English-born German physiologist. Studied medicine and natural science at Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, and Vienna. PhD, Heidelberg, 1862. Habilitated at Bonn, 1865. MD, Jena, 1866. Professor of physiology, Jena 1869; Berlin, 1888–94. Worked mainly on developmental physiology. A proponent of science teaching in schools.
Sources: DBE. (See the bibliography for full references to sources)