Scottish statesman and author of works on science, religion, and politics. A defender of the concept of design in nature. Chancellor of St Andrews University, 1851. President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1861. Privy seal, 1853–5, 1859–60, 1860–6, and 1880–1; postmaster-general, 1855–8 and 1860; secretary of state for India, 1868–74. Succeeded to dukedom in 1847. FRS 1851.
(See the bibliography for full references to sources)