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Letter 2250

Jenyns, Leonard to Darwin, C. R.

[Apr 1858]

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    [Copy of some rough notes.] References about species. Variations within species.

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– Copy of some rough notes & references about species collected from difft authors. (Some of which, but I believe not all are alluded to in my paper. L.J.)

Mr Gould, when exhibiting to the Zool. Soc. a collection of Raptorial Birds from Australia & the adjacent Islands, observed that most of the forms would be found to bear a striking resemblance to those inhabiting Europe; indeed the similarity was so strikingly obvious as to leave no doubt of the influence of temperature on the forms of animals.

See some remarks on local varieties & demispecies, & the importance attached to the study of them, &c. by Is. Geoff. St Hilaire in Ed. Phil. Journ. n.s. no 55. pp. 55 & 65.—

It appears probable, from certain observed facts, that, among the lower cryptogams, the same germ may assume several distinct forms usually regarded as distinct species according to the circumstances under wh it is developed.— (Carpenter. Princ. of Physiol. p. 61.)

See also on the subject of species, the entire 14th Ch. of the above work of Carpenters,—entitled—“Subordinate laws regulating the exercise of the reproductive function;—distinction of species &c—Propagation of acquired peculiarities.”—p. 414.

Mr Yarrell mentions an instance of a Common Tern, killed in December with a black head,—thus, from some morbid cause, carrying the strongest mark of its breeding plumage during the Winter. (Brit. Birds, vol. 3. p. 342)

See some remarks on Hybridism by Westwood in Entom. Trans. vol. 3. p. 195,—with several instances adduced of insects of difft species breeding together—but nothing is mentioned wh invalidates the generally received law.

“The objections drawn from the differences observed between the different races of domestic animals cannot in any way weaken the general principle of the fixity of species”.— See some remarks by Agassiz on species in connexion with their fossil prototypes of by-gone ages, in Ed. New Phil. Journ. vol. 33. p. 391.—

Difference of size alone is no sure indication of difference of species. Temminck says (quoted by Yarrell, Brit. Birds. 3. 467.) that specimens of the Lesser black-backed Gull from the Cape of Good Hope are larger while those from the Eastern counties are smaller, than the average size of birds obtained in Europe—

See some remarks on Species & Races by Selys De Longchamps in his Faune Belge Introd. pp. vi–viii.)— He mentions the remarkable fact of the Fringilla domestica being the progeny of the F. cisalpina, when the latter was brought to Paris, & made to build & rear its young there.

See a List of Birds found in Corfu in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. 12 p. 416;—notice especially a yellow wagtail differing from our common one in having the head in the breeding season of a jet black, at other times of a lead-colour;— thus combining the chars. of two other species; compare with Mr Stricklands note in margin.— Does not the whole go to throw doubt on the supposed difference of species amongst the yellow wagtails, as laid down by Gould, Yarrell, & others?—

In the same vol. of the Annals last referred to, is a record of a female Partridge that was cut off for one season from the society of the other sex,—& the circumstance was sufficient to cause a temporary assumption of a plumage resembling that of the male. (vol. 12. 453.)

In the Zoologist for 1844 (p. 682) are some curious statements by Gformat Newman respecting the 3 supposed species of Butterfly—called Polyommatus agestis, P. Salmacis, & artaxerxes,—by which it appears that the first gradually passes into the last, thro' the intermediate Salmacis,—as specimens are taken more & more northward, in passing from the S. coast of England (where Agestis wears its typical aspect)—to Edinburgh, (where Artaxerxes becomes typical.)

H. Doubleday has related that he found in his breeding-cage Lonerinthus ocellatus, male, & Sphinx Ligustri, female, in copulan, whilst several individuals of both sexes, & both species, were found at the same time in the same cage. Reports of Zool. & Bot. (Ray Society) p. 243.)

Guénée has observed that in the summer brood of Ennomos illunaria, the male moth only is slightly sprinkled with atoms, & the ground colour is a yellow, varying into rose red; on the under side, the brighter lines are rose red instead of white, the female instead of grey-green is ochre yellow; the lines of the under wings rusty yellow, often scarcely observable, & the fringes of all the wings are a lively rust-yellow, both sexes are also somewhat smaller. A similar proportion is found in illustraria. He is inclined to consider delunaria. Hub. as a corresponding variety of lunaria. Zoly p. 246.

Mr Stevenson in a Memoir on the Entomology of New Zealand, observes that there are but few Lepidoptera, some of which are very analogous to the English species, such as the painted lady & Red admiral butterflies. Ann. & Mag. N. H. vol. 17. p. 285.)

A writer in the “Zoologist” (Vol. 3. p. 888) has inserted the following note respecting the Vanessa autiopa—in Silesia— “This is, in general, the most plentiful butterfly here (in Silesia.) There appears to be two distinct varieties; those which appear in Spring having the border of the wings sulphur yellow, whilst the autumnal brood, like British specimens, have a white margin.

See also “The Zoologist” (Vol 3. p. 1198.) for a note respecting influence of the various rays of light upon the caterpillar of Vanessa io.— Several caterpillars were confined in different boxes covered with glass of different colours—and this treatment seems to have affected the development & colours of the imago. Some kept wholly in the dark, these last produced imagos in general larger than the others, & their colours brighter: other results are recorded—tho' not being very decisive ones.—

Mr Sundevall says, respecting our common Kingfisher, (Alcedo ispida) which is found in Bengal,—“all the specimens which I have seen from Bengal are distinguished by somewhat brighter or purer colours from the European ones which I have had an opportunity of seeing. This is evidently an effect of the warmer climate but, besides this, the Bengalese ones always have smaller, tho' not shorter feet than the European ones. &c— The resemblance is too great for one to assert any specific difference. (See Ann. & Mag. N. H. vol. 18. p. 4

See a Memoir on Species (in Botany.) by Mr Chevreul in Ann. des Sciences. Nat. (Botanique) 3rd Series. tom. 6. (Sept 1846) p.p. 142.—214.— The title of it is as fol-lows.— “Considerations generales sur les variations des Individus qui composentles groupes appelés en Histoire Naturelle,—Variétés, races, sous especès et espèces”.

“The storks which I saw in Bengal had the beak & legs red as with us, but it occurred to me that the black between the beak & the eye in the males was somewhat broader”.— (Sundevall on the birds of Calcutta.— Ann. & Mag. N. H. vol. 19. p. 91.)

A writer in the Zoologist (p. 1731) observes that “the colour of insects is little to be depended upon in the discrimination of species, since some of the most common insects in the North are of a most beautiful deep & dark colour, totally different from that of the same species taken near London, even so different as to be supposed new species; this deep colour is given them by quantity of iron in the soil which is taken up by the vegetation on which they feed.”

See some remarks by Mr Strickland on some of Mr Gould's supposed new species of Australian birds in Report of British Association. 1844. p. 190— He says that—“Peculiarities of Climate & food will always exert a certain influence on the stature & on the intensity of colour in the same species, & so long as the proportions & the distribution of the colours remain unaltered, we should hesitate in raising the local varieties thus produced to the rank of species.”

See an important paper by Professor Pictet—On the succession of Organized Beings on the surface of the Earth. In Jameson's Edinb. New Philosophl Journl vol. 46. p. 102.— In this memoir the subject of species is discussed at some length, & the limits of their variation in the instance of both fossil & living animals.

Mr Gould has described a new species of Heron from India & Australia, differing only from the common Heron of Europe in being larger, and in the line of the bill having an upward tendency. (Ann. & Mag. N. H. 2nd Series. Vol 3—p. 307—

See some remarks by Mr Mc Andrew on the Variation of Characters in certain Mollusca, as dependant upon the depth of Sea they inhabit.— (On Marine dredging Ed. New Phill Journal. Vol 46. p. 355 &c)— He observes that the most general characters of Mollusca obtained from a great depth, compared with individuals of the same species inhabiting shallow water consist in smallness of size, & deficiency in colour.— In the common Whelk (Buccinum undatum) the form becomes more elongated the greater the depth of habitat, which appears to be a law applying only to that particular species. In Fusus corneus the very reverse occurs, as it is found invariably shorter in proportion to the greater depth it frequents.—

In a paper entitled “Notes on the Ornithology of Madeira”— by E. Vernon Harcourt—in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Series 2. vol XV. p. 430. (No 90 for June 1855.) is the following passage on the influence of climate on the tints of the plumage of birds. “With one exception, Madeira possesses no birds peculiar to its own shores; altho' the influence of its genial climate exercises such a modifying power over the tints of its feathered denizens as analogy would lead us to expect. For example, the Greater Redpole, or Linet which is very abundantly met with in the island, retains its bright carmine plumage through the year; the Herring Gull, also very common, is, according to Dr Renton, quicker by some months in obtaining its mature garb than with us; & the Black cap Warbler assumes in some instances, an intensity of colour, which has led to its being described by Sir. W. Jardine as a new species.”—

Mr Gould in a communication to the Zool. Society in May last, respecting some birds from the Upper Amazon, remarked “that the colours of some of the more brilliant species, from a district situated towards the centre of the South American Continent, were far more splendid than those of the species representing them in countries nearer to the sea, & from this circumstance he took occasion to observe that birds from the central parts of Continents were always more brilliantly coloured than those inhabiting insular or maratime countries. This rule applies equally to birds of the same species the Tits of Central Europe being far brighter in colour than British specimens. Mr Gould has observed that the like difference existed between specimens of the same species inhabiting Van Diamen's Land, & the continent of Australia. He attributed this principally to the greater density and cloudiness of the atmosphere in islands & countries bordering the sea. (Ann. & Mag. N. H. June 1856. vol 17. p. 510.)

See a paper by Alfred Wallace in the Ann. & Mag Nat. Hist. No 93. for Septr 1855. p. 184.) “On the law which has regulated the Introduction of New Species”.

    Footnotes Add

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    f1 2250.f1
    Dated by the relationship to the following letter.
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    f2 2250.f2
    CD had asked Jenyns for references on variation in animals (letter to Leonard Jenyns, 9 April [1858]). The ‘paper’ is Jenyns 1856.
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    f3 2250.f3
    Gould 1837b.
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    f4 2250.f4
    Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1840.
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    f5 2250.f5
    Carpenter 1854. CD's annotated copy of this work is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Jenyns refers to an earlier edition.
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    f6 2250.f6
    Yarrell 1839–43. CD recorded reading this work in November 1858 (Correspondence vol. 4, Appendix IV, 128: 22).
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    f7 2250.f7
    Westwood 1838. CD's copy of the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London in which this paper appeared, containing annotations on Westwood's article, is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
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    f8 2250.f8
    Agassiz 1842. CD's copy of the journal in which this paper appeared is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
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    f9 2250.f9
    Coenraad Jacob Temminck.
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    f10 2250.f10
    Selys Longchamps 1842. Michel-Edmond de Selys Longchamps was cited on another point in Jenyns 1856.
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    f11 2250.f11
    Drummond 1843. The paper was a list of birds found in Corfu drawn up by Henry Maurice Drummond and forwarded to Annals and Magazine of Natural History by Hugh Edwin Strickland, who provided additional notes. CD's copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
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    f12 2250.f12
    A letter describing this case, by George Cookson, of Powerstock vicarage, Bridport, Dorset, was published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12 (1843): 453–4.
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    f13 2250.f13
    Edward Newman, the editor of the Zoologist, reported on a series of varieties of butterflies and concluded they all belonged to the same species, Polyommatus agestis (Zoologist 2 (1844): 682–3).
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    f14 2250.f14
    Reported in Erichson 1845. CD's copy of Reports on the progress of zoology and botany, 1841–2, published by the Ray Society, is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
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    f15 2250.f15
    Cited in Erichson 1845, which was published in the zoological portion of Reports on the progress of zoology and botany, 1841–2.
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    f16 2250.f16
    The reference is to an account of a meeting of the Entomological Society on 2 December 1845, published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 17 (1846): 285. Stevenson's paper was not otherwise published. The point mentioned in Jenyns's memorandum has been marked in CD's copy of the journal in the Darwin Library–CUL.
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    f17 2250.f17
    Included in a letter from J. W. Slater, published in Zoologist 3 (1845): 888.
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    f18 2250.f18
    Jenyns refers to a second letter by J. W. Slater (see n. 17, above), published in Zoologist 3 (1845): 1198.
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    f19 2250.f19
    Sundevall 1846–7, p. 403. The passage is marked in CD's copy of the journal in the Darwin Library–CUL.
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    f20 2250.f20
    Chevreul 1846. CD had read this work in 1847 (Correspondence vol. 4, Appendix IV, 119: 18a).
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    f21 2250.f21
    Sundevall 1846–7, p. 91.
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    f22 2250.f22
    The reference is to a letter from H. J. Harding that was published in Zoologist 5 (1847): 1731–2.
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    f23 2250.f23
    Strickland 1844, p. 190.
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    f24 2250.f24
    Pictet de la Rive 1849.
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    f25 2250.f25
    The reference is to a notice of a meeting of the Zoological Society on 9 May 1848, published in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 2d ser. 3 (1848): 306. At the meeting, John Gould described the new heron (Gould 1848). CD's copy of this issue of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History is in the Darwin Library–CUL.
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    f26 2250.f26
    McAndrew 1849.
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    f27 2250.f27
    Harcourt 1855. CD's annotated copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL. CD had asked Edward William Vernon Harcourt about the birds of Madeira in 1856 (see Correspondence vol. 6, letter from E. W. V. Harcourt, 31 May 1856).
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    f28 2250.f28
    The information, as given in the letter, was printed in a report of a meeting of the Zoological Society (Annals and Magazine of Natural History 2d ser. 17 (1856): 510–11).
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    f29 2250.f29
    Wallace 1855. CD's notes on this paper are interleaved with his copy of the issue of Annals and Magazine of Natural History in which it appeared (Darwin Library–CUL). See Correspondence vol. 5, letter from Edward Blyth, 8 December 1855, n. 1, for CD's comments on Wallace's paper.
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    f30 2250.f30
    CD included this information in his chapter on ‘Geographical distribution’ (Natural selection, p. 555) as showing that in southern Australia and New Zealand there were among insects ‘only a few very doubtful cases of representatives of northern forms.’
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    f31 2250.f31
    CD refers to chapter 7, on the laws of variation, in his species book (Natural selection, pp. 279–338). The passage has not been located.
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