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Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … with Owen when it became clear that Owen’s November 1862 description of the recently discovered  …
  • … work on mimicry in butterflies, which had been published in 1862 (see  Correspondence  vol. 10). …
  • … to the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury in September 1862 ( see letter to Julius von Haast, 22 …
  • … men, given at the Museum of Practical Geology at the end of 1862, and published as a book in early …
  • … that had already occupied much of his time in 1861 and 1862. With the publication in 1862 of his …
  • … a question he had been struggling with in 1861 and 1862; he wanted to determine experimentally …
  • … Edinburgh, had initiated the correspondence in November 1862 with a letter correcting Darwin’s …
  • … ( see letter to Asa Gray, 23 February [1863] , and Loring 1862). However, his tolerance of Gray’s …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 3800 — Scott, John to Darwin, C. R., [11 Nov 1862] Scottish gardener John Scott notes …
  • … Letter 3805 — Darwin, C. R. to Scott, John, 12 Nov [1862] Darwin thanks Scott for bringing …

Thomas Rivers

Summary

Rivers and Darwin exchanged around 30 letters, most in 1863 when Darwin was hard at work on the manuscript of Variation of plants and animals under domestication, the lengthy and detailed sequel to Origin of species. Rivers, an experienced plant breeder…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and fruit trees. Darwin initiated the correspondence in 1862 in a typically modest and apologetic …
  • … would think me too intrusive” ( 23 and 28 December [1862]). Darwin was always conscious of …

Edward Lumb

Summary

Edward Lumb was born in Yorkshire. According to the memoirs of his daughter Anne, Lady Macdonell, he travelled to Buenos Aires aged sixteen with his merchant uncle, Charles Poynton, and after some fortunate enterprises set up in business there. In 1833…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … business was import and export trade, but he was also in 1862 the first chairman of the Great …

Orchids

Summary

Why Orchids? Darwin  wrote in his Autobiography, ‘During the summer of 1839, and, I believe, during the previous summer, I was led to attend to the cross-fertilisation of flowers by the aid of insects, from having come to the conclusion in my…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … book’, as Darwin usually referred to it, appeared in May 1862 ( Orchids ). A letter to …
  • … than almost anything in my life. ’ By February 1862, Darwin was able to send the manuscript …
  • … details of structure. ’ Orchids was published in May 1862. ‘A new and unexpected track’ …
  • … that he presented himself to the Linnean Society on 3 April 1862, ‘On the three remarkable sexual …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 miles across …
  • … & publish at once.” Wallace returned to London in 1862. Lacking the social connections …

John Beddoe

Summary

In 1869, when gathering data on sexual selection in humans, Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with John Beddoe, a doctor in Bristol. He was looking for evidence that racial differences that appear to have no benefit in terms of survival - and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1869 Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with a John Beddoe, a doctor in Bristol who had …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and, when the files were full, the letters were burnt; from 1862 his father was persuaded to keep …
  • … but work progressed slowly ( Letter 3078 ); meanwhile in 1862 Murray published  On the various …

Discussion Questions and Essay Questions

Summary

There are a wide range of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwin’s correspondence.  We have provided a set of sample discussion questions and essay questions, each of which focuses on a particular topic or correspondent in depth.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … on experimental practice? [John Scott and sexual dimorphism (1862), Fritz Müller and climbing plants …
  • … Did Darwin believe in progress? [Lyell (1860, 1881), Hooker (1862), Lubbock (1865), Graham (1881)] …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in the London daily newspaper the Morning Star in 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. …
  • … from Howitt"s letter to the Morning Star , 8 December 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January …

People featured in the German and Austrian photograph album

Summary

Biographical details of people from the Habsburg Empire that appeared in the album of German and Austrian scientists sent to Darwin on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Johannes Mattes for providing these details and for permission to make his…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … graduating from the Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica (1862), he hold the position of a  …
  • … Theil. Wien: Kaiserlich-königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei 1862. p. 275–277.   …
  • … Oberrealschule  in Bratislava (1850), and since 1862 director of the Imperial Institute for the …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 3439 : Darwin to Kingsley, Charles, 6 February [1862] "It is very true what …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet …

Climbing plants

Summary

Darwin’s book Climbing plants was published in 1865, but its gestation began much earlier. The start of Darwin’s work on the topic lay in his need, owing to severe bouts of illness in himself and his family, for diversions away from his much harder book on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of animals and plants under domestication in 1868. In 1862 he had read a ‘Note on the coiling of …

Species theory made public

Summary

Articles by both Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace describing their independently derived theories of species change, are read at a meeting of the Linnean Society. Darwin was at home with his family following the death of his son, Charles Waring, on 28 June…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Articles by both Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace describing their independently derived theories …

George Busk

Summary

After the Beagle voyage, Darwin’s collection of bryozoans disappears from the records until the material was sent, in 1852, for study by George Busk, one of the foremost workers on the group of his day. In 1863, on the way down to Malvern Wells, Darwin had…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … symptoms continued.) Darwin asked for Busk's help in 1862 when he was  trying to get …

Earthworms

Summary

As with many of Darwin’s research topics, his interest in worms spanned nearly his entire working life. Some of his earliest correspondence about earthworms was written and received in the 1830s, shortly after his return from his Beagle voyage, and his…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … by natural selection. His book Fertilisation of Orchids (1862) was Darwin's "flank …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

For the 162nd anniversary of the publication of Origin of species, we've added two new pages to our Works in letters section on Climbing plants and Forms of flowers. These complement our existing pages on the 'big book' before Origin,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects (1862) Climbing plants …

Expression

Summary

Darwin's interest in emotional expression can be traced as far back as the Beagle voyage. He was fascinated by the different sounds and gestures among the peoples of Tierra del Fuego, and on his return from the voyage he started recording observations…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … some funny notions on the subject ', he wrote to Hooker in 1862. After Origin was …

Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies

Summary

The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to the fifth edition of his  System of logic  (Mill 1862, p. 18 n.). Later in the summer Fawcett …
  • … final manuscript, and  Orchids  was published in May of 1862. The time spent on his …
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