Entomologist. Emigrated to the United States circa 1859. Worked as a livestock farmer in Illinois. Wrote and illustrated for the Prairie Farmer in Chicago, 1863–8; served in a volunteer regiment in 1864. State entomologist of Missouri, 1868–76. Became a US citizen in 1869. Chief of the Department of the Interior’s US Entomological Commission, 1877–82. Entomologist with the Division of Entomology of the Department of Agriculture, 1878, 1881–94. Appointed honorary curator of the Department of Insects of the Smithsonian Institution, 1881. Organised the American Association of Economic Entomologists, 1889.
Sources: ANB. (See the bibliography for full references to sources)