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State Darwin Museum, Moscow, Russia

Matches: 2 hits

  • … State Darwin Museum, …
  • … Moscow, Russia Darwin Museum Moscow …

Darwin Archive, Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, England

Matches: 1 hit

  • Darwin Archive, Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, England DAR …

The History Buff (website) www.ehistorybuff.com/darwin_als.html

Matches: 1 hit

  • … The History Buff (website) www.ehistorybuff.com/darwin_als.html History Buff …

To Darwin Children   8 January 1882

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Summary

Advises his children as to how some money will be distributed among them.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  8 Jan 1882
Classmark:  DAR 185: 60
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13603

Matches: 17 hits

  • … To Darwin Children   8 January 1882 …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR 185: 60 Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 Jan …
  • … 1882 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …

To CD’s Children   10 January 1880

Summary

Circular letter regarding the distribution of CD’s excess income, with a note addressed to W. E. Darwin concerning his handling of Elizabeth Darwin’s share.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  10 Jan 1880
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 155
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12414

Matches: 18 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR 210.6: 155 Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Jan …
  • … 1880 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …
  • … distribution of CD’s excess income, with a note addressed to W. E. Darwin concerning his …
  • … handling of Elizabeth Darwin’s share. …

To the Darwin children   21 February 1879

Summary

Circular about the distribution of the overplus of his income and advice on investment.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  21 Feb 1879
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 153
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11896

Matches: 17 hits

  • … To the Darwin children   21 February 1879 …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR 210.6: 153 Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 Feb …
  • … 1879 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …

To CD’s Children   3 January 1881

Summary

About the distribution of [surplus income] funds among the children.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  3 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12972

Matches: 16 hits

To CD’s Children   16 September 1881

Summary

A circular letter on the distribution of his money at death and the division ofErasmus’ estate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  16 Sept 1881
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 183
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13340

Matches: 16 hits

To CD’s executors & other children   20 December 1881

Summary

Has promised to pay Hooker about £250 annually "for the formation of a perfect MS catalogue of all known plants [Index Kewensis]".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  20 Dec 1881
Classmark:  DAR (CD library—Index Kewensis tom. 1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13570

Matches: 16 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, …
  • … Horace Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, H. E. Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … DAR (CD library— Index Kewensis tom.  1) Charles Robert Darwin Down 20 Dec …
  • … 1881 Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin
  • … Francis Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … Horace Darwin
  • … Leonard Darwin William …
  • … Erasmus Darwin Henrietta …
  • … Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield …

From C. D.’s children   17 January 1880

Summary

Send CD a present of a fur coat.

Author:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Jan 1880
Classmark:  DAR 99: 208
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12428

Matches: 16 hits

To CD’s Children   17 [January 1880]

Summary

Thanks his children for their present of a fur coat.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy) (Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  17 [Jan 1880]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12429

Matches: 16 hits

From Charles and Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin [13 January 1861]

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Summary

Two letters for WED at E. A. Darwin's. G. H. Darwin has been to dentist. Please collect and pay for GHD’s skates.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin; Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [13 Jan 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 117
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3046F

Matches: 23 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. …
  • … Wedgwood, Emma Darwin, …
  • … Emma Darwin, W. E. …
  • … From Charles and Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin [13 January 1861] …
  • … DAR 185: 117 Charles Robert Darwin Emma …
  • … Wedgwood/Emma Darwin [13 Jan …
  • … 1861] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … Two letters for WED at E. A. Darwin's. G. …
  • … H. Darwin has been to dentist. Please collect and pay for GHD’s skates. …
  • … London. B. at 2 o .30’— Your affect | C.  Darwin Dear Wm, I expect Eva will come with you, …
  • … 11 January 1861, and left on 21 January (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). Emma was mistaken …
  • … The letter is dated by the reference to George Howard Darwin’s dental treatment (see n.   …
  • … 3, below) and references in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242; see nn.  2 and 8, below). …
  • … Sunday. CD refers to his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin, who lived at 6 Queen Anne Street, …
  • … London, and to Francis and George Howard Darwin, who, according …
  • … to Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), went to London on 10 January 1861, returning to Down on …
  • … treatment between December 1860 and February 1861 (see letter from G.  H.  Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [9 December 1860] (DAR …
  • … 251: 2226), letters from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E. Darwin, [30 January 1861] (DAR 219.1: 36), [12 February 1861] (DAR 219.1: 37), and [20  …
  • … further identified. London Bridge station. Emma Darwin added this note to CD’s letter. The …
  • … House with William on 14 January 1861 (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)); to the London home …

To the Darwin Family    3 October 1828

Summary

[Caroline Darwin on behalf of CD] submits a petition to Darwin family for £20 to purchase a new double-barrelled gun, CD’s present one having become dangerous.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Darwin family
Date:  3 Oct 1828
Classmark:  L
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-50

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin family …
  • … To the Darwin Family    3 October 1828 …
  • … L Charles Robert Darwin [Shrewsbury] 3 …
  • … Oct 1828 Darwin family …
  • … The ‘petition’ is in Caroline Darwin’s hand. The subscribers’ names are in their own …
  • … requisite for the purchase of new Double barrd Gun— Value £20— £.  s.  d. W Darwin 5= 0 …
  • … = 0 Miss Darwin 5 . …
  • … 0– 0 Miss Susan Darwin 5 "  0 . …
  • … 0 Miss Cath Darwin 5 "  0 "  0. …
  • … Caroline Darwin on behalf of CD] …
  • … submits a petition to Darwin family for £20 to purchase a new double-barrelled gun, CD’s …
  • … a Distressed Sportsman— 1828. Oct 3— Charles Darwin gent—humbly petitions all benevolently …
  • … liable to destroy the aforesaid Charles Darwins legs arms, body & brains & consequently …

From Edward Levett Darwin   7 September 1863

Summary

Glad to find they are cousins.

Sends his book [High Elms (pseud.), The game-preserver’s manual (1858)].

Author:  Edward Levett Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Sept 1863
Classmark:  DAR 99: 17–18
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4295

Matches: 27 hits

  • … From Edward Levett Darwin   7 September 1863 …
  • Darwin, E. …
  • … L. Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 99: 17–18 Edward Levett Darwin Derby 7 Sept …
  • … 1863 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … day or other it will result in being personal . Yours very sincerely | Edw d L Darwin Chr. …
  • Darwin Esq | F.R.S. …
  • … cousin, once removed ( Darwin pedigree ). CD and his family had gone to Malvern Wells, …
  • … a common one yet there are I know other Darwins. Your Wife sent me 2/1 for a copy of the …
  • … Edward Darwin was CD’s first cousin, son of …
  • … his father’s half-brother, Francis Sacheverel Darwin ( …
  • Darwin pedigree ). …
  • … No other correspondence between CD and Edward Darwin has been found. …
  • … Emma Darwin had apparently sent for a copy of …
  • … considerably enlarged’ edition of Edward Darwin’s Game preserver’s manual , which was …
  • … published in 1863 (E.  L.  Darwin 1863). …
  • … Emma Darwin had apparently …
  • … sent Edward Darwin a copy of An appeal , a four-page circular concerning the cruelty of …
  • … s manual are the only works by Edward Darwin listed in the NSTC . The reference may be to …
  • … the particular procedures necessary for trapping foxes ([E.  L. Darwin] 1859, pp.  25–6). …
  • … Marcus Huish, of Castle Donnington, Leicestershire, was married to Edward Darwin’s sister, …
  • … Frances Sarah ( Darwin pedigree ). The reference is to Samuel Boteler and …
  • … Hall, Nottinghamshire; Samuel Boteler Bristowe was CD’s and Edward Darwin’s second …
  • … August (see letter from G.  B.  Sowerby Jr to Emma Darwin, 22 July 1863, and Appendix IX). …
  • … See also letter from Emma Darwin to W.  D.  Fox, [ …
  • … September 1863] . The two parts of Edward Darwin’s Game preserver’s manual dealt with the …
  • … steel trap stands, as it always must, pre-eminent’ ([E.  L.  Darwin] 1859, p.  22). The …

From Francis Parker   22 April 1867

Summary

Sends £600 bequeathed by Susan Darwin to CD’s younger children.

Author:  Francis (Frank) Parker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 Apr 1867
Classmark:  DAR 174: 19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5510

Matches: 24 hits

  • … Parker, Francis Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 174: 19 Francis (Frank) Parker Chester 22 Apr 1867 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Sends £600 bequeathed by Susan Darwin to CD’s younger children. …
  • … 100 Henrietta Emma Darwin …  100  …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin .... . . 100 Cha …
  • … s . Rob t . Darwin (Specific Legacy— a …
  • … portrait of Miss Darwins father —valued at …
  • … £4—) Henrietta Emma Darwin (a Silver Tea Urn—valued at £28 . 2 . 6)— …
  • … Susan Elizabeth Darwin, CD’s sister, died in October 1866 (see Correspondence vol.  14). …
  • … were the executors of her will (Susan Elizabeth Darwin’s will, Probate Registry, York). …
  • … Robert Waring Darwin. …
  • … I am | Yours very sincerely | Francis Parker Charles Darwin Esq re . Down Bromley Kent. …
  • … Extract from the Will of the late Miss Susan Elizabeth Darwin dated 1 st . November  …
  • … 1865— “I give and bequeath to my nephews George Howard Darwin, …
  • … Francis Darwin   …
  • … Leonard Darwin, and …
  • … Horace Darwin and my …
  • … nieces Henrietta Emma Darwin and …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin (the younger sons and daughters …
  • … of my Brother Charles Robert Darwin) One hundred pounds each”— I send you in a separate …
  • … cover the Undermentioned Legacy receipts for signature— Value Geo. Howard Darwin …  100  …
  • … Francis Darwin .... . …
  • … 100 Leonard Darwin .... . …
  • … 100 Horace Darwin . ....  …

To W. E. Darwin   30 [October 1862]

Summary

Thanks WED for observations on Lythrum.

Discusses family affairs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  30 [Oct 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 107
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3789

Matches: 26 hits

  • … to W.  E.  Darwin, [25 October 1862] . …
  • … To W.  E.  Darwin   30 [October 1862] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … DAR 210.6: 107 Charles Robert Darwin Down 30 [Oct …
  • … 1862] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … by the relationship to the letter from W.  E.  Darwin, 28 October 1862 . See letter to …
  • … W.  E.  Darwin, [25 October 1862] and n.  2, and letter …
  • … from W.  E.  Darwin, 28 October 1862 . CD reported this observation in ‘Three forms of …
  • … My dear old fellow | Your affect | C.  Darwin Months hence will do about counting seed; …
  • … and the letters from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [19 November 1862] and [2 December 1862? ], in DAR 219.1: 67–8). William had …
  • … DAR 226.1). See letter from W.  E.  Darwin, 21 October [1862] and n.  4, and letter …
  • … and Hampshire Bank, Southampton. Henrietta Emma Darwin. See letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 27 [ …
  • … s visit to Down House on 31 October, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary (DAR 242): ‘Ch. …
  • … Lubbock, 25 October 1862 , n.  5. Elizabeth Darwin started at a school in Kensington run …
  • … by Miss Buob, on 27 January 1863 (see Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), …
  • … and the letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [29 October 1862], in DAR 219.1: …
  • … 63). The Darwins’ governess, Camilla Ludwig, was on an extended visit to her family in …
  • … in order to separate her from Horace Darwin. The Down surgeon, Stephen Paul Engleheart, …
  • … from which he had been suffering earlier in the year. See the letters from Emma Darwin to …
  • … William Erasmus Darwin, [2 March 1862], [27 May 1862], and [6 November  …
  • … in DAR 219.1: 49, 57, 64; see also Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), and CD’s Classed account …
  • … of Down. On Saturday 1 November 1862, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary (DAR 242) that …
  • … having become friendly with Elinor Mary Bonham-Carter (see Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), …

Wedgwood, Emma (1808–96)

Matches: 20 hits

  • … scientific work - she passed scientific requests from Darwin along to her correspondents. …
  • Darwin saw Emma as an exemplary wife. Relevant Gender Resources: http:// …
  • … scientists-wives Primary Sources: Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-441 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-542 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-761 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-4498f Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-7922 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … Desmond and James Moore and Janet Browne, ‘Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–1882)’, Oxford …
  • … www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/7176, accessed 20 Feb 2013] Emma Darwin (1904) and (1915). …
  • … WSL,26,27,28,29,30 Wedgwood, Josiah II Darwin, C. R. …
  • … Emma Wedgwood Darwin 1808–96 Youngest daughter of Josiah Wedgwood II. …
  • … in 1839. Further Information: Emma Darwin née Wedgwood (1808-1896) was the youngest …
  • … of Josiah Wedgwood II. In January 1839 she married her first cousin, Charles Darwin. …
  • … She and Darwin had 10 children. Emma was religious: she had been baptised in the …
  • … beliefs. Early in her relationship with Darwin, Emma expressed concern about his religious …
  • … salvation. In spite of her concerns over Darwin’s religious beliefs, Emma remained …
  • … husband’s work throughout his life. Indeed, Darwin entrusted Emma with ensuring that his …
  • … even if he died suddenly. Emma often took over Darwin’s correspondence when he was feeling …
  • … unwell. Darwin recognised the critical role Emma played in helping to manage his …

To W. E. Darwin   26 April [1862]

Summary

Thanks WED for eyeglass.

Reports on health of Horace and family matters.

Has finished Orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  26 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3520

Matches: 24 hits

  • … To W.  E.  Darwin   26 April [1862] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … when Joseph Dalton Hooker was also visiting Down House (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). …
  • … DAR 210.6: 96 Charles Robert Darwin Down 26 Apr [ …
  • … 1862] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … you saw Hooker work on plant. — Farewell, dear old fellow | Yours affect y . | C.  Darwin
  • … proofs of Orchids (see n.  6, below). Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) records that the ‘Boys …
  • … went to school’ on Monday 28 April 1862. George Howard Darwin and …
  • … Francis Darwin both attended Clapham Grammar School in south-west …
  • … London (see DNB s.v. Darwin, G.  H. , …
  • … and F.  Darwin 1920, p.   …
  • … 63). Leonard Darwin had been tutored privately by George Varenne Reed since summer 1859 ( …
  • … Wedgwood. There is an entry in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) on 25 April 1862 that …
  • … half-yearly payment to Clapham Grammar School. See also letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [3 February 1862] (DAR 219.1: 48). Leonard was sent home from Clapham with …
  • … see CD’s Classed account book (Down House MS), letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [13 December 1862] (DAR 219.1: 69), and Correspondence vol.  11, letter to …
  • … G.  V.  Reed, 12 January 1863). Emma Darwin wrote in her diary (DAR 242) that she ‘Went to …
  • … was a family nickname for George (see, for example, the letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E. Darwin, [26 March 1858] (DAR 219.1: 33), which begins ‘My dear Georgy’, but later …
  • … write to & not Gingo’). CD refers to Horace Darwin who had been ill since the beginning of …
  • … the year. According to Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), Camilla Ludwig, …
  • … governess at Down House, accompanied Horace Darwin to the home of his aunt Sarah Elizabeth …

From E. A. Darwin, Charles Darwin, and W. E. Darwin to Thomas Salt 12 April 1864

Summary

Instructions concerning the payment of the principal and interest of the mortgage to Mr Childe.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin; Erasmus Alvey Darwin; Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  12 Apr 1864
Classmark:  Rachel Salt (private collection); sold at Spink’s, July 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4460F

Matches: 14 hits

  • … E. Darwin Thomas Salt Esq re | Belmont | Shrewsbury …
  • Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, E. …
  • … A. Darwin, C. R. Salt, Thomas …
  • … From E. A. Darwin, …
  • … Charles Darwin, and W. …
  • … E. Darwin to Thomas Salt 12 April 1864 …
  • … Salt (private collection); sold at Spink’s, July 2018 William Erasmus Darwin Erasmus …
  • … Alvey Darwin Charles …
  • … Robert Darwin 12 Apr 1864 Thomas Salt …
  • … from CD’s father, Robert Waring Darwin (Shropshire Archives, SA D3651/B/47/1/1/1/1/6). …
  • … Robert Waring Darwin’s children had inherited the loans. Charles Langton was married to …
  • … principal to the account of the Re vd Charles Langton at the same Bank. E A Darwin | Ch. …
  • … R. Darwin | W. …
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Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of …
  • … portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that Darwin undertook throughout his lifetime …
  • … was jokingly lamenting his role as an intermediary for Darwin and his correspondents from around the …
  • … of friends and relatives was not a pursuit unique to Darwin (the exchange of photographic images was …
  • … reinforced his experimental and scientific network. Darwin’s Portraits Darwin sat for …
  • … famous photographers to studio portraitists looking to sell Darwin’s image to the masses. Between …
  • … in nineteenth-century photography. Darwin’s first photo-chemical experience …
  • … This particular daguerreotype is unique in terms of Darwin’s collection of photographs – it is the …
  • … exchanged, but rather was an object of display placed on a Darwin family mantlepiece. The image …
  • … in London and made at least four different exposures of Darwin between 1853 and 1857. They …
  • … While this image is notable as the first popular image of Darwin, the extent to which Darwin
  • … me look atrociously wicked.” Image: Charles Darwin, by Maull & Polyblank, albumen …
  • … Portrait Gallery, London (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) Darwin’s next experience with the …
  • … with the results. In 1860-61 and again in 1864 Charles Darwin sat for his eldest son, William Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1876 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 24 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wife … poor creature, has won …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11 …
  • … once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his …
  • … and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and …
  • … had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his …
  • … When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwin’s three volumes of the geology of …
  • … single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at …
  • … volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was nevertheless ‘firmly resolved not …
  • … meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the …
  • … to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second …
  • … concentrated on the ‘means of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self …
  • … return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in his ‘little Autobiography’ ( …
  • … holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a …
  • … for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August …
  • … dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 418–19). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to …
  • … ever return to the consideration of man.’ In particular, Darwin seemed eager to avoid issues that …
  • … wrote with the good news that he could restore Darwin to a religious life. This transformation would …
  • … that used to be called transmigration, Nemo pointed out to Darwin, adding, ‘the term nowadays is …
  • … enemies... Views such as these were easy enough for Darwin to dismiss, but it was more …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts of the letters are not yet available online but are in volume 26 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin, published by Cambridge…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 26 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). Having …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had …
  • … ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my …
  • … 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular reports about their …
  • … to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later …
  • … not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). It is …
  • … had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats …
  • … we must have’, Francis wrote ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 17 July 1878] ), ‘a strong …
  • … me to jump to conclusions rather’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 3 August 1878] ). One day …
  • … day & never the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s …
  • … Cieselski & read him,’ he reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [22 June 1878] ). ‘Sachs …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’ Darwin confessed in January1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months. January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from 1875 on this website.  The full texts of the …
  • … 23 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and …
  • … his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend …
  • … way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving …
  • … bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript …
  • … coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of …
  • … zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated …
  • … chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous …
  • … on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair …
  • … Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of …
  • … pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also …
  • … in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up …
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • … in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the …
  • … to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial …
  • … Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral …
  • … could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory …
  • … memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • … medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It …
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony …
  • … agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein …
  • … am astounded & disgusted at what you say about Klein,’ Darwin replied to Huxley on 1 November …
  • … the man.’   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwin’s keen interest in the progress of …
  • … leading physiologists. Indeed, some of the experiments that Darwin performed on plants, such as the …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1877 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 25 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The …
  • … of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwin’s botany was increasingly a …
  • … assisted his father’s research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his son’s own …
  • … The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums …
  • … from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of …
  • … sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • … no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of …
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of …
  • … and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term …
  • … as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton …
  • … measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual …
  • … primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other …
  • … dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March …
  • … which include heterstyled species. This pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small …
  • … separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance more speculative views …
  • … both pollen and seeds’ ( Forms of flowers , p. 344). Darwin was typically pessimistic about the …
  • … be sold’. His publisher knew from previous experience that Darwin was a poor judge of sales, and …
  • … after completing his manuscript of Forms of flowers , Darwin took up the problem of ‘bloom’ in …
  • … characteristic whose purpose was little understood. Darwin had begun studying bloom in August 1873, …
  • … exchanged between Down and Kew over the next six months. Darwin corresponded most often with the …
  • … been for your kindness, we sh d . have broken down’, Darwin wrote back on 5 September . ‘As it …
  • … injury from pure water resting on leaves’. In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but …
  • … on leaves and the distribution of the stomata’ (F. Darwin 1886). Alongside his work on bloom, …
  • … closely to the leaves and required a tolerable shake’. Darwin gained another valuable observer in …
  • … T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and Francis devised a method of …
  • … the phenomenon in a Euphorbia (spurge) plant at Kew. Darwin then asked him to disturb the plant …
  • … card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed working with …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the …
  • … in relation to Sex’. Always precise in his accounting, Darwin reckoned that he had started writing …
  • … gathered on each of these topics was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  …
  • … and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by Darwin’s proposed election to the French …
  • … Finishing Descent; postponing Expression Darwin began receiving proofs of some of the …
  • … ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on parts of the …
  • … style, the more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had …
  • … , the latter when she was just eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a …
  • … have thought that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta …
  • … so unimportant as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). …
  • … philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbe’s suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel Kant’s  …
  • … ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in his beard with …
  • … as animals: ears Despite Cobbe’s plea, most of Darwin’s scientific attention in 1870 was …
  • … fairy in Shakespeare’s  A midsummer night’s dream.  Darwin obtained a sketch of a human ear from …
  • … of a pointed tip projecting inward from the folded margin. Darwin, who had posed for the sculptor in …
  • … this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s sketch in  …
  • … muscles A more troubling anatomical feature for Darwin was the platysma myoides, a band of …
  • … of fright’, and one of his photographs, later used by Darwin in  Expression , showed a man whose …
  • … letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same longitudinal …
  • … Researching expression: questions and questionnaires Darwin’s research on emotions continued …
  • … of the source of the Niger river. Reade was sceptical of Darwin’s view that standards of beauty were …
  • … evidence of the continuity of expressions across species, Darwin asked the zoo-keeper at Regent’s …
  • … much?’ ( letter to A. D. Bartlett, 5 January [1870] ). Darwin made a similar request of a London …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate…

Matches: 25 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any …
  • … he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The …
  • … and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 87–90, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of …
  • … process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection was ‘the …
  • … 12, letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as …
  • … to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on …
  • … his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his …
  • … which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for …
  • … in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is …
  • … 1867 and had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his …
  • … the text. This increased the amount of work substantially. Darwin asked Murray to intervene, …
  • … … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin sympathised, replying on 14 January …
  • … as stone, if it were not quite mollified by your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  …
  • … and descent in the  Fortnightly Review , and asked Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly …
  • … ‘fast passing away’ that sparked the most discussion. Darwin wrote to Hooker on 23 February , …
  • … authorship. John Murray thought it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would …
  • … of Science, Robertson published a rejoinder, arousing Darwin’s ire still further: ‘he is a scamp …
  • … all sorts of subjects In writing  Variation , Darwin had been careful to acknowledge …
  • … great influx of unsolicited letters from persons unknown to Darwin, offering additional facts that …
  • … 1868 . The letter was addressed to ‘the Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed Darwin
  • … in the world’ (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin complained to Hooker, ‘I am bothered …
  • … an outpouring of details and untoward examples even from Darwin’s inner circle of expert naturalists …
  • … by flexing. On 5 April , Edward Blyth, who had supplied Darwin with a wealth of information on …
  • … the opportunities provided by  Variation  for expanding Darwin’s network of informers proved very …

The death of Anne Elizabeth Darwin

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851.   Emma was heavily pregnant with their fifth son, Horace, at the time and could not go with Charles when he took Annie to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully.…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … lost the joy of the Household Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at …
  • … to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully. Darwin wrote a memorial of his daughter …
  • … her own reactions in a poignant set of notes, which Emma Darwin kept. Links to a longer …
  • … and illness follow the transcriptions. Charles Darwin’s memorial of Anne Elizabeth …
  • …  ‘y. 4 An interlineation in pencil in Emma Darwin’s hand reads: ‘Mamma: what shall we do …
  • … To W. D. Fox, [ 27 March 1851 ] To Emma Darwin,  [17 April 1851] First letter to …
  • … From S. E. Wedgwood, [ 24 April 1851 ] From E. C. Darwin, [ 25? April 1851 ] To E. …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …
  • … markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters …
  • … am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical …
  • … letter-writing dwindled considerably. The correspondence and Darwin’s scientific work diminished …
  • … of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • … the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwin’s preoccupation with the …
  • … to man’s place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwin’s species theory and on the problem …
  • … detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially …
  • … in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwin’s concern about the popular …
  • … Lyell’s and Huxley’s books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyell’s forthcoming …
  • … first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwin’s arguments for species change. …
  • … ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later letter that it …
  • … of creation, and the origin of species particularly, worried Darwin; he told Hooker that he had once …
  • … letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did not relish telling Lyell of his …
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwin’s regret was profound that the …
  • … the ‘brutes’, but added that he would bring many towards Darwin who would have rebelled against …
  • … from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The botanist Asa Gray, Darwin’s friend in the United States, …
  • … off ( see letter from Asa Gray, 20 April 1863 ). In May, Darwin responded to Gray that Lyell’s and …
  • … or   Modification, ’. Faction fighting Darwin was not alone in feeling disaffected …
  • … in the subject. ‘The worst of it is’, Hooker wrote to Darwin, ‘I suppose it is virtually Huxley’s …
  • … that he had contributed to the proofs of human antiquity. Darwin and Hooker repeatedly exchanged …
  • … appeared in the  Natural History Review  in January, Darwin, who was already ill-disposed towards …
  • … January [1863] ). Archaeopteryx Falconer, Darwin, and others found an additional …
  • … of Owen’s ‘slip-shod and hasty account’ of the find, Darwin asked, ‘Has God demented Owen, as a …
  • … observed that the fossil was ‘a strange being à la Darwin’, a transitional form between reptiles and …

Darwin's life in letters

Summary

For all his working life, Darwin used letters as a way both of discussing ideas and gathering the ‘great quantities of facts’ that he used in developing and supporting his theories. They form a fascinating collection from many hundreds of correspondents,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … do what I am doing pester them with letters. ( Darwin to John Jenner Weir, [6 March 1868 …
  • … and even specimens. So many letters flowed in that Darwin had a habit of burning batches of old …
  • … 8000 still survive in the main repository of his papers, the Darwin Archive at Cambridge University …
  • … these also to his archive. The researchers of the Darwin Correspondence Project based in …
  • … complete texts of more than 15,000 known surviving Darwin letters, wherever in the world they are …
  • … to the volumes of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin , the narrative of his life as …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle  voyage was one …
  • … a family Busy as he was with scientific activities, Darwin found time to re-establish family …
  • … close contact. In November 1838, two years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, …
  • … daughter, Anne Elizabeth, moved to Down House in Kent, where Darwin was to spend the rest of his …
  • … his greatest theoretical achievement, the most important of Darwin’s activities during the years …
  • … identifications of his bird and fossil mammal specimens, Darwin arrived at the daring and momentous …
  • … in species. With this new theoretical point of departure Darwin continued to make notes and explore …
  • … present in the version of 1859. Young author Darwin’s investigation of the species …
  • … the  Beagle  had returned to England, news of some of Darwin’s findings had been spread by the …
  • … great excitement. The fuller account of the voyage and Darwin’s discoveries was therefore eagerly …
  • … suitable categories for individual experts to work upon, Darwin applied himself to the revision of …
  • … of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle. Darwin’s volume bore the title  Journal …
  • … visited by H.M.S. Beagle .  Also in November 1837, Darwin read the fourth of a series of papers to …
  • … to the Society of 9 March 1838), had been developed by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, …
  • … Sedgwick, [after 15 May 1838] ). The new research Darwin undertook after 1837 was an …
  • … time, the parallel terraces, or ‘roads’, of Glen Roy. Darwin had seen similar formations on the …
  • … roads of Glen Roy’,  Collected papers  1: 88–137). Darwin later abandoned this view, calling it a …
  • … contemporaneous unstratified deposits of South America”, Darwin continued to defend his and Lyell’s …
  • … 1842, having heard of evidence of glaciation in North Wales, Darwin made a tour there in order to …
  • … more satisfactorily than any alternative explanation. Darwin eventually relinquished this theory and …
  • … the Beagle voyage In addition to his work on geology Darwin undertook to provide a …
  • … The correspondence provides a nearly complete record of Darwin’s arrangements with the Treasury, his …
  • … , by Thomas Bell—a total of nineteen quarto issues. Darwin contributed a substantial portion of the …
  • … and habitats of the species. Mr Arthrobalanus Darwin had originally planned to include …
  • … Archipelago off the coast of Chile. These unexpectedly led Darwin to devote eight years (1846–54) …
  • … As the correspondence from these years shows, that work put Darwin in communication with most of the …
  • … and corals by William Lonsdale ( Collected papers , 2). Darwin’s crustacean specimens, originally …
  • … Only the plants were neglected. During the voyage Darwin had expected that J. S. Henslow would …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … results of the  Beagle  voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but throughout these …
  • … species and varieties. In contrast to the received image of Darwin as a recluse in Down, the letters …
  • … Down House was altered and extended to accommodate Darwin’s growing family and the many relatives …
  • … The geological publications In these years, Darwin published two books on geology,  Volcanic …
  • … papers for all these organisations. Between 1844 and 1846 Darwin himself wrote ten papers, six of …
  • … 2, letter to A. Y. Spearman, 9 October 1843, n. 1). Darwin's inner circle: first …
  • … not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable Darwin’s earlier scientific friendships …
  • … friends, with the addition of Hooker, were important to Darwin for—among other things—they were the …
  • … scientific issues that arose out of his work on species. Darwin discussed his ideas on species …
  • … Only two months after their first exchange, early in 1844, Darwin told Hooker that he was engaged in …
  • … correspondence that his close friends were not outraged by Darwin’s heterodox opinions and later in …
  • … But although eager for the views of informed colleagues, Darwin was naturally protective of his …
  • …  vol. 4, letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 [February 1847]). Darwin can be seen as a cautious strategist, …
  • … candidate, known to be working on species and varieties, was Darwin himself: as he told his cousin …
  • … the book to him. But, as his letters to Hooker show, Darwin carefully considered and then rejected …
  • … Perhaps the most interesting letter relating to Darwin’s species theory, which also bears on his …
  • … to his wife Emma, dated 5 July 1844 , just after Darwin had completed the final draft of his …
  • … who would undertake to see the work through the press. Darwin also listed possible editors: at first …
  • … on the work. But the list was subsequently altered after Darwin’s second, and possibly third, …
  • … Hooker’s was added. Much later, by the autumn of 1854 when Darwin began sorting out his notes in …
  • … the cover to that effect. The full consideration that Darwin gave to the future editing and …
  • … he was for much of the time too ill even to write letters, Darwin felt that his life was only too …
  • … in his health. Volcanoes, rocks, and fossils Darwin’s published work during this …
  • … elevation of extensive tracts of land relative to the sea. Darwin put forward a new explanation of …
  • … whose subsequent work led to the general acceptance of Darwin’s views.  South America  drew …
  • … structure of the land could best be explained by elevation. Darwin presented a wholeheartedly …

What did Darwin believe?

Summary

What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of his theory of evolution for religious faith? These questions were asked again and again in the years following the publication of Origin of species (1859). They are…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of …
  • … rhetoric of crusading secularists, many of whom take Darwin as an icon. But Darwin was very …
  • … Letters became an important medium through which Darwin’s readers sought to draw him out on matters …
  • … the religious implications of his work. Letters written to Darwin by persons unknown to him became …
  • … seeking direction for their own. In December 1866 Darwin received a letter from Mary Boole, a …
  • … See the letter Boole, like a number of Darwin’s readers, found a way of reconciling the …
  • … with some form of religious belief. But when Boole asks Darwin about specific points of belief, such …
  • … See the letter In his response to Boole, Darwin implies that certain questions are beyond …
  • … Science, or by the so called “inner consciousness”’. Darwin does not dismiss different forms of …
  • … such territory in this letter to a stranger. Emma Darwin In what is perhaps …
  • … mind. See the letter In this letter, Darwin is quite clear that he has never …
  • … he says, is often in a state of flux. What did Darwin mean by the term “agnostic”? The word …
  • … about questions such as the existence and nature of God. For Darwin, it also seems to imply that …
  • … be answered by science, and other questions that can not. Darwin had made this point in his response …
  • … their engagement in 1838, we find an early expression of Darwin’s religious doubts. Darwin’s …
  • … with you. See the letter We know from Darwin’s scientific notebooks from this …
  • … these differences to be shared. The tendency amongst Darwin scholars has been to assume that …
  • … part, sustained their marriage. If not deeply religious, Darwin was at least not disrespectful to …
  • … and wifely devotion have appeared only as a background to Darwin’s own life and intellectual …
  • … was another important religious tradition in the Darwin and Wedgwood families. Josiah Wedgwood, who …
  • … the Darwins and Wedgwoods, together in the first place. Darwin had attended a Unitarian school in …
  • … writer Frances Power Cobbe. All were regular guests of Darwin’s brother Erasmus, and of Emma’s …
  • … only to recite the liturgy. But we know, from Francis Darwin’s comments, that Emma used to make the …
  • … Emma’s Bible also contains some annotations by Darwin. These indicate a critical reading of …
  • … approaches to the text. They also show that Darwin looked to the Bible as a guide to moral …
  • … you do not consider your opinion as formed’. As Darwin would later reveal to Fordyce and …

Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …
  • … more for the sake of priority than anything else—Darwin was reluctant to squeeze his expansive …
  • … Natural selection . Determined as he was to publish, Darwin nevertheless still felt cautious …
  • … specialist in Madeiran entomology, Thomas Vernon Wollaston. Darwin also came to rely on the caustic …
  • … in London. Natural Selection Not all of Darwin’s manuscript on species has been …
  • … of pigeons, poultry, and other domesticated animals. As Darwin explained to Lyell, his studies, …
  • … can William Bernhard Tegetmeier continued to help Darwin acquire much of the material for …
  • … on domestic animals in India and elsewhere. William Darwin Fox supplied information about cats, dogs …
  • … mastiffs. The disparate facts were correlated and checked by Darwin, who adroitly used letters, …
  • … can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). Darwin also attempted to test ideas …
  • … garden species with their wild congeners. Many of Darwin’s conclusions about the variation of …
  • … these chapters are not extant. It seems likely that Darwin used the manuscript when compiling  The …
  • … or lost during the process. Before the publication of Darwin's correspondence from these years, …
  • … light on the role that these ideas were intended to play in Darwin’s formal exposition. …
  • … selection could not act without varieties to act upon, Darwin wanted to know where, how, and in what …
  • … Making the fullest possible use of his botanical friends, Darwin cross-examined them on different …
  • … and conditions of existence? One useful example that Darwin intended to include in his book was the …
  • … relatives. But a last-minute check with Hooker revealed that Darwin was mistaken: ‘You have shaved …
  • … was wrong ( letter to John Lubbock, 14 July [1857] ). Darwin thought his results showed that …
  • … than relinquish the results achieved after so much effort, Darwin began the whole laborious project …
  • … Such perseverance is perhaps the key to this period in Darwin’s life. He brought the same quality of …
  • … This was the origin and function of sex in nature. Darwin had always been intrigued by the …
  • … must occasionally be cross-fertilised by other individuals. Darwin sought information on this …
  • … request led Huxley to make a note for future reference, ‘Darwin, an absolute & eternal …
  • … not give a categorical answer. Nor could the botanists that Darwin asked about plants whose flowers …
  • … George Bentham, and the Belfast botanist George Dickie. Darwin’s theoretical notions also encouraged …
  • … Science at home: the botanical experiments Darwin’s researches into the purpose and results …
  • … papilionaceous flowers would allow for cross-fertilisation. Darwin carried out his researches with …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Species theory In November 1845, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend and confidant Joseph …
  • … and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). What led Darwin to engage in this work when he was …
  • … group. Light is shed on the close relationship between Darwin’s systematic descriptive work and the …
  • … often frustrating taxonomical maze. Throughout these years, Darwin was also struggling with a …
  • … explained in detail in letters to friends and relatives, Darwin felt sufficiently restored in health …
  • … Nevertheless, it is evident from his correspondence that Darwin’s two hours at the microscope did …
  • … Phillips, and Daniel Sharpe, demonstrating the extent of Darwin’s continued involvement in …
  • … and naturalists, most notably James Dwight Dana, Henry Darwin Rogers, and Bernhard Studer, and the …
  • … In the midst of all this activity, Hooker responds to Darwin’s particular queries and sends …
  • … British government in scientific research during the period. Darwin also contributed to these …
  • … scientific work of naval officers and travellers in general. Darwin was asked by the editor, Sir …
  • … to J. F. W. Herschel, 4 February [1848] ). Letters between Darwin and Richard Owen, author of the …
  • … zoology between them. Owen included in his chapter notes by Darwin on the use of microscopes on …
  • … the leading questions and wide views spelt out by Darwin in the Admiralty  Manual  are also those …
  • … Inverness, in which he maintained that the terraces, which Darwin believed to be of marine origin, …
  • … of Glen Roy had produced a lake and the consequent beaches. Darwin carefully re-examined his own …
  • … editor of the  Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal , Darwin asked for it to be destroyed. Only the …
  • … ). Other letters to colleagues at this time indicate that Darwin was beginning to feel that the Glen …
  • … 8 [September 1847] ). The second geological theory Darwin felt the need to defend had to do …
  • … that only a great rush of water could carry them up hills. Darwin’s response was to explain such …
  • … rocks and foliation in metamorphic rocks, on the other. Darwin maintained that cleavage was the …
  • … to convince other prominent geologists, among them Lyell, so Darwin was keenly interested in what …
  • … subject. The letters also reveal that Lyell sought Darwin’s advice in the preparation of new …
  • … Manual of elementary geology . In addition, Lyell asked for Darwin’s view of his major new theory …
  • … on slopes with dips of more than three or four degrees. Even Darwin, Lyellian though he was, had …

Visiting the Darwins

Summary

'As for Mr Darwin, he is entirely fascinating…'  In October 1868 Jane Gray and her husband spent several days as guests of the Darwins, and Jane wrote a charming account of the visit in a sixteen-page letter to her sister.  She described Charles…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … As for Mr Darwin, he is entirely fascinating…   Darwin often discouraged would-be …
  • … her sister, Susan Loring.  She described Charles and Emma Darwin, their daughter Henrietta, Down …
  • … on— Since a severe attack of illness, Mr. Darwin sits on an easy chair raised very high, …
  • … and grounds Tuesday I had a little walk with Mrs. Darwin round their grounds— The house …
  • … easy chairs of all shapes & kinds, from Mr. Darwin’s great throne, to “the latest instrument of …
  • … After breakfast there were prayers in the drawing-room, Mrs. Darwin leading the services— Then some …
  • … a little uncertain, & kept very quiet all day— Darwin’s Expression experiment (or the …
  • … the glass!— The experiment was one in which Darwin asked a succession of visitors  to …
  • … were being stimulated by electric probes. Henrietta Darwin The oldest daughter …
  • … for Bromley, where we again took Cabs for Down, where Mr. Darwin lives— It was so dark by the time …
  • … first Cab, & whilst waiting for the second to draw up, Mr. Darwin came out into the hall to …
  • … home face! We made quite a party for dinner—Mr. & Mrs. Darwin, she in black velvet, two …
  • … Tyndal, Wm. Hooker, a boy of 16 but looking only 14, Leonard Darwin— I can’t get used to being grand …
  • … dinner with lively talk— When the ladies retired, Mrs. Darwin’s sister, Miss Wedgewood, & niece, …
  • … of the Country, will allow— Later I got talking with Mrs. Darwin & Mrs. Kempson, & happened …
  • … After breakfast there were prayers in the drawing-room, Mrs. Darwin leading the services— Then some …
  • … charming talks now & then— It was a rare chance when Mr. Darwin, Dr. Hooker, Dr. Tyndal & Dr …
  • … that does not often come in one’s way— Mrs. Darwin’s brother came to breakfast, Mr. Wedgewood, whose …
  • … quick interest in so many things. As for Mr. Darwin, he is entirely fascinating— He is tall & …
  • … in recommending “My Lady Ludlow”— Mrs. Darwin is very lovable, with her sweet, placid manner …
  • … & Mrs. Kempson came to dine— In the afternoon Mrs. Darwin took me in the carriage to call on the …
  • … walks. Tuesday I had a little walk with Mrs. Darwin round their grounds— The house faces, …
  • … easy chairs of all shapes & kinds, from Mr. Darwin’s great throne, to “the latest instrument of …
  • … always in use— Since a severe attack of illness, Mr. Darwin sits on an easy chair raised very high, …
  • … at lunch or breakfast— The two young footmen then— Mr. Darwin came to lunch, but always breakfasted …

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The …
  • … life but I trust happy The anguish felt by Darwin is painfully expressed in letters …
  • … speak of her again. Yet the family gradually recovered, Darwin’s monographs were printed, and Darwin
  • … to the cirripedes. Before turning to his species work, Darwin somewhat ruefully recorded in his …
  • … monographs by natural history societies, though welcomed by Darwin, did not run smoothly. …
  • … the  Correspondence  describes the major achievements of Darwin’s cirripede work as a whole and …
  • … societies, which were supported by subscriptions, was that Darwin’s volumes were not publicly …
  • … in Germany at the forefront of work in invertebrate zoology, Darwin began a correspondence with …
  • … provided the foundations for a relationship with Darwin that soon developed into a valued friendship …
  • … April 1854, when his cirripede study was drawing to a close, Darwin re-entered London scientific …
  • … with lots of claret is what I want Perhaps Darwin’s decision to take a more active …
  • … to substantiate it is manifest in the correspondence. Darwin’s friends and colleagues were …
  • … outspoken young naturalists like Huxley, reacted eagerly to Darwin’s suggestions, although not …
  • … for the geographical distribution of animals and plants. Darwin began a series of researches on the …
  • … with the effects of known changes in climate and geology. Darwin boldly rejected the popular idea of …
  • … Some of the most interesting letters in this volume set out Darwin’s practical researches and …
  • … Variation and extinction The other main focus of Darwin’s research centred on determining the …
  • … seeds and bees An interest in variation naturally led Darwin to study the works of plant …
  • … views concerning decreased fertility of hybrids, Darwin began in the spring of 1855 a series of …
  • … a subject to which he returned in later years. Darwin also undertook experiments relating to …
  • … study, like another on sensitive plants, was an attempt by Darwin to ‘break the constitution of …

Darwin’s earthquakes

Summary

Darwin experienced his first earthquake in 1834, but it was a few months later that he was really confronted with their power. Travelling north along the coast of Chile, Darwin and Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, were confronted with a series of…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … in only one little earthquake having happened Darwin to his sister Catherine, 8 November …
  • … with their power. Travelling north along the coast of Chile, Darwin and Robert FitzRoy, captain of …
  • … section of the west coast was shaken by an earthquake.  Darwin was in Valdivia where the damage was …
  • … wreaked in the towns and villages that made an impression; Darwin and FitzRoy also noticed the small …
  • … of the land at Concepción had risen in altitude.   Darwin, pondering a possible connection between …
  • … to conceive a grand geological theory. Travelling inland, Darwin concluded that all these separate …
  • … shock waves from a single subterranean event. Darwin had explored the Cordilleras from the …
  • … violent natural events, fossilised trees and other evidence, Darwin was attempting to visualise the …
  • … and these are amongst the most visually striking objects of Darwin’s surviving papers from the …
  • … South America and crossing back half way round the world, Darwin started to apply this theory on a …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke …
  • … on live animals in Britain. In December 1874, Darwin was asked to sign a memorial by the …
  • … draft legislation that would protect animals from suffering. Darwin was sympathetic to the cause, …
  • … (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). Darwin also worried that any bill passed by a …
  • … to T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ). In the event, Darwin became closely involved with the …
  • … for assistance in preparing a bill for Parliament. Darwin almost never involved himself in …
  • … recent research on insectivorous plants. Indeed, some of Darwin’s plant experiments, such as …
  • … and because it failed to mention anaesthetics. Darwin’s indebtedness and allegiance to …
  • … to put an end to any suffering before his eyes’. Darwin was clearly disturbed by the prospect …
  • … to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871] ). In the same year, Darwin had published Descent of man , …
  • … some animals possessed social sympathies akin to conscience. Darwin even described an animal …
  • … 1: 40).  Vivisection was a sensitive subject within Darwin’s family. In his letter of 14 …
  • … of a network of reformers and philanthropists that included Darwin’s brother, Erasmus, and his …
  • … of course) or I might get one or two’ (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 January [1875] …
  • … night, prepares and sets instruments of torture’ ( Emma Darwin (1904) 2: 201). Darwin’s …
  • … (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 12 February 1875 ). Darwin was in London from 31 March to 12 …
  • … to Burdon Sanderson, who drafted a memorial, sending it to Darwin on 7 April (letter from J. S. …
  • … was prepared with the legal assistance of Lushington and Darwin’s son-in-law Richard Buckley …
  • … sought from some ‘half dozen eminent scientific men’. Darwin sent a copy to Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … bill was submitted by Playfair on 12 May.   The Darwin Archive (DAR)  in Cambridge …
  • … between different parties, some of which are evident in Darwin’s correspondence in April and May …
  • … frogs to demonstrate fundamental physiological processes. Darwin wrote to Playfair about the changes …
  • … ). In his testimony before the Royal Commission (see below), Darwin described the bill as having …
  • … testimony was presented in full in the final report. Darwin was asked to appear before the …
  • … of the medical profession mounted a more organised defence. Darwin followed the debate with interest …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 20 hits

  • Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue …
  • … in Correspondence vol. 13, Supplement), no letters by Darwin are known before October 1825, but …
  • … home in Shrewsbury, and of the role his family played in Darwin’s early life; those from Sarah and …
  • … of the 1820s and 1830s. The letters from William Darwin Fox, Frederick William Hope, and …
  • … organisations and publications. The letters written to Darwin during the voyage of H.M.S.  Beagle …
  • … Science. Early years In the earliest letters Darwin was already keenly interested in …
  • … Cambridge University Library, indicate that Robert Waring Darwin gave his own copy to his son in …
  • … When himself a medical student at Edinburgh University, Darwin devoted much of his time to natural …
  • … beetles. Fox also introduced him to John Stevens Henslow and Darwin was a regular presence at the …
  • … the professor of botany. And it was Henslow who, encouraging Darwin to broaden his scientific …
  • … willing responses of those asked for help here, as later in Darwin’s life, are indicative of the …
  • … arose because of Henslow’s recognition of the abilities Darwin had displayed during his years at …
  • … reasonably answered. During the voyage of H.M.S.  Beagle Darwin’s letters convey the excitement …
  • … life of scientific enquiry. Coupled with this commitment was Darwin’s growing recognition of his …
  • … in 1839. London scientific society When Darwin returned to England in October 1836 it …
  • … following years that testify to the wealth and quality of Darwin’s collections and observations. But …
  • … passed by systematists on some of his specimens that Darwin became a committed transmutationist a …
  • … on organising his notes on the birds he had collected. Then, Darwin wrote of the Galápagos mocking …
  • … the stability of species awaited further consideration. As Darwin was able properly to consider the …
  • … conviction that species were mutable. By the spring of 1837 Darwin was a transmutationist and had …
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