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To Fritz Müller   10 August [1865]

Summary

Has read and admires FM’s work on species.

Observations on Crustacea are good and original; asks FM to dissect and check some of CD’s observations on cirripedes.

Has sent "Climbing plants" paper [J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 9 (1865): 1–118] and would like to send Orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  10 Aug [1865]
Classmark:  British Library (Loan MS 10 no 1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4881

Matches: 2 hits

  • … By Charles Darwin. Nature , 25 September 1873, pp. 431–2. [ Shorter publications , pp. …
  • … in a letter to Nature , 20 September [1873] ( ‘Males and complemental males of certain …

To Fritz Müller   25 September 1873

Summary

Seedling vigour resulting from crossing of parents.

CD to publish work on insectivorous plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  25 Sept 1873
Classmark:  British Library (Loan MS 10 no 35)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9067

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   25 September 1873
  • … 10 no 35) Charles Robert Darwin Down 25 Sept 1873 Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … in Müller’s hand, he answered it on 16 December 1873, but his reply has not been found. …
  • … copies of various books (see letter from John Murray, 23 September [1873] and n.  2). CD’ …
  • … John Murray. 1875. Müller, Hermann. 1873. Die Befruchtung der Blumen durch Insekten und …
  • … House MS) record a payment on 24 September 1873 to Murray ‘less 4. 13. 1 Profit for Fritz …
  • … fertilisation of flowers by means of insects ( H.  Müller 1873 ) in February (see letter …
  • … from Hermann Müller, 28 February 1873 ). Cross and self fertilisation was published in …

From Fritz Müller   [c. January 1874]

Summary

Agrees with Bates that neuter termites are not modified imagos (sterile females), but modified larvae (of both sexes).

Systematic relations of stingless honey-bees (Melipona and Trigona) are not yet well established.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. Jan 1874]
Classmark:  Nature, 19 February 1874, p. 309
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9281

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Zoologie 4th ser. 5: 227–82. Müller, Fritz. 1873–5. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Termiten. …
  • … 451–63; 9 (1875): 241–64. Müller, Hermann. 1873. Die Befruchtung der Blumen durch Insekten …
  • … on termites in November 1872 and it was published in 1873 in the Jenaische Zeitschrift für …
  • … Naturwissenschaft ( F.  Müller 1873–5 , pp.  451–63). Müller argued that the two forms of …
  • … possible) in some plants ( F.  Müller 1873–5 , pp.  458–9). Müller’s interest in stingless …
  • … of flowers by insect agency ( H.  Müller 1873 ) and initially he tried to find the bee …
  • … Möller ed.  1915–21, 2: 208–10). In January 1873, Fritz sent around forty bee specimens, …
  • … Fritz Müller to Hermann Müller, 29 January 1873, Möller ed.  1915–21, 2: 214– 18). For …

To Fritz Müller   1 January 1874

Summary

Thanks for two pamphlets.

Sends Thomas Belt’s [The naturalist in Nicaragua (1874)], "the best Nat. Hist. book of travels ever published".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  1 Jan 1874
Classmark:  British Library (Loan MS 10 no 36)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9223

Matches: 5 hits

  • … understanding of termites; F.  Müller 1873–5 ). CD’s annotated copies are in the Darwin …
  • … in Nicaragua (Belt 1874) was published in December 1873 ( Publishers’ circular , …
  • … 18 December 1873, p.  1062). Belt described chambers in the ant nest filled with a spongy …
  • … 7: 22–45, 441–50. Müller, Fritz. 1873–5. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Termiten. I. Die …
  • … part of his study of termites ( F.  Müller 1873–5 , pp.  333–9), Müller had described two …

To Fritz Müller   13 February 1874

Summary

Has sent FM’s letter on termites to Nature ["Habits of various insects", Nature 10 (1874): 102–3].

Would be interested in observations on the stingless bees of Brazil.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  13 Feb 1874
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no 37)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9288

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 21, letter to Fritz Müller, 25 September 1873 . CD refers to the second editions of Coral …
  • … to the first three parts of F.  Müller 1873–5 . See letter to Nature , 11 February [1874]. …
  • … London: John Murray. 1872. Müller, Fritz. 1873–5. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Termiten. I. …

From Fritz Müller   20 April [1874]

Summary

FM gives his own observations of leaf-cutting ants, which support those of Thomas Belt in his book [The naturalist in Nicaragua (1873)]. [See 9223.] These ants feed only upon the fungus that grows upon the leaves that they carry to their nests.

He has caught a moth of the Glaucopidæ that when touched emitted a cloud of snow-white wool.

Observations on the stingless bees of Brazil.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Apr [1874]
Classmark:  Nature, 11 June 1874, pp. 102–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9422A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … in his book [ The naturalist in Nicaragua (1873)]. [See 9223 . ] These ants feed only upon …

From Fritz Müller   12 September 1875

Summary

Has read CD’s book on Drosera [Insectivorous plants] and found that it presents new material and is very interesting.

Has discovered that the parasites he thought he had found in Melipona nests are in fact true females. It is remarkable that they differ so greatly from the sterile females and males of their species.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Sept 1875
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 318; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (PrP 08-0011)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10155A

Matches: 4 hits

  • … encyclopédique de Roret. Müller, Fritz. 1873–5. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Termiten. I. …
  • … ed. 1915–21, 2: 208–10). In January 1873, Fritz sent Hermann around forty bee specimens, …
  • … Fritz Müller to Hermann Müller, 29 January 1873, Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 214–18). For more …
  • … the understanding of termites; F. Müller 1873–5 ); CD’s lightly annotated copy is in the …

From Fritz Müller   19 October 1877

Summary

Doubts that glands of calyx of cleistogamic Malpighiaceae serve as protection.

Some species of Solanum bear long- and short-styled flowers on same plant.

Changing colours of some flowers may show insects the proper moment for fertilisation.

Doubts that the style of Pontederia cordata changes length.

Sexual difference in wings of some butterflies due to development in male of scales that emit odours to excite female.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Oct 1877
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 363–4; Nature, 29 November 1877, pp. 78–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11191

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 17 (1874): 266–407. ] Delpino, Federico. 1873. Ulteriori osservazioni e considerazioni …

From Fritz Müller   [27 November 1877]

Summary

Sends proboscis of a Sphinx-moth that is 22 cms long.

Discusses eleven species of butterfly which visit Lantana, a plant which blooms only for three days and whose flowers are yellow on the first day, orange on the second, and purple on the third. Most species only visit the flowers when they are yellow.

Describes and draws the odiferous organs of a Sphinx-moth.

Describes a secondary sexual character of several species of Callidryas and other Pierinæ: the costal margin of the anterior wing is sharply serrated in the males, while it is smooth in the females.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [27 November 1877]
Classmark:  Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (1878): (Proceedings) ii–iii
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11255F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … University Press. 1985–. Delpino, Federico. 1873. Ulteriori osservazioni e considerazioni …
Document type
letter (9)
Addressee
Correspondent
Darwin, C. R. (9)
Müller, Fritz[X]
Date
1865 (1)
1873 (1)
1874 (4)
1875 (1)
1877 (2)
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Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 31 hits

  • … and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved …
  • … A large portion of the letters Darwin received in 1873 were in response to  The expression of the …
  • … to have observed” ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 January [1873] ).  Drosera  was the main focus of …
  • … leaf & branch!” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 12 January 1873 ). Darwin found that the …
  • … copy of the  Handbook for the physiological laboratory  (1873), a detailed guide to animal …
  • … Darwin’s other main focus of botanical investigation in 1873 was cross- and self-fertilisation, work …
  • … & correlated” ( letter to T. H. Farrer, 14 August 1873 ). Darwin worried, however, that …
  • … when it will be ready” ( letter to John Murray, 4 May [1873] ). Keeping it in the family …
  • … their burrows” ( letter from Francis Darwin, 14 August [1873] ). In September, Darwin …
  • … will be created” ( letter to E. A. Darwin, 20 September 1873 ). Erasmus, who had studied medicine …
  • … work” ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 25 September [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for …
  • … 1872 and sold quickly. He wrote to Hooker on 12 January [1873] , “Did I ever boast to you on the …
  • … anonymously in the  Edinburgh Review  in April ([Baynes] 1873). Darwin asked one of his Scottish …
  • … before hand” ( letter to George Cupples, 28 April [1873] ). Readers' lives …
  • … letter from L. M. Forster to H. E. Litchfield, 20 February 1873 ). The surgeon Francis Stephen …
  • … ( letter to F. S. B. F. de Chaumont, 3 February [1873] ). Some readers proposed alternative …
  • … that accompanied sexual intercourse? (letter from ?, [1873?]). The Scottish physician William Main …
  • … with the reverse—” ( letter from William Main, 2 April 1873 ). The zoologist Henry Reeks suspected …
  • … and good breeding ( letter from Henry Reeks, 3 March 1873 ). Robert Swinhoe wrote from Ning …
  • … a second dose” ( letter from Robert Swinhoe, 26 March 1873 ). One of the leading …
  • … the jaws” ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 16 April 1873 ). Crichton-Browne was trying …
  • … the disease ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 30 December 1873 ). Instinct  In …
  • … to its offspring ( letter from J. T. Moggridge, 1 February 1873 ). Darwin soon became …
  • … shops ( letter to  Nature , [before 13 February 1873] ). Huggins’s letter prompted replies from …
  • … to  Nature  ( letter to  Nature , [before 13 March 1873] ) about a horse who had pulled a mail …
  • … with his finger ( letter to  Nature , [before 3 April 1873] ). Moggridge suggested the …
  • … fellow species” ( letter to  Nature , [before 24 July 1873] ). Character and genius …
  • … as “utopian” ( letter to Francis Galton, 4 January [1873] ). Continuing the line of research he …
  • … money very well” ( letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ). Among character traits, he listed …
  • … honest & industrious” ( letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ). Supporting science, …
  • … father ( enclosure to letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 December 1873 ).  In April, Darwin also …

All Darwin's letters from 1873 go online for the anniversary of Origin

Summary

To celebrate the 158th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species on 24 November, the full transcripts and footnotes of over 500 letters from and to Charles Darwin in 1873 are now available online. Read about Darwin's life in 1873 through his…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … of over 500 letters from and to Charles Darwin in 1873 are now available online. We have also …
  • … Here are some highlights from Darwin's correspondence in 1873: I do not think any …
  • … in Drosera.  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 23 October [1873] ) In 1873, Darwin continued …
  • … work to do  ( Letter to E. A. Darwin, 20 September 1873 ) As well as working on …
  • … of them sold!  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 January [1873] ) Expression of the …
  • … brother.  ( Letter to T. H. Huxley, 23 April 1873 ) Darwin wrote this to Thomas …
  • … and marvellous  ( Letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ) Darwin was invited to …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Darwin was very interested in hay fever. On 14 June [1873] he wrote to Blackley to thank him for …
  • … Aestivus (hay-fever or hay-asthma). And on   5 July 1873 Darwin wrote again, saying:  ‘The …
  • … in every direction. (Letter to C. H. Blackley, 5 July [1873] ) Blackley wrote back …
  • … regions of the atmosphere.  Blackley wrote on 7 July 1873 that his high altitude experiments had …
  • … remained elusive.   He wrote to Darwin on 11 July 1873 : The problem of cure has still …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … However, while footnoting a second letter from Chance in 1873, a discovery was made.  This letter …
  • … (Letter from Frank Chance, 31 July–7 August 1873 ) The pony hair turned up in the …
  • … son William’s house near Southampton on 10 August [1873] . William had followed up on a similar …

Darwin and religion: a definitive web resource

Summary

I am aware that if we admit a first cause, the mind still craves to know whence it came and how it arose.  Charles Darwin to N. D. Doedes, 2 April 1873 Darwin is more famous, and more notorious than ever. Nowhere is this more evident than in the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin to N. D. Doedes, 2 April 1873 Darwin is more famous, and more …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … including photography, anthropometry, and fingerprinting. In 1873, he proposed founding a society to …
  • … difficult to judge on these latter heads” ( 4 January [1873] ). Like most of his contemporaries, …
  • … particular inherited talents, except for business ( 28 May 1873 ). Galton grew increasingly …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • … had suggested a new edition of the coral book in December 1873, when he realised the difficulty a …
  • …  vol. 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble …
  • … of human evolution and inheritance himself.  In August 1873, he had published in the  Contemporary …
  • … the use of the Down schoolroom as a winter reading room in 1873 (see  Correspondence , vol. 21, …
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 20 July [1874] ). In 1873, Hooker had begun a series of …
  • …  vol. 21, letter from Francis Darwin,  [11 October 1873] ). Darwin wasted several weeks in …
  • … Moulinié, who had died after a period of ill health in 1873.  Edmond Barbier corrected defects in …
  • … was a copy of Joseph Simms’s book on physiognomy (Simms 1873), which contained Darwin’s portrait to …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen Lubbock, wife of naturalist …
  • … Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary Treat reports in detail on her …
  • … Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary Treat provides a detailed …
  • … 9156  - Wallace, A. R . to Darwin, [19 November 1873] Wallace reassures Darwin that …
  • … 9157  - Darwin to Da rwin, G. H., [20 November 1873] Darwin offers the work of …
  • … Letter 8719  - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] Darwin gives Mary Treat close …
  • … 9157  - Darwin to Da rwin, G. H., [20 November 1873] Darwin offers the work of …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 July 1873 In the 1870s, Darwin corresponded …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work” (letter from E. A. Darwin, 25 September [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Constantijn Costerus and his friend had written to Darwin in 1873, praising his works and describing …
  • … Letter to J. C. Costerus and N. D. Doedes, [22?] March 1873 ) The Dutch friends so …

Exercise: Caricatures of Science

Summary

Caricatures provide intriguing insights into both ideals and transgressions of gender. The following six images show caricatured representations of nineteenth-century men and women of science. They provide insight into the boundaries of what was deemed …

Matches: 2 hits

  • … width="191"] Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1873)[/caption]   …
  • … and biographical sketches of men of the day , (1873).   …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Weale, J.P.M. [Jan 1873] Bedford, Cape of Good Hope, …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 9005b - Darwin to Treat, M., [12 August 1873] Darwin thanks Treat for sending over …

Joseph Simms

Summary

The American doctor and author of works on physiognomy Joseph Simms wrote to Darwin on 14 September 1874, while he was staying in London. He enclosed a copy of his book Nature’s revelations of character (Simms 1873). He hoped it might 'prove…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of his book Nature’s revelations of character (Simms 1873). He hoped it might 'prove …
  • … flat feet were indicative of small secretiveness (Simms 1873, p. 154). A ‘broad foot’ indicated …
  • … destroy: the propensity to mar, deface, or destroy' (Simms 1873, p. 166). Unfortunately, …
  • … and animals. London: John Murray. Simms, Joseph. 1873. Nature’s revelations of character, …

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)

Summary

George Eliot was the pen name of celebrated Victorian novelist Mary Ann Evans (1819-1880). She was born on the outskirts of Nuneaton in Warwickshire and was educated at boarding schools from the age of five until she was 16. Her education ended when she…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Sunday afternoons, when they received visitors (23 March 1873; Emma described his visit in a letter …
  • … younger daughter, Bessy, did call on a Saturday in October 1873 but the Leweses were away. As a …
  • … this happened (Emma Darwin to Horace Darwin, [14 October 1873], DAR 258: 547b). Early the following …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 8837 — Darwin, C. R. to Doedes, N. D., 2 Apr 1873 Darwin explains the impossibility of …
  • … 9122 — Darwin, C. R. to Down School Board, [Nov–Dec 1873] Darwin, Sir John Lubbock, Ellen …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … (letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Ffinden fiercely resented Darwin for …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] Darwin asks naturalist Mary Treat …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 December 1873] Here Emma describes Darwin’s difficulties …
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