the Malay character – by those who have had no adequate opportunities to judge for themselves – but by all – or most – of those – who have – myself included – it is deemed far superior to ^that of^ the Hindus and their more Western neighbours. The Malays have advanced from Savagism to a semicivilization – analogous to that of the ancient Greeks in the time of Homer – and that of the Scandinavian Vikings in what are called "the middle ages” whereas those others have degenerated from a higher civilization into barbarism and its’ concomitant vices – one of which only – need be mentioned to indicate the difference between the one and the other – lying to wit – whilst these have no hesitation to lie and act unjustly on every occasion when the doing so appears to be needful or advantageous for their own interest – the Malays will scarcely resort to the one – or the other – even when the doing so – might effect escape from punishment for crimes committed by them – or be – evidently advantageous to their interests – and an European cannot lower himself more in their estimation by any conduct however [footnote continues on p.169] bad – as by evincing that he will to serve his purposes violate the truth and commit injustice – whilst those others – deem of any man who regards truth and justice – more than the apparent advancement of his interests by their violation – that he is no better than a simpleton – or an idiot.

*[42] by Leisk primarily – as the revolters unanimously affirmed (but of which Captain Harding very properly refused to take cognizance – he – Leisk having decamped from The Isles –) Raymond having been during the time of Captain Fitzroy’s incendiarism – absent in the Schooner under my command could not – and did not pretend – to have received any other information of that – otherwise than from – Leisk’s representations. (Signed J.C.R.

In this section:

A Transcription of British Library Add MS 37631 1824-1854 - # 4 a satire of Narrative. Capt John Clunies Ross


This edition of British Library Add MS 37631 1824-1854  - # 4 is made available courtesy of Dr Katharine Anderson, York University, Toronto.

Dr Anderson thanks Brendan Wallace for his assistance with the transcription; thanks also go to the British Library and the National Library of Australia, and of course to John Cecil Clunies Ross, as rights holder for the Papers of the Clunies-Ross family held at the National Library of Australia.

Images of the manuscript

Available through the Australian National Library

Full British Library catalogue entry:

PAPERS of Capt. John Clunies Ross, first real settler on the Cocos or Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean, mostly concerned with his relations with Alexander Hare settled for a time on another island of the same group (cf . J. C. Ross's Statement regarding the Settlement of the Cocos Islands, 1837), viz.:- 1. Letter of Ross to J. L. Adam, enclosing the following articles; Cocos, April, 1854. f. 1. 2. "Outlines of Facts, by A. Hare," filled in by Ross, copied by John George Hendrik Dill in 1851 from a copy made by Ross in 1830-31. f. 16. 3. Documents referred to: (a) letter from Edw. Pressgrave, acting secretary {?Straits Settlements}, to Ross concerning a settlement on the Poggy Islands off Sumatra; Fort Marlbro', 8 Jan. 1824. Enclosing a copy of a letter on the same subject to John Christie, 21 Mar. 1821. f. 128;-(b) Letter from John and Joseph Hare to Ross, enclosing a power of attorney, etc.; London, 4 Oct. 1826. f. 133;-(c) Accompt between Ross and Hare Cocos, 25 July, 1828. f. 142;-(d) Hare's instructions to his supervisor; Aug. 1830. f. 145. 4. "Voyages of the Adventures and Beagle. Supplement to the 2nd, 3rd and Appendix volumes of the first edition (1839), written for, and in the name of, the author... by J. C. Ross": a satire (mostly on the same matters) upon Capt. Robert Fitzroy's book, provoked by statements in his own and Charles Darwin's accounts of their visit to the islands (see vol. ii. p. 630, and vol. iii. p. 539) ff. 146- 233. Folio. Presented by Frank Adam, Esq.