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Letter 799

Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R.

12 Dec 1844

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    Thanks for pleasant stay at Down.

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    Remarks on boulders found on southern islands.

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    Describes the alpine character of the Andes flora and relays information on other mountain floras.

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    Quotes instances of seeds that retained their vitality after being carried by ocean currents.

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    Sends notes on the comparative floras of New Zealand, Australia, and west coast of South America.

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    Encloses a copy of part of a letter from George Gardner in Ceylon concerning the European character of the mountain flora.


West Park Kew

Dec 12 1844.

My dear Darwin

In the first place let me thank Mrs Darwin & yourself for the great kindness you shewed me during my most pleasant stay at Down, & which made me regret leaving you so soon very much indeed. In Miss Darwin I found a most pleasant companion to London; I hope that she did not suffer from the cold in the railway carriage.

I did not see Mr Brown at the Brit. Mus., but my Father went soon afterwards, & took the Agate to him: he is enchanted with it, & says it is very valuable & curious,—that it is either animal or vegetable!—but that is all; so I cannot give you much news about it: I am however to assure you of his gratitude— Curious I grant it looks, but I must confess I cannot see what analogies it has to make it so very interesting as he finds it.—

Neither Robertson nor McCormick in their accounts of the South allude to Boulders in Kerg. Land or elsewhere. The collections, I believe at the Geogolog. Soc., will however throw some light on the subject of Kerg. Land ones I am sure; & I shall rout them out next week if I can. From Cockburn Isld.. (a conical volcano xtinct in 64 ’ 12' S & 57 E.) I have rocks of 6 or 8 kinds, from Scoriæ up to harder things, including Gneiss, & perhaps Granite, which must have been transported there: would you like a look at the Specimens?, if so I will leave them at the Geolog. Soc. & meet you there one day. I have laid out a piece of Kerg. wood to get cut & shall report to you when done. Also another very curious nodule, apparently containing fossils, from Cockburn Islds I enclose a little V. D. L. Fossil wood for your microscope to see the glandular tissue. Stretetski will tell you all about it if you shd see him—

I enclose a copy of the part of Gardners Ceylon letter, mentioning the Europæan plants on the MtsGentiana prostrata H.B.K. is the one with the xtraordinary range, which I have thus stated “In Europe it inhabits the Carinthian Alps, between 6000 & 9000 ft. In Asia Altai Mts in Lat 52. In America the tops of Rocky Mts Lat. 52o (where they reach 15–16000 ft.) & is also found on E. side of Andes of S. Am in 35 S. It descends to the level of the sea at Cape Negro in 53. & at Cape Good Hope in Behrings Straits in 6812N.—” These are the authentic stations I have gathered together, there are doubtless lots more.

Anisotome is not the plant I was thinking of, in which the rudimentary female organ, though generally present, is sometimes wholly wanting. I cannot at present think what it is, but shall not forget the subject.

Brown certainly in Congo, seems to think the Banana indigenous only to East Asia, but a Mr Ward; a Mexican Consul, who dined here yesterday, assures me that it is wild there & ripens its fruit also—.— Lumley in Chancery Lane has all Flinders' voyage, I shall be passing next week & ask the price. I cannot hear of Ann. Sc. Nat. to be picked up.— Sloane in Phil. Trans. mentions the seeds picked up on the coast of Ireland, which vegetated afterwards; at least so says Gray of Brit. Mus. but I do not find it there. In Brown's Congo he says “I have no doubt that the nature of the integuments of the seeds of Abrus precatorius & Guillandina Bonduc would enable them to retain their vitality for a very long time in the currents of the ocean,” & adds a note—Sir J. Banks received a drawing of Guillandina Bonduc, raised from seed found on W. coast of Ireland” (this is what I was thinking of.) also Linnæus is acquainted with similar instances of germination of seeds thrown on coast of Norway,” vid. Coloniæ plant.— We have seeds of Entada Gigalobium (old Mimosa scandens ), thrown up on beach of Orkney & W. Ireland the seed is large flat 2 inches in diam. & comes from Carribees, it never germinated or was tried that I know of.

I send you for perusal Bot. Journal with Watson's Azores journal. 3 Nos of Tasm. Phil. Journal with Colenso on Caves & bones of N. Z. & other perhaps interesting papers. A few numbers of Silliman which are highly fossiliferous & contain other matters of interest.— Also one or two other little things I promised.

I am not yet prepared to give any further analogies between Juan Fernandez & St Helena Floras', but shall remember the subject. Anent Mt Floras I have nothing to say, but if I meet any account of those of the E Ind. Islds shall remember it. all I can at present refer to are Gardner's Ceylon letter, (mentioned above) Wights letters from Nylgherries alt. 5500 ft., who mentions incidentally Clematis, Circæa, Ranunculi, Geranium, Stellaria, Cerastium, Docks, Potentilla, a Rose, Galium, Rubia, Pedicularis, Osmunda Ophioglossum Vaccinium? Berberis.

Bishop Selwyn's Journal is at Hampstead, I will send it you when returned.

The Quantity of Europæan Genera throughout the Andes, especially the Tropical one's, is quite amazing. I know of no other Mts more characteristically alpine in their Flora—Gentian's, Drabas & other Cruciferæ, Caryophylleæ are there as fully represented as in the Alps, & are characteristic of both.— I know of no materials for a comparison of similar Tropical heights with these, we know so little of the Alps of Java, even if they be high enough. A Botanist from the R. Gardens is now exploring the heights of Sta Martha, which ought to bear on Humboldt's statement; when his collections come I will tell you the result.

Schombugk came here today P.P.C. he meets Humboldt in Paris I wrote to the latter with some books my father had for him. I told him you were better wh he will I am sure be glad to know. I asked Schombugk if he should see Dieffenbach to mention, incidentally, that your wood-cuts &c were not in England, am I right? It is no joke losing such xpensive things.—

I send you some notes on Comparative Floras of N.Z. Terra Australis & S. Am West coast; it is very imperfect & I should be deeply obliged if would have the goodness to suggest how it could be clearer stated. I have reexamined many of the Lycopodium's & delivered a verdict in the Antarct. Flora of wh I will send a proof sheet to Down when printed.

I mention, in a letter home, that Robertson found a boulder of Syenitic granite in Kerg. Land. I have come across a slight notice of the Stream of Stones & am inclined to think I thought it more extraordinary at the time than I did a few nights ago, the lower part is very broad; I think I can hunt up some other account yet. What a curious thing if my ideas should change per se, like some species, in going from one country to another.

Ross wrote me yesterday that he had found some notes apparently mine!!! I have read Miss Martineau's mesmerism & would not engage that little Servant-maid with any character Miss M. would give her.—

I have not yet compared the fossil leaves with the recent, but have laid out the latter to do so.

Galapago Flora is progressing

Henslowe spent parts of Tuesday & Wednesday here. Do you know of his finding 4 Whales ear-bones in the Crag. Owen says 2 are types of N. Whales & 2 of South. Also Coprolites which are using as Guano from the abundance of Phosphate of Lime they contain.

I hope Mrs Darwin will do me the honor of accepting a copy of Backhouse's Cape & Mauritius book; it, with the others, goes down by tomorrow's, Saturday's, coach. You need be in no hurry about returning them, The Sillimans' we send to V. D. Land in a few months. We always have two copies & if you care, we could regularly let you have a months reading of one of them.

With kind regards to Mrs Darwin Believe me Ever | Your's Jos D Hooker.

Tahiti & Owhyhee comparisons are commenced.

The only Bourbon Flora is Bory's quatre-Isles de'Afrique I will look at it.

    Footnotes Add

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    f1 799.f1
    For CD's notes on topics discussed during Hooker's visit to Down see Correspondence vol. 3, Appendix III. Hooker refers to several of these topics in this letter.
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    f2 799.f2
    Susan Elizabeth Darwin, CD's sister.
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    f3 799.f3
    Robertson 1841, McCormick 1841 and 1842.
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    f4 799.f4
    Rough rocks formed at the cooling surface of molten lava.
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    f5 799.f5
    Paul Edmund de Strzelecki.
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    f6 799.f6
    George Gardner was superintendent of the botanic gardens, Ceylon, in 1844. A copy of part of Gardner's letter made by Hooker is in DAR 74: 141, accompanied by CD's notes on Gardner 1846. The copied excerpt describes European species on the mountains of Ceylon.
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    f7 799.f7
    J. D. Hooker 1844–7, p. 56.
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    f8 799.f8
    Robert Brown disputed Alexander von Humboldt's claim that there were species of banana in America (Brown 1818, pp. 469–71).
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    f9 799.f9
    William Robert Ward, chargé d'affaires in Mexico in 1843.
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    f10 799.f10
    Flinders 1814. The third appendix, on the botany of Australia, is by Robert Brown, naturalist to the voyage.
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    f11 799.f11
    Sloane 1696, p. 299 (misprinted in the volume as p. 399). Hans Sloane reported that one of these beans had been cast up on the coast of Kerry in Ireland, but did not mention their being grown in either Ireland or the Orkneys.
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    f12 799.f12
    Brown 1818, p. 481; Linnaeus 1768.
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    f13 799.f13
    Watson 1843–7.
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    f14 799.f14
    Hooker made William Colenso's acquaintance in 1841 while in New Zealand. The fossil bird Dinornis is discussed in Colenso 1843.
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    f15 799.f15
    Silliman's Journal: the American Journal of Science and Arts founded and edited by Benjamin Silliman.
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    f16 799.f16
    Robert Wight, superintendent of the botanic garden at Madras.
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    f17 799.f17
    Selwyn 1844, which had probably been lent to Hooker's aunt and uncle, Elizabeth and Francis Palgrave, who lived in Hampstead.
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    f18 799.f18
    Probably the claim, made in Humboldt 1814–29, 3: 494, that there are distinct species of the alpine genus Bejaria in the mountains near Caraccas, Bogota, and Santa Fé in Chile, which supported his general argument that the species present on alpine peaks are different from those of the surrounding plains.
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    f19 799.f19
    Robert Hermann Schomburgk.
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    f20 799.f20
    Pour prendre congé.
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    f21 799.f21
    Materials for the German edition of Journal of researches (1844), which Ernst Dieffenbach translated.
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    f22 799.f22
    J. D. Hooker 1844–7, pp. 112–17. See letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 November 1844.
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    f23 799.f23
    John Robertson was surgeon on board H.M.S. Terror during James Clark Ross's Antarctic voyage; Hooker was assistant-surgeon in the companion ship Erebus.
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    f24 799.f24
    In Journal of researches, p. 254, CD describes ‘myriads of great angular fragments of … quartz rock’ covering the bottom of the Falkland Islands' valleys as a ‘stream of stones’. McCormick 1842, p. 27, mentions ‘vast quantities of debris which have accumulated at the base of the hills’.
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    f25 799.f25
    James Clark Ross was provided with various materials by Hooker for his account of the Antarctic voyage, J. C. Ross 1847.
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    f26 799.f26
    Martineau 1845, p. 9. When her regular mesmerist could not attend the author, a maid successfully mesmerised her.
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    f27 799.f27
    The Crag is an East Anglian formation of shelly sand, traditionally placed in the Pliocene. The whale fossils are described in Henslow 1845a and R. Owen 1845. Henslow later retracted: the whale bones were from the much older deposits of Eocene London clay (Henslow 1847). Henslow had informed CD of his discovery (see Correspondence vol. 2, letter from J. S. Henslow, 17 October 1843).
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    f28 799.f28
    Henslow 1845b.
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    f29 799.f29
    Backhouse 1844 describes visits to colonial mission stations.
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    f30 799.f30
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    f31 799.f31
    Bory de Saint-Vincent 1804.
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    f32 799.f32
    See Correspondence vol. 3, Appendix III, CD's notes of 8 December 1844, in which rudimentary and abortive organs of an unidentified umbelliferous plant are discussed.
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