[Copy of some rough notes.] References about species. Variations within species.
– Copy of some rough notes & references about species collected from
See some remarks on local varieties & demispecies, &
the importance attached to the study of them, &c. by Is. Geoff. St Hilaire in
Journ. n.s. n
It appears probable, from certain observed facts, that, among the lower cryptogams, the
same germ may assume several distinct forms usually regarded as distinct species
according to the circumstances under w
See also on the subject of species, the entire 14
See some remarks on Hybridism by Westwood in Entom. Trans.
vol. 3. p. 195,—with several instances adduced of insects of
“The objections drawn from the differences observed between the different races of domestic animals cannot in any way weaken the general principle of the fixity of species”.— See some remarks by Agassiz on species in connexion with their fossil prototypes of by-gone ages, in Ed. New Phil. Journ. vol. 33. p. 391.—
Difference of size alone is no sure indication of difference of species. Temminck says (quoted by Yarrell, Brit. Birds. 3. 467.) that specimens of the Lesser black-backed Gull from the Cape of Good Hope are larger while those from the Eastern counties are smaller, than the average size of birds obtained in Europe—
See some remarks on Species & Races by Selys De Longchamps in his Faune Belge Introd. pp. vi–viii.)— He mentions the remarkable fact of the Fringilla domestica being the progeny of the F. cisalpina, when the latter was brought to Paris, & made to build & rear its young there.
See a List of Birds found in Corfu in Ann. & Mag.
Nat. Hist. vol. 12 p. 416;—notice especially
a yellow wagtail differing from our common one in having the head in the
breeding season of a jet black, at other times of a
lead-colour;— thus combining the chars. of two other species; compare with M
In the same vol. of the Annals last referred to, is a record of a female Partridge that was cut off for one season from the society of the other sex,—& the circumstance was sufficient to cause a temporary assumption of a plumage resembling that of the male. (vol. 12. 453.)
In the Zoologist for 1844 (p. 682) are some curious statements by Gformat Newman respecting the 3 supposed species of Butterfly—called Polyommatus agestis, P. Salmacis, & artaxerxes,—by which it appears that the first gradually passes into the last, thro' the intermediate Salmacis,—as specimens are taken more & more northward, in passing from the S. coast of England (where Agestis wears its typical aspect)—to Edinburgh, (where Artaxerxes becomes typical.)
H. Doubleday has related that he found in his breeding-cage Lonerinthus
ocellatus, male, & Sphinx Ligustri, female, in
Guénée has observed that in the summer brood of Ennomos
illunaria, the male moth only is slightly sprinkled with atoms, & the
ground colour is a yellow, varying into rose red; on the under side, the brighter lines
are rose red instead of white, the female instead of grey-green is ochre yellow; the
lines of the under wings rusty yellow, often scarcely observable, & the fringes
of all the wings are a lively rust-yellow, both sexes are also somewhat smaller. A
similar proportion is found in illustraria. He is inclined to consider
delunaria. Hub. as a corresponding variety of lunaria.
A writer in the “Zoologist” (Vol. 3. p. 888) has inserted the following note respecting the Vanessa autiopa—in Silesia— “This is, in general, the most plentiful butterfly here (in Silesia.) There appears to be two distinct varieties; those which appear in Spring having the border of the wings sulphur yellow, whilst the autumnal brood, like British specimens, have a white margin.
See also “The Zoologist” (Vol 3. p. 1198.) for a note respecting influence of the various rays of light upon the caterpillar of Vanessa io.— Several caterpillars were confined in different boxes covered with glass of different colours—and this treatment seems to have affected the development & colours of the imago. Some kept wholly in the dark, these last produced imagos in general larger than the others, & their colours brighter: other results are recorded—tho' not being very decisive ones.—
See a Memoir on Species (in Botany.) by M
“The storks which I saw in Bengal had the beak & legs red as with us, but it occurred to me that the black between the beak & the eye in the males was somewhat broader”.— (Sundevall on the birds of Calcutta.— Ann. & Mag. N. H. vol. 19. p. 91.)
A writer in the Zoologist (p. 1731) observes that “the colour of insects is little to be depended upon in the discrimination of species, since some of the most common insects in the North are of a most beautiful deep & dark colour, totally different from that of the same species taken near London, even so different as to be supposed new species; this deep colour is given them by quantity of iron in the soil which is taken up by the vegetation on which they feed.”
See some remarks by M
See an important paper by Professor Pictet—On the succession of
Organized Beings on the surface of the Earth. In Jameson's Edinb.
remarks by M
In a paper entitled “Notes on the Ornithology of
Madeira”— by E. Vernon Harcourt—in the Ann.
& Mag. Nat. Hist. Series 2. vol XV. p. 430.
See a paper by Alfred Wallace in the Ann.
& Mag Nat. Hist. N
- f1 2250.f1Dated by the relationship to the following letter.
- f2 2250.f2CD had asked Jenyns for references on variation in animals (letter to Leonard Jenyns, 9 April ). The ‘paper’ is Jenyns 1856.
- f3 2250.f3Gould 1837b.
- f4 2250.f4Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1840.
- f5 2250.f5Carpenter 1854. CD's annotated copy of this work is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Jenyns refers to an earlier edition.
- f6 2250.f6Yarrell 1839–43. CD recorded reading this work in November 1858 (Correspondence vol. 4, Appendix IV, 128: 22).
- f7 2250.f7Westwood 1838. CD's copy of the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London in which this paper appeared, containing annotations on Westwood's article, is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
- f8 2250.f8Agassiz 1842. CD's copy of the journal in which this paper appeared is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
- f9 2250.f9Coenraad Jacob Temminck.
- f10 2250.f10Selys Longchamps 1842. Michel-Edmond de Selys Longchamps was cited on another point in Jenyns 1856.
- f11 2250.f11Drummond 1843. The paper was a list of birds found in Corfu drawn up by Henry Maurice Drummond and forwarded to Annals and Magazine of Natural History by Hugh Edwin Strickland, who provided additional notes. CD's copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
- f12 2250.f12A letter describing this case, by George Cookson, of Powerstock vicarage, Bridport, Dorset, was published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12 (1843): 453–4.
- f13 2250.f13Edward Newman, the editor of the Zoologist, reported on a series of varieties of butterflies and concluded they all belonged to the same species, Polyommatus agestis (Zoologist 2 (1844): 682–3).
- f14 2250.f14Reported in Erichson 1845. CD's copy of Reports on the progress of zoology and botany, 1841–2, published by the Ray Society, is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
- f15 2250.f15Cited in Erichson 1845, which was published in the zoological portion of Reports on the progress of zoology and botany, 1841–2.
- f16 2250.f16The reference is to an account of a meeting of the Entomological Society on 2 December 1845, published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 17 (1846): 285. Stevenson's paper was not otherwise published. The point mentioned in Jenyns's memorandum has been marked in CD's copy of the journal in the Darwin Library–CUL.
- f17 2250.f17Included in a letter from J. W. Slater, published in Zoologist 3 (1845): 888.
- f18 2250.f18Jenyns refers to a second letter by J. W. Slater (see n. 17, above), published in Zoologist 3 (1845): 1198.
- f19 2250.f19Sundevall 1846–7, p. 403. The passage is marked in CD's copy of the journal in the Darwin Library–CUL.
- f20 2250.f20Chevreul 1846. CD had read this work in 1847 (Correspondence vol. 4, Appendix IV, 119: 18a).
- f21 2250.f21Sundevall 1846–7, p. 91.
- f22 2250.f22The reference is to a letter from H. J. Harding that was published in Zoologist 5 (1847): 1731–2.
- f23 2250.f23Strickland 1844, p. 190.
- f24 2250.f24Pictet de la Rive 1849.
- f25 2250.f25The reference is to a notice of a meeting of the Zoological Society on 9 May 1848, published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 2d ser. 3 (1848): 306. At the meeting, John Gould described the new heron (Gould 1848). CD's copy of this issue of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
- f26 2250.f26McAndrew 1849.
- f27 2250.f27Harcourt 1855. CD's annotated copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL. CD had asked Edward William Vernon Harcourt about the birds of Madeira in 1856 (see Correspondence vol. 6, letter from E. W. V. Harcourt, 31 May 1856).
- f28 2250.f28The information, as given in the letter, was printed in a report of a meeting of the Zoological Society (Annals and Magazine of Natural History 2d ser. 17 (1856): 510–11).
- f29 2250.f29Wallace 1855. CD's notes on this paper are interleaved with his copy of the issue of Annals and Magazine of Natural History in which it appeared (Darwin Library–CUL). See Correspondence vol. 5, letter from Edward Blyth, 8 December 1855, n. 1, for CD's comments on Wallace's paper.
- f30 2250.f30CD included this information in his chapter on ‘Geographical distribution’ (Natural selection, p. 555) as showing that in southern Australia and New Zealand there were among insects ‘only a few very doubtful cases of representatives of northern forms.’
- f31 2250.f31CD refers to chapter 7, on the laws of variation, in his species book (Natural selection, pp. 279–338). The passage has not been located.