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State Darwin Museum, Moscow, Russia

Matches: 2 hits

  • … State Darwin Museum, …
  • … Moscow, Russia Darwin Museum Moscow …

Darwin Archive, Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, England

Matches: 1 hit

  • Darwin Archive, Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, England DAR …

The History Buff (website) www.ehistorybuff.com/darwin_als.html

Matches: 1 hit

  • … The History Buff (website) www.ehistorybuff.com/darwin_als.html History Buff …

To Darwin Children   8 January 1882

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Summary

Advises his children as to how some money will be distributed among them.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  8 Jan 1882
Classmark:  DAR 185: 60
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13603

Matches: 17 hits

  • … To Darwin Children   8 January 1882 …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR 185: 60 Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 Jan …
  • … 1882 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …

To CD’s Children   10 January 1880

Summary

Circular letter regarding the distribution of CD’s excess income, with a note addressed to W. E. Darwin concerning his handling of Elizabeth Darwin’s share.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  10 Jan 1880
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 155
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12414

Matches: 18 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR 210.6: 155 Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Jan …
  • … 1880 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …
  • … distribution of CD’s excess income, with a note addressed to W. E. Darwin concerning his …
  • … handling of Elizabeth Darwin’s share. …

To the Darwin children   21 February 1879

Summary

Circular about the distribution of the overplus of his income and advice on investment.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  21 Feb 1879
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 153
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11896

Matches: 17 hits

  • … To the Darwin children   21 February 1879 …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR 210.6: 153 Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 Feb …
  • … 1879 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …

To CD’s Children   3 January 1881

Summary

About the distribution of [surplus income] funds among the children.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  3 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12972

Matches: 16 hits

To CD’s Children   16 September 1881

Summary

A circular letter on the distribution of his money at death and the division ofErasmus’ estate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  16 Sept 1881
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 183
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13340

Matches: 16 hits

To CD’s executors & other children   20 December 1881

Summary

Has promised to pay Hooker about £250 annually "for the formation of a perfect MS catalogue of all known plants [Index Kewensis]".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  20 Dec 1881
Classmark:  DAR (CD library—Index Kewensis tom. 1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13570

Matches: 16 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR (CD library— Index Kewensis tom.  1) Charles Robert Darwin Down 20 Dec …
  • … 1881 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …

From C. D.’s children   17 January 1880

Summary

Send CD a present of a fur coat.

Author:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Jan 1880
Classmark:  DAR 99: 208
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12428

Matches: 16 hits

To CD’s Children   17 [January 1880]

Summary

Thanks his children for their present of a fur coat.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  17 [Jan 1880]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12429

Matches: 16 hits

From Charles and Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin [13 January 1861]

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Summary

Two letters for WED at E. A. Darwin's. G. H. Darwin has been to dentist. Please collect and pay for GHD’s skates.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin; Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [13 Jan 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 117
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3046F

Matches: 23 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. …
  • … Wedgwood, Emma Darwin, …
  • … Emma Darwin, W. E. …
  • … From Charles and Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin [13 January 1861] …
  • … DAR 185: 117 Charles Robert Darwin Emma …
  • … Wedgwood/Emma Darwin [13 Jan …
  • … 1861] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … Two letters for WED at E. A. Darwin's. G. …
  • … H. Darwin has been to dentist. Please collect and pay for GHD’s skates. …
  • … London. B. at 2 o .30’— Your affect | C.  Darwin Dear Wm, I expect Eva will come with you, …
  • … 11 January 1861, and left on 21 January (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). Emma was mistaken …
  • … The letter is dated by the reference to George Howard Darwin’s dental treatment (see n.   …
  • … 3, below) and references in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242; see nn.  2 and 8, below). …
  • … Sunday. CD refers to his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin, who lived at 6 Queen Anne Street, …
  • … London, and to Francis and George Howard Darwin, who, according …
  • … to Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), went to London on 10 January 1861, returning to Down on …
  • … treatment between December 1860 and February 1861 (see letter from G.  H.  Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [9 December 1860] (DAR …
  • … 251: 2226), letters from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E. Darwin, [30 January 1861] (DAR 219.1: 36), [12 February 1861] (DAR 219.1: 37), and [20  …
  • … further identified. London Bridge station. Emma Darwin added this note to CD’s letter. The …
  • … House with William on 14 January 1861 (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)); to the London home …

To the Darwin Family    3 October 1828

Summary

[Caroline Darwin on behalf of CD] submits a petition to Darwin family for £20 to purchase a new double-barrelled gun, CD’s present one having become dangerous.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Darwin family
Date:  3 Oct 1828
Classmark:  L
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-50

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin family …
  • … To the Darwin Family    3 October 1828 …
  • … L Charles Robert Darwin [Shrewsbury] 3 …
  • … Oct 1828 Darwin family …
  • … The ‘petition’ is in Caroline Darwin’s hand. The subscribers’ names are in their own …
  • … requisite for the purchase of new Double barrd Gun— Value £20— £.  s.  d. W Darwin 5= 0 …
  • … = 0 Miss Darwin 5 . …
  • … 0– 0 Miss Susan Darwin 5 "  0 . …
  • … 0 Miss Cath Darwin 5 "  0 "  0. …
  • … Caroline Darwin on behalf of CD] …
  • … submits a petition to Darwin family for £20 to purchase a new double-barrelled gun, CD’s …
  • … a Distressed Sportsman— 1828. Oct 3— Charles Darwin gent—humbly petitions all benevolently …
  • … liable to destroy the aforesaid Charles Darwins legs arms, body & brains & consequently …

From Edward Levett Darwin   7 September 1863

Summary

Glad to find they are cousins.

Sends his book [High Elms (pseud.), The game-preserver’s manual (1858)].

Author:  Edward Levett Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Sept 1863
Classmark:  DAR 99: 17–18
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4295

Matches: 27 hits

  • … From Edward Levett Darwin   7 September 1863 …
  • Darwin, E. …
  • … L. Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 99: 17–18 Edward Levett Darwin Derby 7 Sept …
  • … 1863 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … day or other it will result in being personal . Yours very sincerely | Edw d L Darwin Chr. …
  • Darwin Esq | F.R.S. …
  • … cousin, once removed ( Darwin pedigree ). CD and his family had gone to Malvern Wells, …
  • … a common one yet there are I know other Darwins. Your Wife sent me 2/1 for a copy of the …
  • … Edward Darwin was CD’s first cousin, son of …
  • … his father’s half-brother, Francis Sacheverel Darwin ( …
  • Darwin pedigree ). …
  • … No other correspondence between CD and Edward Darwin has been found. …
  • … Emma Darwin had apparently sent for a copy of …
  • … considerably enlarged’ edition of Edward Darwin’s Game preserver’s manual , which was …
  • … published in 1863 (E.  L.  Darwin 1863). …
  • … Emma Darwin had apparently …
  • … sent Edward Darwin a copy of An appeal , a four-page circular concerning the cruelty of …
  • … s manual are the only works by Edward Darwin listed in the NSTC . The reference may be to …
  • … the particular procedures necessary for trapping foxes ([E.  L. Darwin] 1859, pp.  25–6). …
  • … Marcus Huish, of Castle Donnington, Leicestershire, was married to Edward Darwin’s sister, …
  • … Frances Sarah ( Darwin pedigree ). The reference is to Samuel Boteler and …
  • … Hall, Nottinghamshire; Samuel Boteler Bristowe was CD’s and Edward Darwin’s second …
  • … August (see letter from G.  B.  Sowerby Jr to Emma Darwin, 22 July 1863, and Appendix IX). …
  • … See also letter from Emma Darwin to W.  D.  Fox, [ …
  • … September 1863] . The two parts of Edward Darwin’s Game preserver’s manual dealt with the …
  • … steel trap stands, as it always must, pre-eminent’ ([E.  L.  Darwin] 1859, p.  22). The …

From Francis Parker   22 April 1867

Summary

Sends £600 bequeathed by Susan Darwin to CD’s younger children.

Author:  Francis (Frank) Parker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Apr 1867
Classmark:  DAR 174: 19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5510

Matches: 24 hits

  • … Parker, Francis Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 174: 19 Francis (Frank) Parker Chester 22 Apr 1867 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Sends £600 bequeathed by Susan Darwin to CD’s younger children. …
  • … 100 Henrietta Emma Darwin …  100  …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin .... . . 100 Cha …
  • … s . Rob t . Darwin (Specific Legacy— a …
  • … portrait of Miss Darwins father —valued at …
  • … £4—) Henrietta Emma Darwin (a Silver Tea Urn—valued at £28 . 2 . 6)— …
  • … Susan Elizabeth Darwin, CD’s sister, died in October 1866 (see Correspondence vol.  14). …
  • … were the executors of her will (Susan Elizabeth Darwin’s will, Probate Registry, York). …
  • … Robert Waring Darwin. …
  • … I am | Yours very sincerely | Francis Parker Charles Darwin Esq re . Down Bromley Kent. …
  • … Extract from the Will of the late Miss Susan Elizabeth Darwin dated 1 st . November  …
  • … 1865— “I give and bequeath to my nephews George Howard Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin   …
  • … Leonard Darwin, and …
  • … Horace Darwin and my …
  • … nieces Henrietta Emma Darwin and …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin (the younger sons and daughters …
  • … of my Brother Charles Robert Darwin) One hundred pounds each”— I send you in a separate …
  • … cover the Undermentioned Legacy receipts for signature— Value Geo. Howard Darwin …  100  …
  • … Francis Darwin .... . …
  • … 100 Leonard Darwin .... . …
  • … 100 Horace Darwin . ....  …

To W. E. Darwin   30 [October 1862]

Summary

Thanks WED for observations on Lythrum.

Discusses family affairs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  30 [Oct 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 107
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3789

Matches: 26 hits

  • … to W.  E.  Darwin, [25 October 1862] . …
  • … To W.  E.  Darwin   30 [October 1862] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … DAR 210.6: 107 Charles Robert Darwin Down 30 [Oct …
  • … 1862] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … by the relationship to the letter from W.  E.  Darwin, 28 October 1862 . See letter to …
  • … W.  E.  Darwin, [25 October 1862] and n.  2, and letter …
  • … from W.  E.  Darwin, 28 October 1862 . CD reported this observation in ‘Three forms of …
  • … My dear old fellow | Your affect | C.  Darwin Months hence will do about counting seed; …
  • … and the letters from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [19 November 1862] and [2 December 1862? ], in DAR 219.1: 67–8). William had …
  • … DAR 226.1). See letter from W.  E.  Darwin, 21 October [1862] and n.  4, and letter …
  • … and Hampshire Bank, Southampton. Henrietta Emma Darwin. See letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 27 [ …
  • … s visit to Down House on 31 October, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary (DAR 242): ‘Ch. …
  • … Lubbock, 25 October 1862 , n.  5. Elizabeth Darwin started at a school in Kensington run …
  • … by Miss Buob, on 27 January 1863 (see Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), …
  • … and the letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [29 October 1862], in DAR 219.1: …
  • … 63). The Darwins’ governess, Camilla Ludwig, was on an extended visit to her family in …
  • … in order to separate her from Horace Darwin. The Down surgeon, Stephen Paul Engleheart, …
  • … from which he had been suffering earlier in the year. See the letters from Emma Darwin to …
  • … William Erasmus Darwin, [2 March 1862], [27 May 1862], and [6 November  …
  • … in DAR 219.1: 49, 57, 64; see also Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), and CD’s Classed account …
  • … of Down. On Saturday 1 November 1862, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary (DAR 242) that …
  • … having become friendly with Elinor Mary Bonham-Carter (see Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), …

Wedgwood, Emma (1808–96)

Matches: 20 hits

  • … scientific work - she passed scientific requests from Darwin along to her correspondents. …
  • Darwin saw Emma as an exemplary wife. Relevant Gender Resources: http:// …
  • … scientists-wives Primary Sources: Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-441 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-542 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-761 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-4498f Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-7922 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … Desmond and James Moore and Janet Browne, ‘Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–1882)’, Oxford …
  • … www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/7176, accessed 20 Feb 2013] Emma Darwin (1904) and (1915). …
  • … WSL,26,27,28,29,30 Wedgwood, Josiah II Darwin, C. R. …
  • … Emma Wedgwood Darwin 1808–96 Youngest daughter of Josiah Wedgwood II. …
  • … in 1839. Further Information: Emma Darwin née Wedgwood (1808-1896) was the youngest …
  • … of Josiah Wedgwood II. In January 1839 she married her first cousin, Charles Darwin. …
  • … She and Darwin had 10 children. Emma was religious: she had been baptised in the …
  • … beliefs. Early in her relationship with Darwin, Emma expressed concern about his religious …
  • … salvation. In spite of her concerns over Darwin’s religious beliefs, Emma remained …
  • … husband’s work throughout his life. Indeed, Darwin entrusted Emma with ensuring that his …
  • … even if he died suddenly. Emma often took over Darwin’s correspondence when he was feeling …
  • … unwell. Darwin recognised the critical role Emma played in helping to manage his …

To W. E. Darwin   26 April [1862]

Summary

Thanks WED for eyeglass.

Reports on health of Horace and family matters.

Has finished Orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  26 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3520

Matches: 24 hits

  • … To W.  E.  Darwin   26 April [1862] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … when Joseph Dalton Hooker was also visiting Down House (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). …
  • … DAR 210.6: 96 Charles Robert Darwin Down 26 Apr [ …
  • … 1862] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … you saw Hooker work on plant. — Farewell, dear old fellow | Yours affect y . | C.  Darwin
  • … proofs of Orchids (see n.  6, below). Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) records that the ‘Boys …
  • … went to school’ on Monday 28 April 1862. George Howard Darwin and …
  • … Francis Darwin both attended Clapham Grammar School in south-west …
  • … London (see DNB s.v. Darwin, G.  H. , …
  • … and F.  Darwin 1920, p.   …
  • … 63). Leonard Darwin had been tutored privately by George Varenne Reed since summer 1859 ( …
  • … Wedgwood. There is an entry in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) on 25 April 1862 that …
  • … half-yearly payment to Clapham Grammar School. See also letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [3 February 1862] (DAR 219.1: 48). Leonard was sent home from Clapham with …
  • … see CD’s Classed account book (Down House MS), letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [13 December 1862] (DAR 219.1: 69), and Correspondence vol.  11, letter to …
  • … G.  V.  Reed, 12 January 1863). Emma Darwin wrote in her diary (DAR 242) that she ‘Went to …
  • … was a family nickname for George (see, for example, the letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E. Darwin, [26 March 1858] (DAR 219.1: 33), which begins ‘My dear Georgy’, but later …
  • … write to & not Gingo’). CD refers to Horace Darwin who had been ill since the beginning of …
  • … the year. According to Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), Camilla Ludwig, …
  • … governess at Down House, accompanied Horace Darwin to the home of his aunt Sarah Elizabeth …

From E. A. Darwin, Charles Darwin, and W. E. Darwin to Thomas Salt 12 April 1864

Summary

Instructions concerning the payment of the principal and interest of the mortgage to Mr Childe.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin; Erasmus Alvey Darwin; Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  12 Apr 1864
Classmark:  Rachel Salt (private collection); sold at Spink’s, July 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4460F

Matches: 14 hits

  • … E. Darwin Thomas Salt Esq re | Belmont | Shrewsbury …
  • Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, E. …
  • … A. Darwin, C. R. Salt, Thomas …
  • … From E. A. Darwin, …
  • … Charles Darwin, and W. …
  • … E. Darwin to Thomas Salt 12 April 1864 …
  • … Salt (private collection); sold at Spink’s, July 2018 William Erasmus Darwin Erasmus …
  • … Alvey Darwin Charles …
  • … Robert Darwin 12 Apr 1864 Thomas Salt …
  • … from CD’s father, Robert Waring Darwin (Shropshire Archives, SA D3651/B/47/1/1/1/1/6). …
  • … Robert Waring Darwin’s children had inherited the loans. Charles Langton was married to …
  • … principal to the account of the Re vd Charles Langton at the same Bank. E A Darwin | Ch. …
  • … R. Darwin | W. …
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Origin in Commentary
6 Items

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now …
  • … and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwin’s neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In …
  • … all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • … hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwin’s theory of transmutation …
  • … alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwin’s American publisher for a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwin’s work was given by Hooker in an …
  • … frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwin’s sisters died, Emily Catherine …
  • … from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwin’s first letters in the new year …
  • … every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July …
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4 …
  • … day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwin’s being teased by his neighbour, John …
  • … John Lubbock, 4 August 1866 ). More predictably, however, Darwin immediately converted his renewed …
  • … Since the publication of  Origin  in November 1859, Darwin had continued gathering and organising …
  • … by natural selection was based. The work relied heavily on Darwin’s extensive correspondence over …
  • … and poultry expert William Bernhard Tegetmeier. In January, Darwin wrote to Tegetmeier that he was …
  • … ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 16 January [1866] ). Darwin found the evidence of variation in …
  • … varieties from  Columbia livia , the rock pigeon. Darwin on heredity: the 'provisional …
  • … chapter headed ‘Provisional hypothesis of pangenesis’, Darwin proposed that the various phenomena of …
  • … example, the reproductive organs, or the tissues of a bud. Darwin had submitted a preliminary sketch …
  • … & brimful of my dear little mysterious gemmules.’ Darwin collected information on …
  • … Thomas Rivers, and the German botanist Robert Caspary. Darwin was particularly interested in recent …
  • … the scion apparently produced buds with blended characters; Darwin had tried to propagate the …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • … appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a …
  • … material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwin’s interests remained extremely broad, and …
  • … plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to …
  • … Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwin’s most substantial addition to  Origin  was a …
  • … a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägeli’s paper …
  • … principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägeli’s theory …
  • … in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now …
  • … are & must be morphological’. The comment highlights Darwin’s apparent confusion about Nägeli’s …
  • … ‘purely morphological’. The modern reader may well share Darwin’s uncertainty, but Nägeli evidently …
  • … pp. 28–9). In further letters, Hooker tried to provide Darwin with botanical examples he could use …
  • … problems of heredity Another important criticism that Darwin sought to address in the fifth …
  • … prevailing theory of blending inheritance that Jenkin and Darwin both shared, would tend to be lost …
  • … ( Origin  5th ed., pp. 103–4). The terminology that Darwin and others employed in these matters ( …
  • … ‘I must have expressed myself atrociously’, Darwin wrote to Alfred Russel Wallace on 2 February , …
  • … of  Origin  was the result of correspondence between Darwin and the geologist James Croll. In the …
  • … but it was his theory of alternate ice ages that piqued Darwin’s interest the most. He wrote, ‘this …
  • … ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin had argued ( Origin , pp. 377–8) that plant …
  • … would always exist. In  Origin  5th ed., pp. 450–61, Darwin accounted for the survival of tropical …
  • … James Croll,  31 January [1869] ). Croll could not supply Darwin with an estimate of the age of the …
  • … ( letter from James Croll, 4 February 1869 ).  Darwin did not directly challenge Thomson’s …
  • … 19 March [1869] ). Towards Descent Once Darwin had completed revisions of the …
  • … and overseas. The dog-breeder George Cupples worked hard on Darwin’s behalf, sending a steady stream …
  • … sexes in sheep, cattle, horses, and dogs, and circulating Darwin’s queries to various contacts. As …
  • … causing difficulties. The entomologist Frederick Smith, whom Darwin had asked to study the musical …
  • … butterflies, supplementing that received the previous year. Darwin also continued to receive …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence …
  • … Russel Wallace. This letter led to the first announcement of Darwin’s and Wallace’s respective …
  • … the composition and publication, in November 1859, of Darwin’s major treatise  On the origin of …
  • …  exceeded my wildest hopes By the end of 1859, Darwin’s work was being discussed in …
  • … Charles Lyell, 25 [November 1859] ). This transformation in Darwin’s personal world and the …
  • … The 'big book' The year 1858 opened with Darwin hard at work preparing his ‘big …
  • … his ninth chapter, on hybridism, on 29 December 1857, Darwin began in January 1858 to prepare the …
  • … appropriate. The correspondence shows that at any one time Darwin was engaged in a number of …
  • … The chapter on instinct posed a number of problems for Darwin. ‘I find my chapter on Instinct very …
  • … ). In addition to behaviour such as nest-building in birds, Darwin intended to discuss many other …
  • … celebrated as a classic example of divine design in nature. Darwin hypothesised that the instinct of …
  • … of construction as it took place in the hive. As with Darwin’s study of poultry and pigeons, …
  • … founder and president of the Apiarian Society, provided Darwin with information and specimens. His …
  • … For assistance with mathematical measurements and geometry, Darwin called upon William Hallowes …
  • … from the  Beagle voyage; on his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin; and his son William. Even his …
  • … bees and bee-hives. Variation and reversion Darwin also continued the botanical work …
  • … of smaller genera? The inquiry was of great importance to Darwin, for such evidence would support …
  • … of the statistics was still problematic. Hooker thought that Darwin was wrong to assume that …
  • … were not certain. This was a question new to the experts. Darwin was delighted to hear from Asa Gray …
  • … completed and his results written up. With some trepidation, Darwin sent his manuscript off to …
  • … in the letters of 1858 also relate to questions that Darwin had begun to explore earlier. Letters to …
  • … rush to publish With much of his research completed, Darwin began in mid-June 1858 to write …
  • … Wallace enunciated his own theory of natural selection. Darwin’s shock and dismay is evident in the …
  • … Charles Lyell, 18 [June 1858] ). As was his custom, Darwin did not supply a full date on his …
  • … as having been received ‘today’. Following Francis Darwin ( LL 2: 116–17) and relying on Charles …
  • … dated the letter 18 [June 1858]. However, the accuracy of Darwin’s words has been questioned by John …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s  Origin of species , printing …
  • … surprised both the publisher and the author. One week later Darwin was stunned to learn that the …
  • … But it was the opinion of scientific men that was Darwin’s main concern. He eagerly scrutinised each …
  • … his views. ‘One cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an …
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] ). Darwin’s magnanimous attitude soon faded, …
  • … but ‘unfair’ reviews that misrepresented his ideas, Darwin began to feel that without the early …
  • … it was his methodological criticism in the accusation that Darwin had ‘deserted the inductive track, …
  • … to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). Above all else Darwin prided himself on having developed a …
  • … was a hypothesis, not a theory, therefore also displeased Darwin. Comparing natural selection to the …
  • … F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This helps to explain why Darwin was delighted by the defence of …
  • … issue of  Macmillan’s Magazine . Fawcett asserted that Darwin’s theory accorded well with John …
  • … induction, ratiocination, and then verification. Darwin and his critics Specific …
  • … the origin of life itself, which the theory did not address. Darwin chose to treat this as an …
  • … things, about the multitude of still living simple forms. Darwin readily admitted that his failure …
  • … it into his method of reasoning about global change. Darwin also knew that Lyell was a powerful …
  • … of the origin and distribution of blind cave animals. Darwin attempted to answer each of these …
  • … to one another. Harvey’s letters reveal aspects of Darwin’s theory that gave contemporary …
  • … discomfort. After several long letters were exchanged, Darwin finally decided that Harvey and other …
  • … whose offspring should be infertile,  inter se ,’ Darwin’s theory would remain unproven (T. H. …
  • … among animal groups could give rise to new species, Darwin found Huxley’s lecture irritating and …
  • … because more accustomed to reasoning As Darwin himself well recognised and fully …
  • … relatively advanced forms of life. Many singled out Darwin’s own discussion of the absence of …
  • … into the multitude of the earth’s present inhabitants. Darwin agreed, for example, with Alfred …
  • … ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 18 May 1860 ). Darwin began to tabulate (and categorise) his …
  • … eye to this day gives me a cold shudder Certainly Darwin was disappointed by the small …
  • … such a marvellously perfected structure as the eye. As Darwin admitted to Lyell, Gray, and others, …
  • … to Asa Gray, 3 April [1860] ). By the end of 1860, Darwin was disheartened that so few of …

Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies

Summary

The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. By then, he had …
  • … propagation, hybridism, and other phenomena that, as Darwin said in his  Autobiography , he had …
  • … provide an unusually detailed and intimate understanding of Darwin’s problem-solving method of work …
  • … 1860 that a new edition of  Origin  was called for, Darwin took the opportunity to include in the …
  • … of natural selection. With this work behind him, Darwin took steps to convince those who …
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 26–7 Februrary [1861] ). Darwin drew up a carefully thought-out list of …
  • … pamphlet (see Correspondence vol. 9, Appendix III). However, Darwin himself remained unconvinced by …
  • …  began to decline later in the year, scientific interest in Darwin’s views continued unabated and …
  • … the third edition and the comments of naturalists with whom Darwin corresponded, showed that a …
  • … the theory of natural selection for their particular fields. Darwin relished these explorations, …
  • … the  Zoologist  by George Maw, for example, singled out Darwin’s explanation of the numerous …
  • … remained notable instances of design in nature. Although Darwin, in his subsequent correspondence …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 20 July [1861] ). One reason for Darwin’s interest in this piece may have …
  • … and embryological relationships between organisms. Darwin also found the review by the young …
  • … ( see second letter to J. D. Hooker, 23 [April 1861] ). Darwin continued to stress to his …
  • … Gaining allies It is not surprising, then, that Darwin was pleased that the methodology …
  • … maintaining that nature offered more evidence of design than Darwin was willing to admit. With the …
  • … Botany, simple geology & palæontology.' Moreover, Darwin found an important …
  • … Cambridge political economist and convert to his theory, Darwin learned of Mill’s view that the …
  • … accordance with the strict principles of Logic’ and that Darwin’s methodology was ‘the only one …
  • … 1862, p. 18 n.). Later in the summer Fawcett himself made Darwin’s methodology the subject of a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. He subsequently sent Darwin a copy of the manuscript and some …
  • … ( letter to Henry Fawcett, 18 September [1861] ). Darwin added some new names in 1861 to …
  • … geologists’, Archibald Geikie. Geikie had approved of Darwin’s chapter on the imperfection of the …
  • … Civil War. Undoubtedly, the news that most excited Darwin was word from Henry Walter Bates, …

Beauty and the seed

Summary

One of the real pleasures afforded in reading Charles Darwin’s correspondence is the discovery of areas of research on which he never published, but which interested him deeply. We can gain many insights about Darwin’s research methods by following these …

Matches: 22 hits

  • … One of the real pleasures afforded in reading Charles Darwin’s correspondence is the discovery of …
  • … which interested him deeply. We can gain many insights about Darwin’s research methods by following …
  • … edition of On the Origin of Species (the fourth) in 1866. Darwin made substantive changes to every …
  • … was only the latest statement of a common argument against Darwin’s theory, one he had dealt with …
  • … on as he prepared a fourth edition of the book. Darwin began with the argument that ‘the idea …
  • … selection as another instance of beauty-with-a-purpose, Darwin turned to the plant world and …
  • … … or are they? Towards the end of September 1866 Darwin received a letter from Fritz Müller, …
  • … to Brazil in 1852, and who had begun to correspond with Darwin only a year earlier. The letter is …
  • … composite of letter from Müller to Darwin, 2 Aug 1866, in Darwin’s experimental notebook"," …
  • … file-default"}}]] What interested Darwin so much was something that had been on his mind …
  • … great distance.— Fritz Müller to Charles Darwin, 2 Aug 1866. Darwin
  • … whole case seems to me rather a striking one. Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 25 …
  • … beset with brilliant red pearls. By the time he received Darwin’s letter he had found yet more …
  • … ) or other birds.’ ( see the letter ) By this time Darwin had already sent some of the seeds …
  • … will give you some idea of the difficulties. Darwin picked up on Müller’s suggestion and …
  • … them. The case is a sore puzzle to me.— Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 10 Dec [1866] …
  • … how far it is a prey to birds. Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Dec 1866 …
  • … about half the seeds he tried to eat, possibly confirming Darwin’s suggestion of accidental …
  • … dropped – and we suppose remained a ‘sore puzzle’ to Darwin. So what now? Luckily …
  • … puzzle and have been able to resolve some of the questions Darwin posed. Brazilian ecologist, and …
  • … “mimetic fruits”.’ (Galetti 2002, p. 177.) Like Darwin, Galetti tested seeds on captive birds …
  • … Galetti listed dozen of species (many of them cited by Darwin and Müller), as mimetic fruits are …