To Julius von Haast 27 February 1
Down Bromley Kent
My dear Dr Haast
I have thought that you might know some Missionary, protector2 or colonist who associates with the Natives any where in N. Zealand & who wd at your request oblige me by making a few observations on their expression of countenance when excited by 〈va〉rious emotions. Perhaps you might have some opportunity yourself of observing. I should be most grateful for any, however small, information, & I enclose some queries for this purpose. You must not take much trouble but I believe you will aid me if you can. I have sent copies of these queries to various parts of the world for I am greatly interested on the subject.3
I hope your geological investigations continue to be as interesting as they have hitherto been.4
Believe me | my dear Dr Haast— | yours sincerely | Ch. Darwin
Queries about Expression.
1. Is astonishment expressed by the eyes and mouth being opened wide and by the eye-brows being raised?
2. Does shame excite a blush, when the colour of the skin allows it to be visible?
3. When a man is indignant or defiant does he frown, hold his body and head erect, square his shoulders and clench his fists?
4. When considering deeply on any subject, or trying to understand any puzzle, does he frown, or wrinkle the skin beneath the lower eyelids?
5. When in low spirits, are the corners of the mouth depressed, and the inner corner or angle of the eyebrows raised by that muscle which the French call the “Grief muscle”?
6. When in good spirits do the eyes sparkle, with the skin round and under them a little wrinkled and with the mouth a little drawn back?
7. When a man sneers or snarls at another, is the corner of the upper lip over the canine teeth raised on the side facing the man whom he addresses?
8. Can a dogged or obstinate expression be recognized, which is chiefly shewn by the mouth being firmly closed, a lowering brow and a slight frown?
9. Is contempt expressed by a slight protusion of the lips and turning up of the nose, with a slight expiration?
10. Is disgust shewn by the lower lip being turned down, the upper lip slightly raised, with a sudden expiration something like incipient vomiting?
11. Is extreme fear expressed in the same general manner as with Europeans.
12. Is laughter ever carried to such an extreme as to bring tears into the eyes?
13. When a man wishes to show that he cannot prevent something being done, or cannot himself do something, does he shrug his shoulders, turn inwards his elbows, extend outwards his hands, and open the palms?
14. Do the children when sulky, pout or greatly protrude the lips?
15. Can guilty, or shy,5 or jealous expressions be recognized?—though I know not how these can be defined.
16. As a sign to keep silent, is a gentle hiss uttered?
17. Is the head nodded vertically in affirmation and shaken laterally in negation?
Observations on natives who have had little communication with Europeans would be of course the most valuable, though those made on any natives would be of much interest to me.
General remarks on expression are of comparatively little value.
A definite description of the countenance under any emotion or frame of mind would posess much more value, and an answer within 6 or 8 months or even a year to any single one of the foregoing questions would be gratefully accepted.
Memory is so deceptive on subjects like these that I hope it may not be trusted to.
Down, Bromley, Kent
Asks JvH’s assistance in making observations on the expression of emotions. Encloses 17 queries that are being sent to various parts of the world.
Please cite as
Darwin Correspondence Project, “Letter no. 5423,” accessed on 19 January 2017, http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/DCP-LETT-5423