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From Asa Gray   4 November 1856

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Summary

Outlines the ranges of northern U. S. species common to Europe. Hopes to investigate the resemblances between the floras of the north-eastern U. S. and western Europe. Discusses routes by which alpine plants appear to have reached U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1982

Matches: 7 hits

  • … In his letter to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] , CD had indicated that he considered the …
  • … to range northwards (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). When he received the …
  • … in the margin, ‘dele’. Letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , in which CD referred to the …
  • … which the introduced species belonged (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). A.   …
  • … Gray 1856a. See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , n.  6. Gray refers …
  • … Dalton Hooker with his own letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] . …
  • … D. Hooker] 1856, a review of A.  de Candolle 1855 . CD forwarded Gray’s letter to Joseph …

From Asa Gray   [c. 24 May 1857]

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Summary

Discusses difficulties involved in deciding which genera are protean in the light of some comments by H. C. Watson.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 24 May 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 97
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2104

Matches: 1 hit

  • … had sent CD the third part of A.  Gray 1856–7 (see letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] ). CD …

From Asa Gray   7 July 1857

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Summary

Believes, with CD, that extinction may be an important factor in explaining plant distributions, but sees no reason why the several species of a genus must ever have had a common or continuous area. "Convince me of that, or show me any good grounds for it … and I think you would carry me a good way with you". It is just such people as AG that CD has to satisfy and convince.

Feels that the crossing of individuals is important in repressing variation and perhaps in perpetuating the species, but instances some plants in which it cannot, apparently, take place.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 381; DAR 165: 98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2120

Matches: 1 hit

  • … copy of the third part of A.  Gray 1856–7 (see letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] , and …

From Asa Gray   23 September 1856

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Summary

Plants that are social in the U. S. but are not so in the Old World.

Distribution of U. S. species common to Europe.

Gives Theodor Engelmann’s opinion on the relative variability of indigenous and introduced plants and notes the effects of man’s settlement on the numbers and distribution of indigenous plants.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1959

Matches: 2 hits

  • … andmeteorologist ( DAB ). See letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . ‘Maruta=Anthemis’ was …
  • … is in DAR 135 (3). See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , for CD’s response to this …

From Asa Gray   16 February 1857

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Summary

Discusses the ranges of alpine species in U. S. and considers the possible migration routes of such species from Europe.

Lists those U. S. genera which he considers protean and describes the U. S. character of some genera which are protean in Europe.

Describes how he distinguishes introduced and aboriginal stocks of the same species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Feb 1857
Classmark:  DAR 165: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2053

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 10 December [1856] . See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . Gray’s underscoring has …
  • … Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] and n.  6. See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …

From Asa Gray   1 June 1857

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Summary

Comments on species with disjoined ranges; does not feel, despite CD’s expectations, that they tend to belong to small families.

Gives the proportion of U. S. trees in which the sexes are separate [see Natural selection, p. 62].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 June 1857
Classmark:  DAR 8: 47bA
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2098

Matches: 2 hits

  • … United States in A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  400. See letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] . See …
  • … some notes and a letter from Hewett Cottrell Watson . A.  Gray 1856–7 . See n.  2, above. …

From Asa Gray   [before 3 April 1858]

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Summary

List of close species taken from AG’s Manual of botany [1848].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 3 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2249

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856). Apparently there was also a covering note sent by Gray with this list, which is now lost. CD sent the note on to Joseph Dalton Hooker (see letter

From Asa Gray   22 May 1855

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Summary

Has filled up CD’s paper [see 1674].

Distribution and relationships of alpine flora in U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 May 1855
Classmark:  DAR 106: D1–D2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1685

Matches: 2 hits

  • letter to Asa Gray, 25 April [1855] . The list, with Asa Gray’s remarks written on it, is in DAR 46.2 (ser.  2): 36. A revised edition of A.  Gray 1848  was published in 1856. …
  • 1856  is in the Darwin Library–CUL. An allusion to Joseph Dalton Hooker’s proclivity for ‘lumping’ together plants that other botanists might consider separate species. In his letter

From Asa Gray   [27 and 29 August] and 2 September [1861]

Summary

Gives some observations on the sensitivity of Drosera species and comments on cases of "dioecio-dimorphism".

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 and 29 Aug 1861 and 2 Sept 1861
Classmark:  DAR 110 (ser. 2): 76
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3242

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856, p.  171 n. ). The term had first been defined in Torrey and Gray 1838–43, 1: 38. See also letter

From Asa Gray   [10 July 1860]

Summary

Cases of "dioecio-dimorphism" as in primroses are widespread. AG always considered them the first step toward bisexuality.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [10 July 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 110 (ser. 2): 77
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2819

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856, p.  171 n. ). In CD’s annotated copy of this work (Darwin Library–CUL), this expression is underlined in pencil. CD thanked Gray for these ‘valuable hints’ in the letter

From Asa Gray   24 July 1865

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Summary

Is reading CD’s "Climbing plants".

The Civil War is ended; slavery is dead.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 July 1865
Classmark:  DAR 165: 148
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4877

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856 at the Harvard Botanical Garden ( ANB ). CD had been inspired to study climbing plants after reading a short paper on coiling tendrils by Gray (A.  Gray 1858; see letter

From Asa Gray   11 October 1861

Summary

Notes several cases of "dioecio-dimorphism" in different genera; feels the discovery of pollen that will act only on the pistil of another flower is most important. Believes CD should next turn his attention to investigating cases of "precocious fertilisation".

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Oct 1861
Classmark:  DAR 109: 82–3, DAR 110 (ser. 2): 117, DAR 111: 83
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3282

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter, which was filed separately from the other two portions. It is now in DAR 110 (ser.  2): 117. The botanist John Torrey was the United States assayer in New York. He had recently moved to the campus of Columbia College, New York. Gray 1848–9 . There is an annotated copy of Gray 1856  …
Document type
letter (12)
Author
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Correspondent
Date
1855 (1)
1856 (2)
1857 (4)
1858 (1)
1860 (1)
1861 (2)
1865 (1)
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Re: Design – performance version – 25 March 2007 – 1 Re: Design – Adaptation of the …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Observers |  Fieldwork |  Experimentation |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘ Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Friendship | Mentors | Class | Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Darwin made many changes to the text of Origin across different editions as he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwin’s mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … When I was in spirits I sometimes fancied that my book w d  be successful; but I never even …
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