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Darwin Correspondence Project

Books on the Beagle

‘Considering the limited disposable space in so very small a ship, we contrived to carry more instruments and books than one would readily suppose could be stowed away in dry and secure places’. So wrote Captain FitzRoy in the Narrative (2: 18). CD, in his letter to Henslow, 9 [September 1831], discussing the preparations for the voyage, refers to FitzRoy’s ‘immense stock of instruments & books . . . in books all travels, & many natural history books.’ FitzRoy encouraged CD to bring any books he felt he would need, even if it meant duplicating some of FitzRoy’s own: ‘You are of course welcome to take your Humboldtas well as any other books you likebut, I cannot consent to leaving mine behind . . . There will be plenty of room for Books.’ (Letter from Robert FitzRoy, 23 September 1831). On board, FitzRoy states, ‘Our books . . . were collected in one cabin, under Mr. Stebbing’s charge, and lent to the officers, without reserve, under certain regulations.’ (Narrative Appendix, p. 327).

The books were kept in the poop cabin where CD worked and slept. John Lort Stokes and Philip Gidley King shared the working space with CD. According to Keith Thompson (1975), the cabin measured 10 feet by 11 feet.

The books in the Poop Cabin are at the Service of all the Officers of the Beagle who will comply with the following regulations: 

  1. Books are to be taken from, and returned to their places by the Person appointed for that purpose.
  2. Every Book, whether Old or New, bound or Unbound, is to be covered, temporarily, by the person who has it in use.
  3. Books are not to [be] transfered from one Officer to another without the knowledge of the person who has it in charge.
  4. Two Catalogues will be kept, one for general use, the other for the Cabin.
  5. The names of those who take Books are to be written in a list kept for that Purpose.
  6. Any Officers who have books which they think will be generally useful and of which there are not already Duplicates in the Catalogue will confer a general benefit by lending them in a similar manner, inserting their names in the Catalogue, and if more convenient keeping them in the Poop Cabin.
  7. Books are to be taken, or returned in morning before ½ past 8.
  8. Books are never on any account to be taken out of the Vessel.

The two catalogues referred to in the regulations have unfortunately been lost and FitzRoy, so far as is known, left no records from which the library could be reconstructed. However, from the Beagle correspondence, CD’s diary, field notebooks, and the extensive zoological and geological notes it is possible to compile a list of works used by CD during the voyage. Some of the books CD refers to were his own copies, but the majority were probably part of the Beaglelibrary. Some notion of the size of the ‘immense stock’ which CD mentions may be had from a letter FitzRoy wrote to his sister during an earlier voyage (16 March 1826): ‘I flatter myself I have a complete library in miniature, upwards of 400 volumes!’ This in a cabin 6 feet 6 inches square!

Since most of the works on the list are derived from the unpublished zoological and geological notes in the Darwin Archive (DAR 29–38), a brief description of those records may be helpful in understanding the nature of the evidence they provide. For the most part the notes follow in chronological sequence on the rectos of the folio pages. The versos were used by CD for comments in amplification of his observations. Many of these were made later in the voyage. After his return to England, when CD used the notes for writing his Journal of researches and the later works based on the results of the voyage, he made numerous references to books in the margins or at the end of the verso entries. Fortunately, these later notes can almost always be distinguishedthey are usually in pencil or in a different ink. During the voyage pencil was used almost exclusively in the field notebooks when travelling ashore. On board, or when he was in residence ashore, the observations are almost always in ink, usually written with CD’s favourite Brahma pens. References to books in pencil, or in ink of a different shade from that normal to the Beagle notes, cannot therefore be considered reliable evidence that the books were on board unless there is independent corroboration elsewhere in the notes.

Certain other references to books have also been eliminated from consideration, even though they occur in the main texts of the folio rectos or in dated entries on the versos. These are of three kinds:

  1. References to which CD prefixed a ‘V[ide]’ or ‘Mem’. For example, ‘V. Sabine Horticultural Trans’ or ‘Mem. Audubon in Wern. trans’ are interpreted to mean that CD intended to consult them after the voyage unless they follow a specific reference, or a quoted passage, or unless corroborative references exist elsewhere in the notes.
  2. References that may only be remembered from a work with which CD was familiar. Obvious examples are references to Bernardin de Saint Pierre’s Paul et Virginie and to characters in novels by Jane Austen.
  3. Secondary sources. CD usually was careful to indicate when he was using a secondary source, probably because he anticipated using his notes for later publication, but occasionally he failed to do so. For example, two references to Felix Azara’s works in notes made during 1833 cite secondary sources (DAR 33: 254 and DAR 30.2: 112) but several later ones have been found (DAR 42: 73) that are taken from Griffith’s edition of Cuvier’sThe animal kingdom (1827–35) without citation of the source. Since no other reference occurs that clearly and unambiguously comes directly from Azara one must presume that his works were not on board.

The Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle was a much cited secondary source during the voyage. Any reference to an author who contributed articles to the Dictionnaire is considered to be a reference to that work unless it fits a separate work by that author. For example, at least one of the references to Lamouroux (DAR 30.1: 48 v.) contains material that is not in theDictionnaire and could only have come from that author’s Exposition méthodique (1821).

The elimination of these three categories leaves a considerable number of works which are likely to have been on board. The first list that follows includes those for which the evidence that CD used them during the voyage is considered reliable. The second list includes those books for which there are some, but only inconclusive, indications that they were on board. The evidence for items on the first list is of four kinds:

  1. There are volumes now in the Darwin Library in Cambridge that contain inscriptions or annotations that can be identified as having been written during the voyage. These titles are designated by symbol *. The nature of the evidence is noted in each entry.
  2. CD sometimes mentions in his letters, diary, and notebooks that he has received, or is reading, certain books, or that he has them in his possession. FitzRoy, in his Narrative, also mentions many books, and as one might expect many of his references coincide with CD’s. However, since FitzRoy’s account was written after his return to England and no manuscript survives from the voyage itself, it has been used as a source for only three works which he explicitly states he used while on board (see Kotzebue, Krusenstern, and Whewell). The works in this second category are designated by symbol §.
  3. Some works, like the Dictionnaire classique are referred to so frequently throughout the voyage, and the references occur in so many different contexts, that there can be no doubt that they were part of the Beagle collection. These titles are designated by symbol ‡.
  4. The remaining works on the list are mentioned less frequently, some of them only once, but the references are clearly in a text written during the voyage and of such a nature (e.g., passages quoted or paraphrased, facts stated, or page references given) that CD must have had the work beside him as he wrote. A few books are mentioned in letters from the family as having been sent to CD (e.g., Fleming, Martineau, Pennant); although they were not acknowledged or referred to later by CD, it is considered highly probable that they were received, since letters in the same mail arrived safely. (Considering the difficulties and hazards of communicating with the Beagle, it is a remarkable fact that all of the letters sent to CD by his sisters are accounted for, though not all have been preserved.)

The possibility exists, of course, that some of the titles in the last category are references to unacknowledged secondary sources, even though the citations are extended or specific. Only the more closely related works on board have been searched for such cases. Considering CD’s normal practice of citing his sources, it is not thought likely that further search would eliminate more than a very small number of titles, if any.

Another possibility that has been considered is that a work might have been borrowed from someone with whom CD became acquainted while living on shore. It is possible, for example, that Nuñez’s book was borrowed from Edward Lumb, the merchant with whom he stayed in Buenos Aires, but the subject of the book makes it equally plausible that CD or FitzRoy thought it would be useful and acquired it in preparation for the voyage. References to works in notes made during periods ashore at Santiago, Cape Town, and Sydney have been examined with this problem in mind, but no reason has been found that would tip the balance in favour of elimination of any of the books; the possibility nevertheless remains that a small proportion of those used by CD during the voyage were not actually in the collection on the shelves of the poop cabin.

Despite the size of the list, it is clear that other works must have been on board. CD would not have had occasion to consult the technical books used by FitzRoy in his survey work, and there were probably other works about voyages in FitzRoy’s collection which he does not mention. Other books are referred to in a way that makes it impossible to identify them, as for example, CD notes that he is reading a ‘Spanish story book’ (Voyage, p. 196). In another field notebook, at Cape Town in May 1836, he lists, probably with the intention of purchasing them, a spelling dictionary and German books (Voyage, p. 252). Although there is no specific mention that these works were used, there is evidence that CD corrected some of his idiosyncratic spelling during the summer of 1836 (Sulloway 1982b, pp. 331–2, n. 13). Finally, there are two works that CD does not refer to at all, but which we can be certain were on board the Beagle: a Spanish–English dictionary and the Authorised Version of the Bible.

In the list the most frequently cited sources are the zoological and geological notes made by CD during the voyage. They are in the Darwin Archive in the Cambridge University Library in bound volumes DAR 29–38. Other sources used are the manuscripts at Down House of the field notebooks and the journal CD kept on board. If a published version of a manuscript source exists references are to it rather than the original. Except for Voyage, however, the page references are to the manuscript page numbers.

The following abbreviations and symbols are used:

  • DAR  Darwin Archive
  • CUL  Cambridge University Library
  • Down  Down House, Downe, Kent
  •  CD’s copy contains evidence of use on board the Beagle
  • §  mentioned in a letter or other source as being on board
  • ‡  works frequently cited during the voyage
  • †  CD’s copy annotated (†† indicates numerous annotations)

Thus, the entry below for Aubuisson de Voisins, Traité de géognosie, conveys the following information: CD’s copy, now in Darwin Libary–CUL, was used on board. The inscription that provides evidence of this is quoted and other bracketed data gives the location of a reference to the book on folio 61 (recto) in part 1 of volume 32 of CD’s geological diary (DAR 32.1) in the Darwin Archive. The copy in the Darwin Library at CUL is heavily annotated. (N.B. Works cited during the voyage are often in the Darwin library, but they are not considered to be the same copies unless definite evidence that they were on board is to be found in them

§ Anson, George. A voyage round the world, in the years MDCCXL, I, II, III, IV by George Anson Esq . . . compiled from papers . . . of . . . Lord Anson . . . by Richard Walter. London, 1748. (‘Beagle’ diary p. 62).

* Arrowsmith, Aaron. A new general atlas, constructed from the latest authorities. London and Edinburgh, 1823. (Contemporary annotations by CD and Wickham, see Voyage, p. 128 n.). CUL, Adv.b.79.18 †.

* Aubuisson de Voisins, Jean Franc~ois d’. Traité de géognosie. 2 vols. Strasbourg, 1819. (Inscription in vol. 1: ‘C. Darwin HMS Beagle’; DAR 32.1: 61). Darwin Library–CUL ††.

‡ Beechey, Frederick William. Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific and Beering’s Strait . . . 1825, 26, 27, 28. London, 1831. (DAR 31.1: 276v.; 33: 253v.). Darwin Library–CUL, 1832 Philadelphia edition ††.

Bible (Authorised version).

‡ Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de. Conchyliologie et malacologie in Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Planches. 2e Partie, Zoologie. Paris, 1816–30. (DAR 30.1: 6, 12v.). Darwin Library–CUL.

§ Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de, et al. Rapport sur les résultats scientifiques du voyage de M. Alcide d’Orbigny. . . Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 3 (1834): 84–115. (DAR 37.1: 677v.; letter to J. S. Henslow, 12 July 1835).

* Boitard, Pierre. Manuel d’entomologie. 2 vols. Paris, 1828. (Inscription in vol. 2: ‘Charles Darwin Rio Plata Aug 7th. 1832’). Darwin Library–CUL †.

‡ Bory de Saint-Vincent, Jean Baptiste Genevieve Marcellin, ed. Dictionnaire classiqued’histoire naturelle. 17 vols. Paris, 1822–31. (Letter from J. S. Henslow, 15–21 January [1833]). Darwin Library–CUL.

§ Bougainville, Louis Antoine de. A voyage round the world. Translated by John Reinhold Forster. London, 1772. (Voyage, p. 178; DAR 34.2: 153).

§ British Association for the Advancement of Science. Lithographed signatures of the members . . . who met at Cambridge, June 1833. With a report of the proceedings . . .Cambridge, 1833. (Letter to Charles Whitley, 23 July 1834). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL.

§ British Association for the Advancement of Science. Report of the 2d meeting . . . Oxford, 1832. London, 1833. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, March 1834 and letter from J. S. Henslow, 31 August 1833).

Brongniart, Alexandre. Rapport fait à l’Académie Royale des Sciences, sur les travaux de M. Gay. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 28 (1833): 26–35. (DAR 35.2: 396). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL ††.

‡ Buch, Leopold von. Travels through Norway and Lapland . . .Translated . . . by John Black. With Notes . . . by Robert Jameson. London, 1813. (DAR 30.2: 154). Darwin Library–CUL.

Bulkeley, John and Cummins, John. A voyage to the south-seas, in the years 1740–1. Containing a faithful narrative of the loss of his Majesty’s ship the Wager, etc. London, 1743. (DAR 36.1: 447).

Burchell, William John. Travels in the interior of Southern Africa. 2 vols. London, 1822–4. (Voyage, p. 182; Red notebook, p. 86). Darwin Library–Down †.

Byron, George Anson, 7th Baron. Voyage of H.M.S. Blonde to the Sandwich Islands, in the years 1824–25. London, 1826. (DAR 31.2: 333; Stoddart 1962, p.4).

Byron, John. The narrative of the Honourable John Byron Commodore in a late expedition around the world . . . Aberdeen, [1786], 1822. (DAR 31.1: 206; 35.1: 235v.).

‡ Caldcleugh, Alexander. Travels in South America, during the years 1819 . . . 21. 2 vols. London, 1825. (DAR 31.2: 319; 32.1: 60v.).

Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de and Sprengel, Kurt Polycarp Joachim. Elements of the philosophy of plants. Edinburgh, 1821. (DAR 30.2: 162v.).

Colnett, James. A voyage to the South Atlantic and round Cape Horn . . . London, 1798. (DAR 31.2: 318v.).

Conybeare, William Daniel and Phillips, William. Outlines of the geology ofEngland and Wales. Pt 1. London, 1822. (DAR 35.1: 317). Darwin Library–Down.

Cook, James. Voyages (editions unidentified; see also Hawkesworth, John). (DAR 32.2: 89v.; Robert FitzRoy’s letter to the South African Christian Recorder, 28 June 1836,Collected papers 1: 20).

‡ Cuvier, Georges. Le règne animal. 4 vols. Paris, 1817. (DAR 30.1: 29v.). Darwin Library–CUL, 2d edition, 5 vols., Paris, 1829–30, vols. 4, 5, Crustacés, etc. par M. Latreille †.

‡ Cuvier, Georges. The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization . . . with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed. By Edward Griffith and others. 16 vols. Edinburgh, 1827–35. (DAR 33: 255v.; number of volumes on board unknown).

Dampier, William. A new voyage round the world. London, 1697. (Red notebook, pp. 8e, 10; ‘Beagle’ diary, p. 407).

Daniell, John Frederic. Meteorological essays and observations. London, 1823. (DAR 30.1: 41).

‡ Daubeny, Charles Giles Bridle. A description of active and extinct volcanoes . . . London, 1826. (DAR 32.1: 23v., 26). Darwin Library–Down.

‡ De la Beche, Henry Thomas. A selection of the geological memoirs contained in the Annales des Mines . . . Trans. with Notes. London, 1824. (DAR 36.2: 522; Stoddart 1962, p. 14). Darwin Library–Down.

‡ De la Beche, Henry Thomas. A geological manual. London, 1831. (DAR 32.1: 53).

Desaulses de Freycinet, L. C. see Freycinet, L. C. Desaulses de

Desmarest, Anselm-Gäetan. Plates for Crustacea, Zoea, etc. In Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Paris, 1816–30. (DAR 30.2: 122).

Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle. See Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. G. M., ed.

Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Par plusieurs Professeurs du Jardin du Roi. (Number of volumes on board unknown; references are to plates and descriptions by Blainville and Desmarest. See Blainville, H. M. D. de and Desmarest, A. G.).

Duperrey, Louis Isidore. Voyage autour du monde . . . sur la corvette . . .La Coquille 1822–5. Zoologie par MM. [R. P.] Lesson et [P.] Garnot. 2 vols., atlas. Paris, 1826–30. (DAR 30.2: 184; 31.1: 241).

§ Earle, Augustus. A narrative of a nine months’ residence in New Zealand in 1827 . . .London, 1832. (Letter to Caroline Darwin, 27 December 1835).

Ellis, William. Polynesian researches, during a residence of nearly six years on the South Sea Islands . . . 2 vols. London, 1829. (DAR 37.2: 798; Stoddart 1962, pp. 6, 8, 11).

Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 vols., 1 vol. Supplement. 6th ed. Edinburgh, 1823. (DAR 30.2: 198v.; 33: 254).

§ Euclid. Elements of geometry. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, 30 October 1831).

‡ Falkner, Thomas. A description of Patagonia, and the adjoining parts of South America . . . Hereford, 1774. (DAR 31.1: 207v.).

Fitton, W. See King, P. P. Narrative of a survey of the intertropical and western coasts of Australia.

Fleming, John. The philosophy of zoology . . . 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1822. (Letter from Susan Darwin, 15 October 1833). Darwin Library–CUL ††.

Flinders, Matthew. A voyage to Terra Australis. 2 vols., atlas. London, 1814. (DAR 30.1: 30v.).

Forster, John Reinhold. Observations made during a voyage round the world . . . London, 1778. (Stoddart 1962, p. 20).

Freycinet, Louis Claude Desaulses de. Voyage autour du monde . . . 1817–20. 9 vols., 4 vols. plates, Paris, 1824–44. (DAR 32.1: 52v.).

Frézier, Amédée François. A voyage to the south-sea and along the coasts of Chili and Peru in . . . 1712–14. London, 1717. (DAR 31.1: 206v.).

Gay, Claude. Aperc~u sur les recherches d’histoire naturelle faites dans l’Amérique du Sud . . . 1830 et 1831. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 28 (1833): 369–93. (DAR 35.2: 396). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL †.

Greenough, George Bellas. A critical examination of the first principles of geology in a series of essays. London, 1819. (DAR 32.2: 77)

Greenough, George Bellas. Anniversary address (1834). Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 2 (1833–8): 44–70. (DAR 37.2: 797).

Griffith, Edward. see Cuvier, Georges

Hall, Basil. Extracts from a journal written on the coasts of Chili, Peru and Mexico for the years 1820, 1821, 1822. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1824. (DAR 37.1: 662).

Hawkesworth, John. An account of the voyages undertaken . . . for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere . . . performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook in the Dolphin, the Swallow and the Endeavour drawn from the journals which were kept by the several commanders and from the papers of Joseph Banks . . . 3 vols. London, 1773. (DAR 31.2: 349v.).

§ Head, Francis Bond. Rough notes taken during some rapid journeys across the Pampas and among the Andes. London, 1826. (DAR 36.1: 469v.). Darwin Library–Down.

‡ Henslow, John Stevens. Geological description of Anglesea. Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 1, pt 2 (18): 359–452. (DAR 33: 217–22; Red notebook, pp. 5e, 7e, etc.). Darwin Library–CUL ††.

Horsburgh, James. Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, New Holland, Cape of Good Hope and the interjacent ports. 2 pts. London, 1809–11. (DAR 30.1: 2v.).

‡ Humboldt, Alexander von. Essai géognostique sur le gisement des roches dans les deux hémisphères. 2d ed. Paris, Strasbourg, 1826. (DAR 32.1: 56v.). Darwin Library–CUL †.

Humboldt, Alexander von. Fragmens de géologie et de climatologie asiatiques. 2 vols. Paris, 1831. (DAR 35.2: 401; Stoddart 1962, p. 22a). Darwin Library–CUL.

* Humboldt, Alexander von. Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of the new continent . . . 1799–1804 . . . translated into English by Henrietta Maria Williams. 7 vols. London. 1814–29. (Vols. 1 and 2, in one, 3d edition, inscribed from J. S. Henslow to CD ‘on his departure’, September 1831). Darwin Library–CUL ††.

* Humboldt, Alexander von. Political essay on the kingdom of New Spain. Translated by John Black. 2 vols. New York, 1811. (Inscription, both volumes: ‘Chas Darwin Buenos Ayres’). Darwin Library–CUL.

Jones, Thomas. A companion to the mountain barometer. 2d ed. London, n.d. [1802]. (Letter to Robert FitzRoy, [10 October 1831]). DAR 196.2 †.

* Juan, George and Ulloa, Antonio de. A voyage to South America . . . Translated by John Adams. 2 vols. 4th ed. London, 1806. (Inscription in vol. 1: ‘Robt FitzRoy to Charles Darwin’; Red notebook, pp. 75, 105e, 106e). Darwin Library–CUL, vol. 1 only.

King, Philip Parker. Narrative of a survey of the intertropical and western coasts of Australia (includes: Fitton, William. An account of some geological specimens . . .). 2 vols. London, 1827. (DAR 38.2: 867v.; ‘Geology’, by W. Fitton, Red notebook, p. 6e).

* King, Philip Parker. Description of the Cirrhipedia, Conchifera and Mollusca in a collection formed . . . 1826–30. Zoological Journal 5 (1832–4). (Inscribed ‘Charles Darwin Esq from the Author Dunheved Jan 26 1836’). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL.

King, Philip Parker. Manuscript journal of voyages of Adventure and Beagle, later published as vol. 1 of Narrative. (DAR 30.1: 66; 30.2: 153).

King, Philip Parker. Some observations upon the geography of the southern extremity of South America. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 1 (1832): 155–175. (DAR 32.1: 120v.). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL †.

Kirby, William and Spence, William. An introduction to entomology. 4 vols. London, 1815–26. (DAR 30.2: 119; 30.1: 54v.). Darwin Library–CUL, vol. 1, 3d ed.; vol.2, 2d ed.; vols. 3 and 4, 1st ed. ††.

§ Kotzebue, Otto von. A voyage of discovery, into the South Sea and Beering’s Straits . . .Translated by H. E. Lloyd. 3 vols. London, 1821. (Narrative 2: 523).

§ Krusenstern, Adam Johann von (Kruzenshtern, Ivan Fédorovich). Atlas de l’Océan Pacifique dressé par M. de Krusenstern. St Petersburg, 1824–7. (Narrative 2: 506).

§ Krusenstern, Adam Johann von. Recueil de mémoires hydrographiques pour servir d’analyse et d’explication à l’Atlas de l’océan Pacifique. 2 vols. St Petersburg, 1827. (Narrative 2: 506).

Labillardière, Jacques Julien Houton de. Relation du voyage à la recherche de La Pérouse . . . 2 vols. Paris, [1799–1800]. (Red notebook, pp. 5e, 12). Darwin Library–Down.

Lacordaire, Jean Théodore. Mémoire sur les habitudes des coléoptères de l’Amérique méridionale. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 20 (1830): 185–291; 21 (1830): 149–194. (DAR 30.1: 59). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL †.

‡ Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. 7 vols. Paris, 1815–22. (DAR 30.1: 45v.). Darwin Library–CUL †.

‡ Lamouroux, Jean Vincent Félix. Exposition méthodique des genres de l’ordre des polypiers. Paris, 1821. (DAR 30.1: 13v.; letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834). Darwin Library–CUL †.

La Pérouse, Jean François de Galaup de. A voyage round the world performed in the years 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788, by the Boussole and Astrolabe . . . 2 vols., atlas. London, 1798–9. (Red notebook, p. 15e).

‡ Latreille, Pierre André. Vols. 4 and 5, Crustacés, etc., of Cuvier, Georges, Le règne animal. (DAR 30.1: 48v.). Darwin Library–CUL, 2d edition.

Lesson, René-Primevère. See also Duperrey, L. I.

Lesson, René-Primevère. Manuel de mammalogie. Paris, 1827. (DAR 31.1: 236, where it is confused with Rang, see below). Darwin Library–Down.

Lesson, René-Primevère. Manuel d’ornithologie. 2 vols. Paris, 1828. (DAR 30.2: 182v., 184). Darwin Library–Down.

* Lyell, Charles. Principles of geology . . . 3 vols. London, 1830–3. (Inscriptions: vol. 1 (1830), ‘Given me by Capt. F.R C. Darwin’; vol.2 (1832), ‘Charles Darwin M: Video. Novemr. 1832’; vol. 3 (1833): ‘C. Darwin’; letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834). Darwin Library–CUL † (vols. 1 and 2).

Mackintosh, James. The history of England. Volume one. London, 1830. (Robert FitzRoy’s letter to the South African Christian Recorder, 28 June 1836, Collected papers 1: 20). Darwin Library–CUL.

Martineau, Harriet. ‘A few little books written by Miss Martineau’. (Letter from Caroline Darwin, 28 October [1833]).

Maskelyne, Nevil. Tables requisite to be used with the nautical ephemeris. 3d ed. London, 1802. (Notes on fly-leaf: ‘Taken from Jones’ (see Jones, T.)). Darwin Library–CUL †.

* Mawe, John. Travels in the gold and diamond districts of Brazil. London, 1825. (Inscription: ‘Chas. Darwin Octob: 1832 Buenos Ayres’; DAR 33: 160). Darwin Library–CUL.

Maximilian, Prince of Wied-Neuwied. Travels in Brazil in the years 1815, 1816, and 1817. 3 vols. London, 1820. (DAR 32.1: 51v.).

Michell, John. Conjectures concerning the cause . . . of earthquakes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 51 (1760): 566–634. (Red notebook, p. 80). Darwin Library–CUL †.

Miers, John. Travels in Chile and La Plata . . . 2 vols. London, 1826. (DAR 31.2: 319; letter to Robert Fitzroy, 28 August 1834). Darwin Library–CUL †.

Milton, John. Paradise lost. (’Beagle’ diary, p. 107; letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 November 1832).

* Molina, Juan Ignacio. Compendio de la historia geografica natural y civil del Reyno de Chile. Part 1. Madrid, 1794; (Compendio de la historia civil del Reyno de Chile). Part 2. Madrid, 1795. (Inscription: ‘Charles Darwin Valparaiso 1834’). Darwin Library–CUL ††.

* Murray, Lindley. An English grammar. 2 vols. 5th ed. York, 1824. (Inscription: ‘Robt. FitzRoy 1831’). Darwin Library–CUL †.

§ Narborough, John. An account of several late voyages. 2 parts. London, 1694. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834).

§ New Testament (Greek). (’Beagle’ diary, p. 14).

New Testament (German). (Signed ‘C. Darwin H.M.S. Beagle’. Copy examined by Sydney Smith c. 1968. Quentin Keynes).

Nuñez, Ignacio Benito. An account . . . of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata. London, 1825. (DAR 33: 269v.).

Owen, William Fitz William. Narrative of voyages to explore the shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar . . . 2 vols. London, 1833. (Red notebook, p. 64).

Pernety, Antoine Joseph. Journal historique d’un voyage fait aux Îles Malouines en 1763–4.2 vols. Paris, 1770. (DAR 32.2: 132v.). Darwin Library–CUL, Berlin 1769 ed. †† (vol. 2).

Phillips, William. Elementary introducton to . . . mineralogy . . . London, 1816. (Letter from J. S. Henslow, 22 July 1834; Red notebook, p. 89). Darwin Library–CUL, 4th ed., 1837.

‡ Playfair, John. Illustrations of the Huttonian theory of the earth. Edinburgh and London, 1802. (DAR 34.1: 92v.). Darwin Library–CUL ††.

Quoy, Jean René Constant and Gaimard, Joseph Paul. Zoologie, vol. 1 of Freycinet, Louis Claude Desaulses de, Voyage . . . (Stoddart 1962, p. 14).

Rang, Sander. Manuel de l’histoire naturelle des mollusques et leurs coquilles. Paris, 1829. (DAR 30.1: 30). Darwin Library–CUL.

* Richardson, Samuel. The history of Sir Charles Grandison . . . 7 vols. London, 1781. (Vols. 3–7 inscribed ‘Chas. Darwin Buenos Ayres Sept. 1833’). CUL Adv.d.79.22–6.

§ Rivero, Mariano de. Memoria sobre el rico mineral de Pasco, pp. 70–101 of Memoriales des ciencias naturales (DAR 37.1: 690). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL.

Roussin, Albin-René. Le pilote du Brésil, ou description des côtes de l’Amérique méridionale . . . Paris, 1826. (DAR 32.1: 1, 2).

[Saint Pierre, Jacques Henri Bernardin de]. Voyage à l’Isle de France, . . . par un officier du Roi. Amsterdam, 1773. (DAR 31.2: 362v.; 38.1: 887).

Scrope, George Julius Poulett. Considerations on volcanos . . . London, 1825. (DAR 35.2: 381). Darwin Library–Down.

Spanish–English Dictionary. (Probably Neuman and Baretti, Dictionary of the Spanish and English languages. 2 vols. 5th ed. London, 1831. Darwin Library–CUL, vol. 1 only.).

* Spix, Johann Baptist von and Martius, Carl Frederick Philip von. Travels in Brazil in the years 1817–1820. 2 vols. London, 1824. (Inscription in vol. 2: ‘Chas. Darwin Octob: 1832 Buenos Ayres’; DAR 32.1: 7). Darwin Library–CUL † (vol.2).

Stephens, James Francis. Description of Chiasognathus Grantii a new lucanideous insect . . . Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 4 (1833): 209–17. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834).

‡ Syme, Patrick. Werner’s nomenclature of colours with additions, arranged so as to render it highly useful to the arts and sciences . . . 2d ed. Edinburgh, 1821. (DAR 30.1: 30). Darwin Library–CUL.

Thompson, John Vaughan. Zoological researches and illustrations. Vol. 1, Pt 1. Cork, 1828–30. (DAR 30.2: 133v.).

Turnbull, John. A voyage round the world in the years 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804 . . . London, 1805. (Robert FitzRoy’s letter to the South African Christian Recorder, 28 June 1836, Collected papers 1: 28).

Turner, Sharon. The sacred history of the world . . . Vol. 1. London, 1832. (DAR 30.1: 2v.; letter to J. M. Herbert, 2 June 1833).

Ulloa, A. de. See Juan, G. and Ulloa, A. de.

Volney, Constantin François Chasseboeuf. Voyage en Syrie et Égypt pendant les années 1783, 1784 et 1785. 2 vols. 2d ed. Paris, 1787. (Red notebook, pp. 8e, 52).

Wallis, Samuel. An account of a voyage round the world in the years 1766, 1767, and 1768, in Hawkesworth, John An account of the voyages . . . London, 1773. (Robert FitzRoy’s letter to the South African Christian Recorder, 28 June 1836, Collected papers 1: 26).

Webster, William Henry Bayley. Narrative of a voyage to the southern Atlantic Ocean, in the years 1828, 29, 30, performed in H.M. Sloop Chanticleer . . . 2 vols. London, 1834. (DAR 32.1: 7; Red notebook, p. 33e).

Weddell, James. A voyage towards the South Pole performed in the years 1822–24.London, 1825. (DAR 32.2: 109v.).

Werner, G. See Syme, P.

[Whateley, Richard]. A view of the Scripture revelations concerning a future state . . . by a country pastor [R. W.]. London, 1829. (Letter from Caroline Darwin, 28 October [1833]).

§ Whewell, William. Essay towards a first approximation to a map of cotidal lines.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 123 (1833): 147–236. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, March 1834; Narrative 2 (Appendix): 227). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL.

§ Wood, James. Elements of algebra. 8th ed. Cambridge, 1825. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, 30 October 1831).

The volumes listed below, though mentioned in the notes or letters, have been omitted from the above list because the evidence that they were on board is not conclusive. The references to some of them may be derived from secondary sources that have not been located.

Administration du Muséum Royal d’Histoire Naturelle. Instruction pour les voyageurs . . . sur la manière de recueillir de conserver et d’envoyer les objets d’histoire naturelle. Paris, 1818. ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL †.

Buckland, William. Considerations of the evidences of a recent deluge. Transactions of the Geological Society of London 5 (1821): 516–44. (DAR 34.2: 150v.).

Caldcleugh, Alexander. Geology of the Island of Juan Fernández. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 1 (1834): 21–6. (DAR 35.2: 357).

Carne, Joseph. On the relative age of the veins of Cornwall. Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 2 (1822): 49–128. (Red notebook, p. 20e).

Clarke, A. Narrative of a journey in the interior of China, and of a voyage to and from that country in the years 1816 and 1817. London, 1818. (DAR 38.2: 906).

Dalyell, Thomas. Observations on the Planariae. Edinburgh, 1814. (Voyage, p. 89).

Fox, Robert Were. On the electro-magnetic properties of metalliferous veins in the mines of Cornwall. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 120 (1830): 399–414. (Red notebook, p. 20e).

Hall, Basil. See below, Playfair, John.

Humboldt, Alexander von. Tableaux de la nature. Translation by J. B. B. Eyriès of Ansichten der Natur, 2d ed., 1826. 2 vols. Paris, 1828. (Letter to Catherine Darwin, 5 July [1832]).

Linnaeus, (Carl von Linné). [?Systema Vegetabilium] Ed. 15a. Göttingen, 1797. (Letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832]). Darwin Library–Down.

Lister, Joseph Jackson. Some observatons on the structure and functions of tubular and cellular Polypi, and of Ascidiæ. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London126 (1834): 365–88. (Red notebook, p. 24; CD refers to the author as ‘L. Jackson’).

Playfair, John. Account of the structure of the table mountain, and other parts of the Peninsula of the Cape. Drawn up by Professor Playfair, from observations made by Captain Basil Hall, . . . Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 7 (1815): 269–78. (DAR 38.2: 906).

[‘Proteus’]. The Bahama Islands. United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine 3 (1834): 215–26. (Red notebook, p. 27).

Sarmiento de Gambo<a, Pedro. Viage al estrecho de Magallanes. Madrid, 1768. (‘Vide (Sarmiento Viage) Spanish edition’ in Syms Covington, MS ‘Journal 1831–6’, p. 30; Mitchell Library, Sydney, N. S. W.). Darwin Library–Down.

Southey, Robert. History of Brazil. London, 1810–19. (Robert FitzRoy’s letter to the South African Christian Recorder, 28 June 1836, Collected papers 1: 22–3).

Taxidermy.(Letter to Susan Darwin, [6 September 1831] ‘A little book, if I have got it in bedroom, Taxidermy’.). Possibly Swainson, William. The naturalist’s guide for collecting and preserving subjects of natural history and botany. London, 1822.

Vancouver,George. A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean . . . 3 vols. London, 1798. (DAR 38.1: 858).

The number of titles in the two lists would come to at least 245 volumes, ranging in size from pamphlets to bulky volumes such as those in the Encyclopædia Britannica, and, depending on how many volumes of the larger sets such as Griffith’s Animal kingdom were on board, the total might be as large as 275. If one allows, conservatively, two inches per volume, approximately 46 linear feet of shelf space would be needed to accommodate them.

About this article

This article has been adapted from The correspondence of Charles Darwin, vol. 1, Appendix IV. The copy of the regulations of the Beagle’s library were transcribed with the permission of the Trustees of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. David Stanbury provided information on FitzRoy’s letters to his sister, and pointed out to the editors of the Correspondence the existence of the Beagle library regulations.

Searchable texts of all these works, and of others that may also have been on board, are now available through Darwin Online.