Anatomist and surgeon. Best known for his investigations of the nervous system and the expression of emotions in humans. Illustrated his own works. Co-owner of and principal lecturer at the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy, London, 1814–25. Surgeon at the Middlesex Hospital, 1812–36. Professor of surgery, Edinburgh University, 1836. Knighted, 1831. FRS 1826.
Record of the Royal Society of London.