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Julia Wedgwood


Charles Darwin’s readership largely consisted of other well-educated Victorian men, nonetheless, some women did read, review, and respond to Darwin’s work. One of these women was Darwin’s own niece, Julia Wedgwood, known in the family as “Snow”. In July…

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  • Though Charles Darwins readership largely consisted of other well-educated Victorian men, a
  • to his work. One of the foremost was his niece, Julia Wedgwood. She was the eldest child of
  • novel. Her first important periodical contributions were on Darwin, Lyell, the debate on the origins
  • on religion and Eliots irregular private life. Wedgwoods  The Moral Ideal , the outcome
  • management and free her to devote her time to her work. Emma Darwin was irritated by Wedgwood family
  • of her teachers and the proximity of her uncle Charles Darwin, she ought, she said, “to have been
  • of Science”, about  On the Origin of Species . Wedgwood welcomed Darwins discoveries and sought
  • churchmen were eventually reconciled with Darwinism. Darwin wrote to his niece: “I must tell you how
  • that I find a very rare event with my critics”. ( Charles Darwin to F. J. Wedgwood, 11 July [1861] …
  • of its authorship. (The other was by Alfred Wallace.) In it Wedgwood largely avoided the debate on
  • in animal and human behaviour, particularly in courtship. Darwins emphasis on mans discovery of
  • in Pauline doctrine. In her conclusion she reclaimed Darwin as a Theist. When Fanny Wedgwood
  • of sexual selection] with approbation.” ( Charles and Emma Darwin to F. J. Wedgwood, [March 1871?] …
  • caused great offence to the Darwin sons but was accepted by Emma Darwin, with whom Wedgwood remained

Emma Darwin


Emma Darwin, Charles Darwin's wife and first cousin, was born Emma Wedgwood, the eighth and youngest child of Josiah Wedgwood II and Bessy Allen. Her father was the eldest son of the famous pottery manufacturer, Josiah Wedgwood I. Her mother was one…

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  • Emma Darwin, Charles Darwin's wife and first cousin, was born Emma Wedgwood, the eighth and …
  • … father's eldest sister, Susannah, had married Robert Waring Darwin of Shrewsbury, and had six …
  • … found Maer at times more cheerful than his own home. It was Emma's father he turned to for …
  • … by fields. Eight more children were born (Mary, Henrietta Emma, George Howard, Elizabeth, Francis, …
  • … Charles Waring), and Anne died at the age of 10. Charles and Emma also cared for their grandson …
  • … London to stay with relatives two or three times a year, and Emma also managed to organise holidays …
  • … on the American Civil War). After Charles's death, Emma divided her time between Down …
  • … Horace also lived in Cambridge. Despite the fact that Emma and Charles were rarely separated …
  • … home. A great deal of her correspondence survives in the Darwin Archive–CUL, along with her …

Engagement to Emma Wedgwood


Darwin proposes to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and is accepted

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  • Darwin proposes to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and is accepted …

2.3 Wedgwood medallions


< Back to Introduction Despite Darwin’s closeness to the Wedgwood family, he was studiously uninterested in the productions of his maternal grandfather Josiah Wedgwood I, the immensely successful ceramic manufacturer. In a letter to Hooker of January…

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  • … &lt; Back to Introduction Despite Darwins closeness to the Wedgwood family, he was
  • at Kew, and in the spring of 1863 he borrowed from the Darwin family a Wedgwood medallion of Charles
  • It is therefore extremely unlikely that it was Darwin himself who commissioned the sculptor Thomas
  • production of the medallion: the first wax model portraying Darwin; the plaster mould created from
  • her Life in Letters of her father, dated his model for Wedgwoods Darwin medallion to 1869. …
  • one Woolner design, still exist in the collections of the Wedgwood Museum at Barlaston. Two of them
  • blue jasper with an integral frame like a wreath. Although Darwin wears modern dress, the rather
  • with the allantica concept of Woolners bust of Darwin. At the same time, it harks back to the
  • WE.6132-2016 
 copyright holder V&amp;A Wedgwood collection 
  • bibliography Much information on this work and on other Wedgwood portraits of Darwin has been

List of correspondents


Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

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  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Elizabeth (9) Darwin, Emma (191) …
  • … Hermenegildo (1) Gisborne, Emma (1) …
  • … J.-B. P. (1) Gärtner, Emma (2) …
  • … Niven, James (1) Nixon, Emma (1) …
  • … Peel, Jonathan (5) Pender, Emma (1) …
  • … Elizabeth (11) Wedgwood, Emma (191) …
  • … Wrigley, Alfred (8) Wuttke, Emma (1) …

Women’s scientific participation


Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

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  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Darwin&#039;s daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. &amp; C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • any way he can. Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] …
  • of hillside worm casting ridges. Letter 8169 - Wedgwood, L. to Darwin, [20 January, …
  • on the common. Men: Letter 385  - Wedgwood, S. E. &amp; J. to Darwin, [10
  • summer holiday in Margate. Letter 7433  - WedgwoodF. to Darwin, [9 January
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter

Hensleigh Wedgwood


Hensleigh Wedgwood, Emma Darwin’s brother and Charles’s cousin, was a philologist, barrister and original member of the Philological Society, which had been created in 1842. In 1857, while Wedgwood was preparing a dictionary of English etymology, he wrote…

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  • How can an English bishop and a French évêque help Darwin explain his theories about species and
  • in various other Indo-European languages. Hensleigh Wedgwood, Emma Darwins brother and
  • Society, which had been created in 1842. In 1857, while Wedgwood was preparing a dictionary of
  • with the extinct word episcopus. ” Charles Darwin dropped the bishops, but used the

Dining at Down House


Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

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  • … Questions | Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life …
  • … and they partook in his scientific endeavours. One of Darwin's defining characteristics …
  • … provides into the bright and engaging personalities of the Darwin children and of family life in the …
  • … traveling on horseback while ill. Letter 465 —Emma Wedgwood (Emma Darwin) to Charles …
  • … agreeable” for her sake. Letter 3626 —Emma Darwin to T. G. Appleton, 28 June [1862] …
  • … on the difficulties of finding a suitable cook. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 …
  • … among other things, for Darwin’s complaints. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [14 April …
  • … who was travelling in the south of France at the time, Emma describes typical nineteenth-century …
  • … Scottish medium, Daniel Dunglass Home, with Galton. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 …
  • … taste of Darwin's life at Down House, recreate recipes from Emma Darwin's cookbook and …
  • … food that Darwin ate, using authentic recipes from his wife Emma Darwin’s cookbook. Our menu …
  • … were particularly intrigued by this letter written from Emma to Charles before they were married …

Henrietta Darwin's diary


Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

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  • Charles Darwins daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and
  • 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University
  • excised within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwins letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • scepticism; many of her arguments are reminiscent of Darwins own discussion of religious belief in
  • on a discussion with her cousin, Frances Julia (Snow) Wedgwood, about religion and free will in
  • written one of  Descent  (see letter from Charles and Emma Darwin to F. J. Wedgwood, [March 1871?] …
  • period of their courtship. We are grateful to William Darwin for permission to publish the
  • 6 Laura May Forster . 7 Frances Julia Wedgwood (Snow) and George Eliot. The

Darwin and women: a selection of letters


A shorter version of this film is available on the Cambridge University Press video stream.   Darwin and Women focusses on Darwin's correspondence with women and on the lives of the women he knew and wrote to. It includes a large number of…

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  • University Press video stream .   Darwin and Women focusses on Darwin's
  • number of hitherto unpublished letters between members of Darwin's family and their friends
  • and their relationships, social and professional, with Darwin. The letters included are by turns
  • servants, that set them in an accessible narrative context. Darwin's famous remarks on women& …
  • from the book&#039;s editor, Samantha Evans, in her blogs on &#039; Emma Darwin and women&#039;s



As with many of Darwin’s research topics, his interest in worms spanned nearly his entire working life. Some of his earliest correspondence about earthworms was written and received in the 1830s, shortly after his return from his Beagle voyage, and his…

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  • Questions | Experiment Earthworms and Wedgwood cousins As with many of
  • months before he died in March 1882. In the same way that Darwin cast a wide net when seeking
  • of his own family, in particular his nieces, Lucy and Sophy Wedgwood, the daughters of Emma Darwin& …
  • selection. His book Fertilisation of Orchids (1862) was Darwin's &quot;flank movement
  • was a study of incredible empirical detail that demonstrates Darwin's creative experimental
  • … (be it geology or evolutionary theory) was a subject that Darwin had contemplated from his earliest
  • SOURCES Papers Darwin, C.R. 1840. On the formation of mould. Transactions of the
  • Letters Letter 385 - Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood &amp; Josiah Wedgwood to Darwin, 10
  • were fertilised. Letter 8137 - William Darwin to Charles Darwin, 1 January 1872
  • of stone at Stonehenge. In his reply of two days later, Darwin wrote, “Your letter &amp; facts are
  • 8144 , 8169 , and 8171 - Between Charles Darwin and Lucy Wedgwood, January 1872
  • for her observations. Letter 12745 - Darwin to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October 1880
  • Letter 13406 - Mary Catherine Stanley (Lady Derby) to Darwin, 16 October 1881 Among

The "wicked book": Origin at 157


Origin is 157 years old.  (Probably) the most famous book in science was published on 24 November 1859.  To celebrate we have uploaded hundreds of new images of letters, bringing the total number you can look at here to over 9000 representing more than…

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  • book appeared.   You can now see examples of letters to Darwin from nearly 250 different people, and
  • Lyell , and Joseph Hooker , the two men who arranged for Darwins and Wallaces ideas to be made
  • Asa Gray who was an important sounding board for Darwins emerging ideas, and Thomas Huxley
  • scrap from 1857 comparing his views on species to DarwinsOthers, like Hugh Falconer , …
  • the less well-known scientific collaborators who became Darwin's correspondents, Mary Treat
  • and friends, including letters between Charles and his wife Emma, and several of their children: …
  • Amy  Ruck, was co-opted as an observer in WalesLucy Wedgwood , Darwins neice, was one of
  • of Down in Kent, and a lifelong friend of both Charles and Emma, sent information on pigeons
  • of water thrown over me on rising William Darwin Fox , Charless cousin and another
  • C. Watson J. J. Weir H. W. Bates Hensleigh Wedgwood J. S. Henslow C. S

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms


‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

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  • heart &amp; soul care for worms &amp; nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends
  • divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied, ‘&amp; that about my
  • registry offices, and produced a twenty-page history of the Darwin family reaching back to the
  • the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwins sons George and Leonard also
  • and conciliate a few whose ancestors had not featured in Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to
  • think I must pay a round of visits.’ One cousin, Reginald Darwin, warmed to George: ‘he had been
  • an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, 22 July
  • Butler, 3 January 1880 ). At the top of Butlers letter, Emma Darwin wrote: ‘it means war we think’ …
  • my excitement’ ( letter from Horace Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwins
  • We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ). The
  • October 1880 ). The president of the society explained to Emma that the members of the union wished
  • … …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). In April, …
  • year was marked by the loss of several close family members. Emmas brother Josiah Wedgwood III died
  • Surrey, which became a regular destination for Charles and Emma, and also a site of scientific

What did Darwin believe?


What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of his theory of evolution for religious faith? These questions were asked again and again in the years following the publication of Origin of species (1859). They are…

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  • What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of
  • rhetoric of crusading secularists, many of whom take Darwin as an icon. But Darwin was very
  • Letters became an important medium through which Darwins readers sought to draw him out on matters
  • the religious implications of his work. Letters written to Darwin by persons unknown to him became
  • own. Mary Booles letter In December 1866 Darwin received a letter from Mary Boole, a
  • See the letter Boole, like a number of Darwins readers, found a way of reconciling the
  • with some form of religious belief. But when Boole asks Darwin about specific points of belief, such
  • See the letter In his response to Boole, Darwin implies that certain questions are beyond
  • Science, or by the so calledinner consciousness”’. Darwin does not dismiss different forms of
  • into such territory in this letter to a stranger. Emma Darwin In what is
  • matters many years earlier with his cousin and fiancée, Emma Wedgewood. In their correspondence, …
  • but we gain a sense of what the couple discussed from Emmas words to him: My reason
  • It is clear from other correspondence that one of Emmas most cherished beliefs was in an afterlife. …
  • she means so in eternity. There is a marked tension in Emmas letter between reason and feeling, and
  • to himself, and allowed his differences of belief with Emma to remain for the most part submerged. …
  • members of the Darwin family, offer a fuller perspective on Emmas religious beliefs. The documents
  • over Scriptural or doctrinal authority, as a foundation for Emmas views. They also show that Emmas
  • was another important religious tradition in the Darwin and Wedgwood families. Josiah Wedgwood, who
  • Unitarian school in Shrewsbury. The circle with whom he and Emma socialised when in London included
  • were regular guests of Darwins brother Erasmus, and of Emmas brother, Hensleigh Wedgwood and his
  • liturgy. But we know, from Francis Darwins comments, that Emma used to make the family turn round
  • to recite the creed, with its Trinitarian formula. Emmas copy of the New Testament, …
  • to have been inauthentic, or added by later authors. Emmas Bible also contains some
  • as practical’. Some of the Biblical commentary that Emma and Charles read in this period
  • writer. Wallace, Alfred Russel. Naturalist. Wedgwood, Josiah. Master potter and

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small


In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

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  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • to Fritz Müller, 4 January 1882 ). These were topics that Darwin had been investigating for years, …
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root response and the
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running interest in such
  • experiments had been conducted to lend support to Darwins theory of pangenesis (see
  • He was eager to write up the results on Brazilian cane, with Darwin providing a detailed outline: ‘I
  • at the Linnean Society on 4 May, but not published. Darwin carried on with botanical work in
  • which are asymmetric, thus facilitating cross-fertilisation. Darwins aim, he said, was just to
  • 3 April 1882 ). Earthworms and evolution Darwins last book, Earthworms , had been
  • and was no longer able to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwins death
  • E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March 1882 (DAR 245: 319)) Emma wrote ten days later: ‘You will
  • been a good deal plagued with dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28
  • benefit &amp; he escaped pain entirely yesterday’ (letter from Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, 6 April
  • wrote to George, who had visited Down on 11 April (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242)). ‘Father was taken
  • H. Darwin, [19 April 1882] (DAR 245: 320)). It was left to Emma to convey the sorrowful news to his
  • which I hope were never very violent’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [20 April 1882
  • were not wanting to tell me how you felt for meHope [Wedgwood] expresses a feeling that I should
  • they were the most overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882
  • was eagerly awaited by his family, including his cousin Emma Wedgwood. In long letters to her sister
  • plied him with questions without any mercy’ ( letter from Emma Wedgwood to F. E. E. Wedgwood, [28

Casting about: Darwin on worms


Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

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  • for plants to flourish can be traced back to the last book Darwin wrote, snappily-titled The
  • on their habits, which was published in 1881. Despite Darwins fears that a book on earthworms might
  • out in his Natural History of Selborne of 1789 (a book Darwin claimed hadmuch influence on my
  • a new field in natural history, and almost a century later Darwin argued that all fields had passed
  • had been inspired by observations made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood of the uniform structure of the
  • variety of strange things he persuaded people to do. Darwin concluded that worms had no sense
  • a metal whistle and to being shouted at, but also to Francis Darwin playing the bassoon, and to Emma
  • realising that this negative evidence was also valuable to Darwin. Thomas Henry Farrer , …
  • existence of worms at that altitude. By the 1870s, Darwin was also drawing on the work of
  • him. Soon worm excrement was trusted to postal services, and Darwin acquired casts from India and
  • observations he had gathered to write a book on the subject. Darwin brought to the topic the
  • bigger souls than anyone wd suppose’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] (CUL DAR 210.6: …

1.2 George Richmond, marriage portrait


< Back to Introduction Few likenesses of Darwin in his youth survive, although more may once have existed. In a letter of 1873 an old Shrewsbury friend, Arthur Mostyn Owen, offered to send Darwin a watercolour sketch of him, painted many years…

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  • … &lt; Back to Introduction Few likenesses of Darwin in his youth survive, although more
  • old Shrewsbury friend, Arthur Mostyn Owen, offered to send Darwin a watercolour sketch of him, …
  • is unknown.   Thus the surviving portraits of Darwin as a young manother than cartoon
  • House, celebrated his marriage in January 1839 to his cousin Emma Wedgwood; the one of Darwin is
  • work can be gauged from a letter which Hooker wrote to Darwin some years later, complaining, with
  • But despite this tendency to prettify, Richmond registered Darwins receding hairline, and the
  • theories.   As early as February 1839, Elizabeth Wedgwood had written to her sister Emma: ‘My
  • Italyor would a portrait by Holmes be preferable?’ Emma in response promised, ‘I will go and get
  • not return from Italy until August or September 1839. Josiah Wedgwood himself wrote to his daughter
  • portraits dating from 1840 which is now at Down House had a Darwin family provenance. After Susan
  • arrangingto send you Richmonds pictures of self and Emma’: ‘selfpresumably means Charles, and
  • and from this he established the dates of various Darwin family commissions. In 1840 there were
  • Erasmus was entered separately at £31 10 s .) andMrs. Darwin’, and this must be the Down House
  • of twelve guineas for a second portrait ofMrs Charles Darwinfollowed in 1842. Perhaps this
  • in format and composition to the documented 1840 portrait of Darwin is also at Down House
  • lent Richmonds watercolour drawings of Charles and Emma, with a note that the one of Charles had an
  • … – the only one she knew aboutto 1840. However, in Emma Darwin: A Century of Family Letters
  • Murray, 1887), vol. 3, p. 371. Henrietta Litchfield (ed.), Emma Darwin: A Century of Family
  • University Press, 1933), frontispiece. Barbara and Hensleigh Wedgwood, The Wedgwood Circle 1730

Darwin’s observations on his children


Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

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  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • period but in far less detail. By September 1844, Henrietta Emma was one year old, and there are a
  • 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It appears to have been Emma who resumed the observations on the
  • the notebook and, with the exception of two brief entries by Emma, made all the notes until July
  • certainly during first fortnight at sudden sounds. &amp; at Emmas moving 3 [11]  When
  • … &amp; inwards as in sleep.[14] Six weeks old &amp; 3 days, Emma saw him smilenot only with
  • his eyes becoming fixed &amp; the movements of his arms ceasing. Emma argues that his smiles were
  • made in the little noises he was uttering that he recognized Emma by sight when she came close to
  • been caused by the novelty of the situation producing fear. Emma thinks that when he was vaccinated
  • whole expression appearing pleased.— Recognizes Emma Anne &amp; myself perfectlydoes not find
  • was called.— 29 th . Cried at the sight of Allen Wedgwood[32Is able to catch hold of a
  • Ladywere repeated.— 26 th . Cried, when Emma left off playing the pianoforte.— Did this
  • Anny says Papa pretty clearly—[40A few days ago Emma gave her doll, but she sensibly shuddered, …
  • to play with in farther part of room, she immediately led Emma by the hand towards the tea-chest. I
  • on quite suddenly.—[43] On the 13 th . of March Emma positively ascertained that what the
  • things &amp; when choleric he will hurl books or sticks at Emma. About a month since; he was running
  • … “oh kind Doddy” “kind Doddy”— April 2 d . Emma had left her handkerchief on the other side
  • th ——42. Willys observation on dress very curious: Emma put on a pair of boots, which she had not
  • the first day I put on a new dull-coloured trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet
  • … &amp; then gave him a kiss.— Nov. /54/ Whenever Emma or I came home from a journey, Lenny has
  • … [6Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  …

Natural Science and Femininity


Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

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  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, R. W., [31 August 1831] Darwin
  • professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., [8 &amp; 26
  • and taking in the aesthetic beauty of the world around him. Darwin describes thestrikingcolour
  • made up of meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to
  • an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May 1860] Doubleday
  • borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [12 July 1860] …
  • saw anything so beautiful”. Letter 4230 - Darwin to GardenersChronicle, [2 July 1863] …
  • thedelicate siliceous shellsmight at least provide Darwin with aesthetic pleasure. …
  • in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …

The death of Anne Elizabeth Darwin


Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851.   Emma was heavily pregnant with their fifth son, Horace, at the time and could not go with Charles when he took Annie to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully.…

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  • We have lost the joy of the Household Charles and Emma Darwins eldest daughter, Annie, …
  • to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully. Darwin wrote a memorial of his daughter
  • recorded her own reactions in a poignant set of notes, which Emma Darwin kept. Links to a
  • and illness follow the transcriptions. Charles Darwins memorial of Anne Elizabeth
  • over any story at all melancholy; or on parting with Emma even for the shortest interval. Once when
  • this showed itself in never being easy without touching Emma, when in bed with her, &amp; quite
  • dressed herself up in a silk gown, cap, shawl &amp; gloves of Emma, appearing in figure like a
  • over  ‘y. 4 An interlineation in pencil in Emma Darwins hand reads: ‘Mamma: what shall
  • death To W. D. Fox, [ 27 March 1851 ] To Emma Darwin,  [17 April 1851] …
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