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Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s  Origin of species , printing …
  • … surprised both the publisher and the author. One week later Darwin was stunned to learn that the …
  • … But it was the opinion of scientific men that was Darwin’s main concern. He eagerly scrutinised each …
  • … his views. ‘One cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an …
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] ). Darwin’s magnanimous attitude soon faded, …
  • … but ‘unfair’ reviews that misrepresented his ideas, Darwin began to feel that without the early …
  • … it was his methodological criticism in the accusation that Darwin had ‘deserted the inductive track, …
  • … to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). Above all else Darwin prided himself on having developed a …
  • … was a hypothesis, not a theory, therefore also displeased Darwin. Comparing natural selection to the …
  • … F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This helps to explain why Darwin was delighted by the defence of …
  • … issue of  Macmillan’s Magazine . Fawcett asserted that Darwin’s theory accorded well with John …
  • … induction, ratiocination, and then verification. Darwin and his critics Specific …
  • … the origin of life itself, which the theory did not address. Darwin chose to treat this as an …
  • … things, about the multitude of still living simple forms. Darwin readily admitted that his failure …
  • … it into his method of reasoning about global change. Darwin also knew that Lyell was a powerful …
  • … of the origin and distribution of blind cave animals. Darwin attempted to answer each of these …
  • … to one another. Harvey’s letters reveal aspects of Darwin’s theory that gave contemporary …
  • … discomfort. After several long letters were exchanged, Darwin finally decided that Harvey and other …
  • … whose offspring should be infertile,  inter se ,’ Darwin’s theory would remain unproven (T. H. …
  • … among animal groups could give rise to new species, Darwin found Huxley’s lecture irritating and …
  • … because more accustomed to reasoning As Darwin himself well recognised and fully …
  • … relatively advanced forms of life. Many singled out Darwin’s own discussion of the absence of …
  • … into the multitude of the earth’s present inhabitants. Darwin agreed, for example, with Alfred …
  • … ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 18 May 1860 ). Darwin began to tabulate (and categorise) his …
  • … eye to this day gives me a cold shudder Certainly Darwin was disappointed by the small …
  • … such a marvellously perfected structure as the eye. As Darwin admitted to Lyell, Gray, and others, …
  • … to Asa Gray, 3 April [1860] ). By the end of 1860, Darwin was disheartened that so few of …

Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies

Summary

The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. By then, he had …
  • … propagation, hybridism, and other phenomena that, as Darwin said in his  Autobiography , he had …
  • … provide an unusually detailed and intimate understanding of Darwin’s problem-solving method of work …
  • … 1860 that a new edition of  Origin  was called for, Darwin took the opportunity to include in the …
  • … of natural selection. With this work behind him, Darwin took steps to convince those who …
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 26–7 Februrary [1861] ). Darwin drew up a carefully thought-out list of …
  • … pamphlet (see Correspondence vol. 9, Appendix III). However, Darwin himself remained unconvinced by …
  • …  began to decline later in the year, scientific interest in Darwin’s views continued unabated and …
  • … the third edition and the comments of naturalists with whom Darwin corresponded, showed that a …
  • … the theory of natural selection for their particular fields. Darwin relished these explorations, …
  • … the  Zoologist  by George Maw, for example, singled out Darwin’s explanation of the numerous …
  • … remained notable instances of design in nature. Although Darwin, in his subsequent correspondence …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 20 July [1861] ). One reason for Darwin’s interest in this piece may have …
  • … and embryological relationships between organisms. Darwin also found the review by the young …
  • … ( see second letter to J. D. Hooker, 23 [April 1861] ). Darwin continued to stress to his …
  • … Gaining allies It is not surprising, then, that Darwin was pleased that the methodology …
  • … maintaining that nature offered more evidence of design than Darwin was willing to admit. With the …
  • … Botany, simple geology & palæontology.' Moreover, Darwin found an important …
  • … Cambridge political economist and convert to his theory, Darwin learned of Mill’s view that the …
  • … accordance with the strict principles of Logic’ and that Darwin’s methodology was ‘the only one …
  • … 1862, p. 18 n.). Later in the summer Fawcett himself made Darwin’s methodology the subject of a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. He subsequently sent Darwin a copy of the manuscript and some …
  • … ( letter to Henry Fawcett, 18 September [1861] ). Darwin added some new names in 1861 to …
  • … geologists’, Archibald Geikie. Geikie had approved of Darwin’s chapter on the imperfection of the …
  • … Civil War. Undoubtedly, the news that most excited Darwin was word from Henry Walter Bates, …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … The following extracts and selected letters explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual …
  • … Selected letters Letter 1113 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [2 September 1847] …
  • … of dark eyebrows. Letter 489 – Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1859] …
  • … on his life and character. Letter 5670f - Darwin to Kingsley, C., [6 November 1867] …
  • … progenitor.    Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin
  • … lower animals. Letter 7329 – Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written …
  • … impeding general perusal. Letter 8146 – Darwin to Treat, M., [5 January 1872] …
  • … of her work on Drosera. Letter 10546 – Darwin to Editor of The Times , [23 June …
  • … progress of physiology. Letter 10746 – Darwin to Dicey, E. M., [1877] …
  • … with the sight of blood. Letter 11267f – Darwin, S. to Darwin, [3 December 1877] …
  • … from Mrs Cutting.  Letter 13607 – Darwin to Kennard, C. A., [9 January 1882] …

Darwin's notes for his physician, 1865

Summary

On 20 May 1865, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary that John Chapman, a prominent London publisher who had studied medicine in London and Paris in the early 1840s, visited Down to consult with Darwin about his ill health. In 1863 Chapman started to treat…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … On 20 May 1865, Emma Darwin recorded in her diary that John Chapman, a prominent London publisher …
  • … and Paris in the early 1840s, visited Down to consult with Darwin about his ill health. In 1863 …
  • … Chapman wasn’t the first medical practitioner Darwin contacted around this time. In 1863, Darwin
  • … however, his health grew worse.  In his ‘Journal’, Darwin wrote that he fell ill again on 22 April …
  • … more attacks of vomiting and seeking another opinion, Darwin wrote to Chapman. On the day that …
  • … life (the section, ‘I feel nearly … food’, is in Emma Darwin’s hand). Darwin began the ice …
  • … given up the treatment (see letter from Charles and Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [10 July 1865]). …
  • … Busk, 28 April 1865). In November and December 1863, Darwin had consulted the stomach …
  • … solutions to aid digestion ( Correspondence vol. 11, Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]) …
  • … D. Hooker, 26[-7] March [1864] ( Correspondence vol. 12), Darwin remarked that Jenner had found …
  • … Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, Darwin Evolution Collection (3314) and is …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed …
  • … , it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet when this study …
  • … anomalous. Moreover, as the letters in this volume suggest, Darwin’s study of cirripedes, far from …
  • … classification using the most recent methods available, Darwin was able to provide a thorough …
  • … his views on the species question (Crisp 1983).    Darwin’s interest in invertebrate zoology …
  • … Robert Edmond Grant. In his Autobiography (pp. 49–50), Darwin recalled: ‘Drs. Grant and …
  • … numerous references to the ova of various invertebrates, and Darwin’s first scientific paper, …
  • … marine organisms was exercised during the Beagle voyage. Darwin expressed his current enthusiasm …
  • … earlier researches in Edinburgh on the ova of invertebrates, Darwin was particularly well prepared …
  • … In 1835, in the Chonos Archipelago off the coast of Chile, Darwin found ‘most curious’ minute …
  • … In the zoological notes made during the Beagle voyage, Darwin recorded: ‘The thick shell of some …
  • … the absence of a shell and its unusual parasitic nature, Darwin recognised that it differed greatly …
  • … Such a revaluation had not been undertaken when, in 1846, Darwin began to examine several …
  • … of as many genera as I could procure.’ For fourteen months Darwin pursued an anatomical study of …
  • … British Museum and himself a cirripede expert, suggested to Darwin that he prepare a monograph of …
  • … and advised him on procuring other collections. At the time Darwin committed himself to this study, …
  • … his attention for the next seven years. To appreciate why Darwin would have undertaken such a study, …
  • … and nineteenth-century naturalists (Knight 1981). Many of Darwin’s contemporaries—Edward Forbes, …
  • … (Desmond 1982; Richards 1987; Winsor 1969).    Darwin’s views on classification were tempered …
  • … in arranging groups (S. Smith 1965; Ospovat 1981, p. 108). Darwin’s frequent discussions with Owen …
  • … the common design perceived among organisms. Within Darwin’s maturing evolutionary perspective, the …
  • … 1969, p. 83).    By the early 1840s, then, Darwin’s ideas on classification were well …
  • … [26 July 1843] ( Correspondence vol. 2), for example, Darwin confidently proclaimed his …
  • … to Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire’s philosophical anatomy, Darwin incorporated the concepts of analogy and …
  • … from a similarity in their basic plan of organisation, for Darwin homology revealed actual …
  • … species from another previously existing form.    Darwin’s evolutionary interpretation of the …

Darwin’s student booklist

Summary

In October 1825 Charles Darwin and his older brother, Erasmus, went to study medicine in Edinburgh, where their father, Robert Waring Darwin, had trained as a doctor in the 1780’s. Erasmus had already graduated from Cambridge and was continuing his studies…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … In October 1825 Charles Darwin and his older brother, Erasmus, went to study medicine in Edinburgh, …
  • … London for further medical training (see letter from E. A. Darwin, [29 September 1826] ). However …
  • … of England. This list is difficult to date precisely. Darwin mentions reading  Granby  in a …
  • … The position of  Granby  on the list would suggest that Darwin was very busy reading in January …
  • … of chemistry in 1801. Other books illustrate Darwin’s wider scientific interests, and also …
  • … , which was edited by David Brewster; and Robert Grant took Darwin to meetings of the Wernerian …
  • … university. There are several books of travel, and Darwin seems to have been particularly …
  • … arctic zoology. Two titles are closely connected with Darwin’s family.  Zoonomia  was …
  • … a week between March 1750 and March 1752. Both he and Dr Darwin had Lichfield connections, but the …
  • … Almack’s ,  Granby  and Brambletye House.  Darwin wrote to his sister Susan on 29 January …
  • … <Ni>tric Oxide?   (DAR 19: 3–4) Darwin’s student booklist - the text …
  • … Henry Chemistry 17  2 Vols 8 Vo Sewards memoirs of Darwin 18  1 Vol 8 Vo. Several …
  • … 3 Abernethy 1822. There is a lightly annotated copy in the Darwin Library–CUL, bound with Abernethy …
  • … 14 Bostock 1824–7. Volume 1 is in the Darwin Library–Down. 15 Jameson trans. 1827. There …
  • … 1826 as an ‘entertaining book’ (see letter to S. E. Darwin, 29 January [1826] ). The letter from …
  • … younger sons. 17 Henry 1823. Volume 2 is in the Darwin Library–CUL. 18 Seward …

Joseph Dalton Hooker

Summary

The 1400 letters exchanged between Darwin and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) account for around 10% of Darwin’s surviving correspondence and provide a structure within which all the other letters can be explored.  They are a connecting thread that spans…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … No single set of letters was more important to Darwin than those exchanged with his closest friend, …
  • …  They are a connecting thread that spans forty years of Darwin’s mature working life from 1843 until …
  • … an admirer of the older man, was approached about working on Darwin’s collection of plants from the  …
  • … admitted into the small and select group of those with whom Darwin felt able to discuss his emerging …
  • … a murder”. When Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) sent Darwin a letter in 1858 outlining an almost …
  • … simultaneous publication of papers by both men, and secured Darwin’s claim to the theory of …
  • … Much of the most important experimental work conducted by Darwin after the publication of  Origin …
  • … father as director in 1865, was perfectly placed to provide Darwin with exotic species, and to help …
  • … correspondents. Hooker was a frequent visitor to Darwin at his home in Downe, Kent, and …
  • … Of the many hundreds of letters that passed between Darwin and Hooker all but a handful of those …
  • … “in remembrance of his lifelong friendship with Charles Darwin”. At some time between those two …
  • … University Library, in 1948, together with the bulk of the Darwin archive, following transfer of …
  • … of their relationship with the recipient.  The use Darwin made of the information in letters …
  • … editions. And letters written in pencil suggest Darwin was unwell – you can’t use an ink dip …
  • … Going public: On 28 June 1858, just a few days after Darwin received Alfred Russel Wallace‘s …

All Darwin's letters from 1873 go online for the anniversary of Origin

Summary

To celebrate the 158th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species on 24 November, the full transcripts and footnotes of over 500 letters from and to Charles Darwin in 1873 are now available online. Read about Darwin's life in 1873 through his…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … and footnotes of over 500 letters from and to Charles Darwin in 1873 are now available online. …
  • … father or an atheist. Here are some highlights from Darwin's correspondence in 1873: …
  • … to J. D. Hooker, 23 October [1873] ) In 1873, Darwin continued work on insectivorous …
  • … , published in 1875. Investigating the sundew's sensitivity, Darwin found that the glandular …
  • … to bend inward, so that the plant closed like a fist. Darwin was fascinated by this transmission of …
  • … 2 scientific secretaries work to do  ( Letter to E. A. Darwin, 20 September 1873 ) As …
  • … proposed that he give up his medical career and become Darwin's secretary. This was a useful …
  • … appeared anonymously in the Edinburgh Review in April. Darwin asked one of his Scottish …
  • … to T. H. Huxley, 23 April 1873 ) Darwin wrote this to Thomas Henry Huxley, in the hope …
  • … poor health, and in financial trouble because of a law suit. Darwin, though not in the best of …
  • … Letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ) Darwin was invited to reflect on his own …
  • … As well as mentioning the traits listed above, Darwin revealingly declared, 'Special talents, …

Calendars to the correspondence of Charles Darwin

Summary

In 1985, the Darwin Correspondence Project produced its first publication, A Calendar to the Correspondence of Charles Darwin: 1821–1882 (New York: Garland), which contained a detailed summary of every letter Darwin was then known to have sent or received.…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … In 1985, the Darwin Correspondence Project produced its first publication,  A Calendar to the …
  • … Calendar  is still a standard reference work for Darwin scholars. In 1996 a separate …
  • … into the process of collecting and organising the wealth of Darwin correspondence.    …

Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …
  • … more for the sake of priority than anything else—Darwin was reluctant to squeeze his expansive …
  • … Natural selection . Determined as he was to publish, Darwin nevertheless still felt cautious …
  • … specialist in Madeiran entomology, Thomas Vernon Wollaston. Darwin also came to rely on the caustic …
  • … in London. Natural Selection Not all of Darwin’s manuscript on species has been …
  • … of pigeons, poultry, and other domesticated animals. As Darwin explained to Lyell, his studies, …
  • … can William Bernhard Tegetmeier continued to help Darwin acquire much of the material for …
  • … on domestic animals in India and elsewhere. William Darwin Fox supplied information about cats, dogs …
  • … mastiffs. The disparate facts were correlated and checked by Darwin, who adroitly used letters, …
  • … can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). Darwin also attempted to test ideas …
  • … garden species with their wild congeners. Many of Darwin’s conclusions about the variation of …
  • … these chapters are not extant. It seems likely that Darwin used the manuscript when compiling  The …
  • … or lost during the process. Before the publication of Darwin's correspondence from these years, …
  • … light on the role that these ideas were intended to play in Darwin’s formal exposition. …
  • … selection could not act without varieties to act upon, Darwin wanted to know where, how, and in what …
  • … Making the fullest possible use of his botanical friends, Darwin cross-examined them on different …
  • … and conditions of existence? One useful example that Darwin intended to include in his book was the …
  • … relatives. But a last-minute check with Hooker revealed that Darwin was mistaken: ‘You have shaved …
  • … was wrong ( letter to John Lubbock, 14 July [1857] ). Darwin thought his results showed that …
  • … than relinquish the results achieved after so much effort, Darwin began the whole laborious project …
  • … Such perseverance is perhaps the key to this period in Darwin’s life. He brought the same quality of …
  • … This was the origin and function of sex in nature. Darwin had always been intrigued by the …
  • … must occasionally be cross-fertilised by other individuals. Darwin sought information on this …
  • … request led Huxley to make a note for future reference, ‘Darwin, an absolute & eternal …
  • … not give a categorical answer. Nor could the botanists that Darwin asked about plants whose flowers …
  • … George Bentham, and the Belfast botanist George Dickie. Darwin’s theoretical notions also encouraged …
  • … Science at home: the botanical experiments Darwin’s researches into the purpose and results …
  • … papilionaceous flowers would allow for cross-fertilisation. Darwin carried out his researches with …

Abstract of Darwin’s theory

Summary

There are two extant versions of the abstract of Darwin’s theory of natural selection. One was sent to Asa Gray on 5 September 1857, enclosed with a letter of the same date (see Correspondence vol. 6, letter to Asa Gray, 5 September [1857] and enclosure).…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … There are two extant versions of the abstract of Darwin’s theory of natural selection. One was sent …
  • … and enclosure). It is in the hand of Ebenezer Norman, Darwin’s copyist and includes minor …
  • … which the fair copy for Gray was made. It was retained by Darwin (DAR 6). This version was …
  • … it has been transcribed here. The transcript does not record Darwin’s corrections and alterations …
  • … printed version is headed: “Abstract of a Letter from C. Darwin, Esq., to Prof. Asa Gray, Boston, U …
  • … 2 The printed version reads: ‘astounded’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 50). 3 The printed …
  • … and even in some degree methodically, followed’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 50). 4 The …
  • … reads: ‘good for carpets, of another for cloth, &c.’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 51). 10 …
  • … not judge by mere external appearances, but who could’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 51). 11 …
  • … reads: ‘and should go on selecting for one object’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 51). 13 The …
  • … reads: ‘in a few years, or at most a few centuries’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 51). 17 At …
  • … of the earth would not hold the progeny of one pair’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 51). 18 The …
  • … 20 The printed version reads: ‘far more’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 52). 21 The printed …
  • … follow to obtain food by struggling with other organisms’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 52). …
  • … natural selection to any profitable extent. The variety’ (Darwin and Wallace 1858, p. 52). 25 …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Species theory In November 1845, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend and confidant Joseph …
  • … and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). What led Darwin to engage in this work when he was …
  • … group. Light is shed on the close relationship between Darwin’s systematic descriptive work and the …
  • … often frustrating taxonomical maze. Throughout these years, Darwin was also struggling with a …
  • … explained in detail in letters to friends and relatives, Darwin felt sufficiently restored in health …
  • … Nevertheless, it is evident from his correspondence that Darwin’s two hours at the microscope did …
  • … Phillips, and Daniel Sharpe, demonstrating the extent of Darwin’s continued involvement in …
  • … and naturalists, most notably James Dwight Dana, Henry Darwin Rogers, and Bernhard Studer, and the …
  • … In the midst of all this activity, Hooker responds to Darwin’s particular queries and sends …
  • … British government in scientific research during the period. Darwin also contributed to these …
  • … scientific work of naval officers and travellers in general. Darwin was asked by the editor, Sir …
  • … to J. F. W. Herschel, 4 February [1848] ). Letters between Darwin and Richard Owen, author of the …
  • … zoology between them. Owen included in his chapter notes by Darwin on the use of microscopes on …
  • … the leading questions and wide views spelt out by Darwin in the Admiralty  Manual  are also those …
  • … Inverness, in which he maintained that the terraces, which Darwin believed to be of marine origin, …
  • … of Glen Roy had produced a lake and the consequent beaches. Darwin carefully re-examined his own …
  • … editor of the  Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal , Darwin asked for it to be destroyed. Only the …
  • … ). Other letters to colleagues at this time indicate that Darwin was beginning to feel that the Glen …
  • … 8 [September 1847] ). The second geological theory Darwin felt the need to defend had to do …
  • … that only a great rush of water could carry them up hills. Darwin’s response was to explain such …
  • … rocks and foliation in metamorphic rocks, on the other. Darwin maintained that cleavage was the …
  • … to convince other prominent geologists, among them Lyell, so Darwin was keenly interested in what …
  • … subject. The letters also reveal that Lyell sought Darwin’s advice in the preparation of new …
  • … Manual of elementary geology . In addition, Lyell asked for Darwin’s view of his major new theory …
  • … on slopes with dips of more than three or four degrees. Even Darwin, Lyellian though he was, had …

Darwin and ecological science

Summary

The word ‘ecology’ did not exist until 1867, and was not used in an English publication until 1876; Darwin himself never used it, yet it was his work on the complex interactions of organisms and habitats that inspired the word’s creation and he is often…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … 1867, and was not used in an English publication until 1876; Darwin himself never used it, yet it …
  • … of ecology’.    Between 2006 and Darwin's bicentenary in 2009, with support …
  • … during the life of the grant,  ‘Was Darwin an ecologist?’ , explores how the word …
  • … ‘Beauty and the seed’ explores a puzzle that Darwin never solved – why some plants produce seeds …
  • … it. ‘The evolution of honeycomb’ follows Darwin’s experiments and observations on hive …
  • … regularity of the wax cells in honeycomb. ‘Darwin and Down’ explores Darwin’s use of …

Visiting the Darwins

Summary

'As for Mr Darwin, he is entirely fascinating…'  In October 1868 Jane Gray and her husband spent several days as guests of the Darwins, and Jane wrote a charming account of the visit in a sixteen-page letter to her sister.  She described Charles…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … As for Mr Darwin, he is entirely fascinating…   Darwin often discouraged would-be …
  • … her sister, Susan Loring.  She described Charles and Emma Darwin, their daughter Henrietta, Down …
  • … on— Since a severe attack of illness, Mr. Darwin sits on an easy chair raised very high, …
  • … and grounds Tuesday I had a little walk with Mrs. Darwin round their grounds— The house …
  • … easy chairs of all shapes & kinds, from Mr. Darwin’s great throne, to “the latest instrument of …
  • … After breakfast there were prayers in the drawing-room, Mrs. Darwin leading the services— Then some …
  • … a little uncertain, & kept very quiet all day— Darwin’s Expression experiment (or the …
  • … the glass!— The experiment was one in which Darwin asked a succession of visitors  to …
  • … were being stimulated by electric probes. Henrietta Darwin The oldest daughter …
  • … for Bromley, where we again took Cabs for Down, where Mr. Darwin lives— It was so dark by the time …
  • … first Cab, & whilst waiting for the second to draw up, Mr. Darwin came out into the hall to …
  • … home face! We made quite a party for dinner—Mr. & Mrs. Darwin, she in black velvet, two …
  • … Tyndal, Wm. Hooker, a boy of 16 but looking only 14, Leonard Darwin— I can’t get used to being grand …
  • … dinner with lively talk— When the ladies retired, Mrs. Darwin’s sister, Miss Wedgewood, & niece, …
  • … of the Country, will allow— Later I got talking with Mrs. Darwin & Mrs. Kempson, & happened …
  • … After breakfast there were prayers in the drawing-room, Mrs. Darwin leading the services— Then some …
  • … charming talks now & then— It was a rare chance when Mr. Darwin, Dr. Hooker, Dr. Tyndal & Dr …
  • … that does not often come in one’s way— Mrs. Darwin’s brother came to breakfast, Mr. Wedgewood, whose …
  • … quick interest in so many things. As for Mr. Darwin, he is entirely fascinating— He is tall & …
  • … in recommending “My Lady Ludlow”— Mrs. Darwin is very lovable, with her sweet, placid manner …
  • … & Mrs. Kempson came to dine— In the afternoon Mrs. Darwin took me in the carriage to call on the …
  • … walks. Tuesday I had a little walk with Mrs. Darwin round their grounds— The house faces, …
  • … easy chairs of all shapes & kinds, from Mr. Darwin’s great throne, to “the latest instrument of …
  • … always in use— Since a severe attack of illness, Mr. Darwin sits on an easy chair raised very high, …
  • … at lunch or breakfast— The two young footmen then— Mr. Darwin came to lunch, but always breakfasted …

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The …
  • … life but I trust happy The anguish felt by Darwin is painfully expressed in letters …
  • … speak of her again. Yet the family gradually recovered, Darwin’s monographs were printed, and Darwin
  • … to the cirripedes. Before turning to his species work, Darwin somewhat ruefully recorded in his …
  • … monographs by natural history societies, though welcomed by Darwin, did not run smoothly. …
  • … the  Correspondence  describes the major achievements of Darwin’s cirripede work as a whole and …
  • … societies, which were supported by subscriptions, was that Darwin’s volumes were not publicly …
  • … in Germany at the forefront of work in invertebrate zoology, Darwin began a correspondence with …
  • … provided the foundations for a relationship with Darwin that soon developed into a valued friendship …
  • … April 1854, when his cirripede study was drawing to a close, Darwin re-entered London scientific …
  • … with lots of claret is what I want Perhaps Darwin’s decision to take a more active …
  • … to substantiate it is manifest in the correspondence. Darwin’s friends and colleagues were …
  • … outspoken young naturalists like Huxley, reacted eagerly to Darwin’s suggestions, although not …
  • … for the geographical distribution of animals and plants. Darwin began a series of researches on the …
  • … with the effects of known changes in climate and geology. Darwin boldly rejected the popular idea of …
  • … Some of the most interesting letters in this volume set out Darwin’s practical researches and …
  • … Variation and extinction The other main focus of Darwin’s research centred on determining the …
  • … seeds and bees An interest in variation naturally led Darwin to study the works of plant …
  • … views concerning decreased fertility of hybrids, Darwin began in the spring of 1855 a series of …
  • … a subject to which he returned in later years. Darwin also undertook experiments relating to …
  • … study, like another on sensitive plants, was an attempt by Darwin to ‘break the constitution of …

Interview with Tim Lewens

Summary

Dr Tim Lewens is a Lecturer in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge. He is the author of Organisms and artifacts (2004), which examines the language and arguments for design in biology and philosophy, and of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … and arguments for design in biology and philosophy, and of Darwin (2007), which considers the …
  • … belief, and the importance of a historical understanding of Darwin’s work.   …
  • … White: This is part of a series of interviews that the Darwin Correspondence Project at the …
  • … range of fields, and our aim is to discuss the importance of Darwin, historically and today, and to …
  • … for design in biology, and -just out – a wonderful book on Darwin and philosophy. Thanks very much …
  • … introduction. 2. The unusual role Darwin plays today Dr …
  • … the books which, frankly, are a bit of a harder read. So, Darwin’s study of variation, for example, …
  • … reason, I suppose, is basically the thought that, basically, Darwin got it right: in some sense or …
  • … I’d like to make. And another reason is that Darwin puzzles over so many of the conceptual …
  • … debates that we have right now. 3. Darwin’s reputation among scientists …
  • … in science. Do you think this has something to do with how Darwin’s reputation was forged in the …
  • … Einstein is as important for physics, I would say, as Darwin is for biology. There’s a …
  • … as deep philosophical questions. And so, if you think that Darwin’s basic views really do have …
  • … as I say, some people have viewed as certainly inherent in Darwin’s work. 4. …
  • … to that, if I can, is: what’s usually stripped out from Darwin’s own work now as in some ways being …
  • … 5. Does historical accuracy about Darwin matter? Dr White: Part of what we’re …
  • … - and in biology in particular – why should the historical Darwin matter at all? Dr Lewens: …
  • … contains the answer within it. I mean, the very fact that Darwin himself is used today by prominent …
  • … over what the real nature of Darwinism is, and the fact that Darwin is always invoked to try to …
  • … Darwinism, partly shows the importance of looking at what Darwin himself really said. You need to …
  • … as well as simply seeing whether or not the invocations of Darwin which real biologists these days …
  • … general view of life; a general philosophy – by looking at Darwin’s own claims more directly, as …

Instinct and the Evolution of Mind

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Slave-making ants For Darwin, slave-making ants were a powerful example of the force of instinct. He used the case of the ant Formica sanguinea in the On the Origin of Species to show how instinct operates—how…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … | Experiment Slave-making ants For Darwin, slave-making ants were a powerful …
  • … speculate about how it might have developed evolutionarily. Darwin corresponded about slave-making …
  • … with entomological experts who classified the ant species Darwin collected and advised him on how …
  • … in 1859, friends, acquaintances, and strangers wrote to Darwin about his treatment of the remarkable …
  • … Russel Wallace. The case of F. sanguinea intrigued Darwin's network of scientific …
  • … SOURCES Books Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species . 1859. London: John …
  • … Manuscripts Excerpts from Charles Darwin's Notebook C , p. 166 Excerpts …
  • … of Mind Letter 2226 —Frederick Smith to Darwin, 26 Feb 1858 In this letter, …
  • … Museum, identifies the species of an ant described by Darwin in a previous letter and advises him on …
  • … activities of F. sanguinea . Letter 2235 —Darwin to Frederick Smith, [before 9 Mar …
  • … mostly about the behavior of slave-making ants, which Darwin sent Smith. Darwin routinely sent …
  • … only to Smith. Letter 2456 —Frederick Smith to Darwin, 30 Apr 1859 Here Smith …
  • … known habitat in Britain. Letter 2265 —Charles Darwin to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 Apr …
  • … from other communities. Letter 2306 —Charles Darwin to Joseph Hooker, 13 [July 1858] …

Darwin and religion: a definitive web resource

Summary

I am aware that if we admit a first cause, the mind still craves to know whence it came and how it arose.  Charles Darwin to N. D. Doedes, 2 April 1873 Darwin is more famous, and more notorious than ever. Nowhere is this more evident than in the…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … it came and how it arose.   Charles Darwin to N. D. Doedes, 2 April 1873 …
  • … roots in the nineteenth-century controversies surrounding Darwin’s work on evolution. Yet Darwin is …
  • … in order to support a particular position. Whose Darwin is the true Darwin, and what are the …
  • … available key letters on on science and religion from Darwin's correspondence. The work was …
  • … ' Religion ' pages on this site.  The aim of the 'Darwin and religion' …
  • … through the engagement of the present with the past. Darwin’s letters provide a unique resource for …
  • … on people from a wide range of backgrounds. The picture that Darwin’s letters present of his …
  • … or indeed in most modern scholarship. At least 200 of Darwin’s correspondents were clergymen, …
  • … for morality and religious belief. The letters show that Darwin’s work could mean many different …
  • … of a fascinating series of letters exchanged between Darwin and his friend Asa Gray, Harvard …
  • … essay prize offered for the most interesting exploration of Darwin’s correspondence in the context …

Darwin's 1874 letters go online

Summary

The full transcripts and footnotes of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1874 through his letters and see a full list of the letters. The 1874 letters…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … and footnotes of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for …
  • … the Catholic zoologist St George Jackson Mivart caused Darwin and his son George. In an …
  • … licentiousness’. After re-reading what George had written, Darwin wrote:   I cannot …
  • … of [a] lying scoundrel.—  ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ) The …
  • … behaviour in scientific society. Find out more about how Darwin and his family and friends dealt …
  • … W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ) At the age of 65, Darwin had reflective moments, although his …
  • … Letter to D. F. Nevill, 18 September [1874] ) Darwin’s family continued to prosper. His …
  • … ‘I am sure he will never voluntarily be idle’, wrote Darwin to the directors, fearing that Horace …
  • … career, married Amy Ruck and came to live in Down village as Darwin’s secretary. I …
  • … Letter to J. D. Hooker, 30 November [1874] ) Darwin’s continuing loyalty to his friends …
  • … in his post as director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Darwin used what influence he could to …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It …
  • … unique window into this complicated relationship throughout Darwin’s life, as it reveals his …
  • … belief (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwin’s parents attended a Unitarian …
  • … the necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwin’s lifetime, the vast majority of the …
  • … income was essential to enjoy a gentlemanly lifestyle. For Darwin, who could rely on the financial …
  • … compatible with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwin’s Cambridge mentor, John Stevens …
  • … (Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). Darwin started on his journey around the world …
  • … it even through a grove of Palms.—’ (letter to Caroline Darwin, 25–6 April [1832] ). Darwin’s …
  • … Museum or some other learned place’ (letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832] ). Writing to Fox …
  • … about—’ (letter to W. D. Fox, [9–12 August] 1835 ). Darwin’s doubts about orthodox belief, and …
  • … in 1838 and 1839, as can be read here. In the end, Darwin chose a middle course—a life of ease in …
  • … within six years of his return from the  Beagle  voyage, Darwin moved to Down House, in the …
  • … where their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwin’s brother Erasmus, Emma’s sister …
  • … of Emma, whose religious scruples are discussed here. But Darwin’s correspondence reveals his own …
  • … Although he was not the principal landowner in Down, Darwin was a gentleman of means, and clearly …
  • … made inroads on Anglican authority in the countryside. The Darwin family took an interest in, and …
  • … Many of the letters highlighted in this section focus on Darwin’s long-standing relationship with …
  • … To the end of his life Innes refused to be persuaded by Darwin’s theory of evolution, but …
  • … cordial; in the first extant letter of the correspondence, Darwin wrote to Innes expressing concern …
  • … to 1869 (letter to J. B. Innes, [8 May 1848] and n. 2). Darwin praised Innes to John William …
  • … from Down (letter to J. B. Innes, 15 December [1861] ). Darwin and Innes continued to correspond …
  • … Innes, 7 December 1868 ). Innes had a tendency to tease Darwin about his theories rather than …
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