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From Henry Farncombe Billinghurst   [21 July 1863 – August 1870?]

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Summary

Acknowledges the receipt of some signed transfers.

Author:  Henry Farncombe Billinghurst
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [21 July 1863 – Aug 1870?]
Classmark:  DAR 80: B18v
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5765

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From Henry Farncombe Billinghurst   [21 July 1863 – August 1870? ] …
  • … Henry Farncombe Billinghurst Southampton [21 July 1863 – Aug 1870? ] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … the manuscript of Descent between 1868 and 1870 ( Correspondence vols.  16, 17, and this …
  • … volume). It was sent to the printers in August 1870 (this volume, letter to …
  • … Mr Dorrell, 9 August 1870 ). The reference is to George Howard Darwin. The transfers have …

From John Brodie Innes   29 August [1863]

Summary

Duke of Argyll has been dubbed "Duke Darwinii" by papers.

Large number of toads have been found in railway cuttings; wishes a scientific observer had taken pains to explain where they came from.

Comments on Scottish schools and on the morals of the adult poor.

Author:  John Brodie Innes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 167: 11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4283

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1980. The heyday of natural history, 1820–1870. London: Jonathan Cape. Clergy list : The …
  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Moore, James Richard. 1985. Darwin of …

To T. H. Huxley   23 January [1863 or 1864]

Summary

THH’s efforts to obtain Copley Medal for CD fail. Thanks THH for kind words of sympathy.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  23 Jan [1863-4]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 254)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2662

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Royal Society, Council minutes, vol.  3 (1870), pp.  124, 160). CD was nominated again in …

From F. T. Buckland   [before 1 February 1863]

Summary

Invites CD to visit offices of the Field; editor wishes CD to place natural history inquiries there.

Author:  Francis Trevelyan (Frank) Buckland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 1 Feb 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 160: 356
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3960

Matches: 1 hit

  • … 1980. The heyday of natural history, 1820–1870. London: Jonathan Cape. Rose, R. N. 1953. …

From James Paget   7 February 1863

Summary

Forwards a book [Horace Dobell, Lectures on the germs and vestiges of disease (1861)] and a genealogical table at the author’s request.

Author:  James Paget, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Feb 1863
Classmark:  DAR 174: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3971

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Paget, James. 1857. On the hereditary …

To J. D. Hooker   5 [December 1863]

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Summary

His bad health continues.

Thirty-two plants have come up from the earth attached to partridge’s foot.

Origin to be published in Italian.

Owen was wrong: Origin will not be forgotten in ten years.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 [Dec 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 213
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4353

Matches: 1 hit

  • … London publishers and printers c. 1800–1870. London: British Library. Correspondence : The …

From Isaac Anderson-Henry   16 May 1863

Summary

Sends sprig of Linum luteum corymbiflorum [?]. CD is right about its being dimorphic.

Will try some odd strawberry crosses this summer.

Author:  Isaac Anderson; Isaac Anderson Henry
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 May 1863
Classmark:  DAR 110: 24
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4168

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Penguin dictionary of botany : The …

From H. E. Darwin to Thomas Warner   14 October [1863]

Summary

On behalf of her father, she asks that his name be put down for James Buckman’s testimonial. His cheque for £2.2.0 is enclosed.

Author:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  Thomas Warner
Date:  14 Oct [1863]
Classmark:  Mrs Carole Cockett
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4320A

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Bristol, Herefordshire, and Shropshire 1870). A Thomas Warner is listed as an original …

From W. E. Darwin   21 August [1863]

Summary

Has signed and forwarded some orders.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Aug [1863?]
Classmark:  DAR 162: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4271

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Men and women of the time : The men of …

To W. D. Fox   4 [September 1863]

Summary

His bad health has caused him to return to Malvern.

Emma cannot find the gravestone of their child, Anne. Asks WDF whether he can remember its location.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  4 [Sept 1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 140)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4292

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Metcalfe, Richard. 1906. The rise and …

From Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox   8 December [1863]

Summary

Thanks WDF for his letter [on steel traps].

Gives a better report of CD’s health since he gave up water-cure.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  8 Dec [1863]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 142)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4355

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Post Office London directory : Post- …

From Isaac Anderson-Henry   24 April 1863

Summary

Bryanthus erectus, said by [D. D.?] Cunningham to be a hybrid, has been found wild in North America.

Author:  Isaac Anderson; Isaac Anderson Henry
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Apr 1863
Classmark:  DAR 159: 65
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4126

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. ‘Two forms in species of Linum ’: On …

From Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin   [28 October 1863]

Summary

CD’s health.

Family and local news.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [28 Oct 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 219. 1: 78
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4323F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Moyal, Ann. 1986. ‘A bright and savage …

From Armand de Quatrefages   [28 March] – 11 April 1863

Summary

Continues to support, in debates at the Société d’Anthropologie, the view that variability of animals and anatomical modifications are produced by environment. Wishes to use CD’s niata cattle example from Journal of researches [2d ed., pp. 145–6].

Author:  Jean Louis Armand (Armand de Quatrefages) Quatrefages de Bréau
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [28 Mar] – 11 Apr 1863
Classmark:  DAR 175: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4082

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Hachette. 1858. 3d edition, 1865. 4th edition, 1870. 5th edition, 1880. 6th edition, 1893. …

To Roland Trimen   31 January [1863]

Summary

Thanks RT for his letter and MS.

Is astonished by the different forms of orchids he describes.

Urges RT to describe and experiment with two or three of the more distinct genera.

"I believe, or am inclined to believe in one or very few primordial forms, from community of structure and early embryonic resemblances in each great class."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Roland Trimen
Date:  31 Jan [1863]
Classmark:  Royal Entomological Society (Trimen papers, box 21: 78)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3956

Matches: 1 hit

  • … edition of Orchids (Rérolle trans.  1870). The second edition of Orchids , incorporating …

From W. D. Fox   29 May [1863]

Summary

Recommends that CD visit Dr MacLeod’s [hydropathic] establishment near Ilkley.

Author:  William Darwin Fox
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 May [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 179
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4193

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Scotland, the medical directory for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. …

From J. D. Hooker   15 September 1863

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Summary

Pleased CD accepts continental extension for New Zealand, whose flora has many genera like Rubus with great diversity and connecting intermediates. Suggests geological uplifting creates more space, hence opportunities for preservation of intermediates. Sees clash with CD on causes of extreme diversity of form in a group.

JDH’s attitude toward democratisation of science.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Sept 1863
Classmark:  DAR 101: 163–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4306

Matches: 1 hit

  • … not resume work on the project until 1870, when he began to prepare a more circumscribed …

From Asa Gray to J. D. Hooker   6 July 1863

Summary

Includes comments about George Bentham’s anniversary address to the Linnean Society with particular notice of the favourable attention to Darwin, except for Natural Selection, and to AG’s essay in the Atlantic Monthly.

He defends [W. B.] Carpenter and [Jeffries] Wyman against [Richard] Owen.

Gossip about scientific honours and other matters.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  6 July 1863
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Asa Gray correspondence: 328–9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4232F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … List of the Linnean Society of London 1870). Alphonse de Candolle. Franz Josef Ruprecht …

From W. B. Tegetmeier   [c. 26 September 1863]

Summary

Encloses a cutting from the Field: C. R. Bree on zebra-striped asses.

Author:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 26 Sept 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 59
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4314

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Origin : On the origin of species by …

From John Goodsir   21 August [1863]

Summary

Agrees to examine a slide preparation of fluid [from CD’s vomit] to determine presence of Sarcina as a possible cause of his stomach ailment. Sends some authoritative references on it. Warns CD that Sarcina has been found in healthy stomachs.

Author:  John Goodsir
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 73
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4272

Matches: 1 hit

  • … for Ireland. London: J. & A. Churchill. 1870–1905. Plarr, Victor Gustave. 1930. Plarr’s …
Document type
letter (24)
Date
1863
01 (3)
02 (2)
03 (2)
04 (2)
05 (3)
07 (2)
08 (3)
09 (3)
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1870 in keywords
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Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The …
  • … machine’  ( letter to Charles Lyell, 25 December [1870] ). Finishing Descent; …
  • … some weeks’  ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on …
  • … I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read proof-sheets …
  • … shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: ‘Certainly …
  • … of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also encouraged …
  • … sense of mankind’ ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in …
  • … great philosophy?’ ( letter from F. P. Cobbe, 28 March [1870?] ). Humans as animals: ears …
  • … [1868] ; this volume, letter to Thomas Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolner’s …
  • … findings ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 15 March 1870 ). Indeed, Darwin noted the same …
  • … bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching expression: …
  • … spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more evidence of …
  • … hurting it much?’ ( letter to A. D. Bartlett, 5 January [1870] ). Darwin made a similar request of …
  • … not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries were part …
  • … of a baby’s brows ( letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [5 May 1870] ). He also wrote to a leading Dutch …
  • … on this subject’  ( letter from F. C. Donders, 17 May 1870 ). Human evolution: debates and …
  • … more fully in a collection of essays published in April 1870 (Wallace 1870a). Wallace wrote to …
  • … naturalist’ (letter to A. R.Wallace, 26 January [1870]). Despite their increasing …
  • … in one sense rivals’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 20 April [1870] ). Darwin alluded here to the …
  • … No one but yourself’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 20 May 1870 ). Darwin very rarely used the …
  • … never  write reviews’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, [22 May 1870] ). St George Jackson Mivart …
  • … to answer objectors’ ( letter to W. H. Flower, 25 March [1870] ). In his letters to Mivart, Darwin …
  • … on the Primates’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 April [1870] ). He also tried to recruit Mivart’s …
  • … lump of granite’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 22 April 1870 ). Mivart hinted that his …
  • … his “origin” ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 25 April 1870 ). In his critical essays (later revised …
  • … Charles Darwin et ses précurseurs français  (Quatrefages 1870), that gave a detailed account, as …
  • … many others’  ( letter to Armand de Quatrefages, 28 May [1870] ). Quatrefages had …
  • … discord’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 30 March 1870 ). In proposing Darwin for election, …
  • … them’  ( letter from Armand de Quatrefages, 18 July 1870 ). The assertion had been made by Emile …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870 Sarawak, Borneo …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 15 March 1870 West Riding …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 18 March 1870 Down, Kent, …
  • … Donders, F.C. 27 May 1870 Utrecht, Netherlands …
  • … Forbes, David 13 June 1870 Portman Square, London W. …
  • … Nicol, Patrick 13 May 1870 Sussex Lunatic Asylum, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 4 June 1870 Lagos, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 3 Sept 1870 Conservative Club, St …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 9 Nov 1870 11 St Mary Abbot's …
  • … Weale, J.P.M. [25 May 1870] Bedford, Cape of Good …
  • … Weir, J.J. 27 June 1870 Blackheath, London, England …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before …
  • … Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to …
  • … Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to Darwin, [29 April 1870] George Cupples tells Darwin about a …

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … honours in the natural sciences tripos in December 1870. The small amount of surviving …
  • … I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin,  18 October [1870] ). Subsequently Francis …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … behaviour of her dog (letter from J. L. Gray, 14 February 1870 ), she also passed on information …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … on my mind’ ( letter to W. T. Preyer, 17 February [1870 ])) that without earthworms aerating the …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … more litters & no happy results”, he wrote on 26 April 1870 . In the following year, Galton …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Audio of more …

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students

Summary

Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … grateful I shall be.”(Letter to Darwin, H. E., [8 Feb 1870] ) Although Miranda acknowledges that …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ideas to humans.  After his election as MP for Maidstone in 1870, Lubbock tried at Darwin’s request …
  • … Lubbock’s Origin of civilisation , published in 1870 as Darwin was completing Descent, was …
  • … good of my internal viscera’ ( to John Lubbock, 21 July [1870] ). It seems what principally gave …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … you owe any more … Darwin to his son Francis, 1870. …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … & I feel deeply for you. ( Letter to F. C. Donders, 19 May 1870 )     …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7123 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [March 1870] Darwin thanks his daughter, …
  • … Letter 7329 – Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] Sophia Kovalevsky accepts …
  • … Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] Written shortly before the …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March [1870?] Darwin met the religious writer and …
  • … Letter 7149 : Cobbe, F. P. to Darwin, 28 March [1870?] "I more than suspect you of a …

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 7346 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 18 October 1870 Darwin writes to Francis to …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … the basis for a new German edition (Bronn and Carus trans. 1870), prepared by Julius Victor Carus, …
  • … own evolutionary views and critical commentary (Royer trans. 1870). Darwin complained to Hooker, …
  • … work some hours daily’ ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 4 January 1870 ). Darwin’s health was generally …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Morning Star in 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75, 1 February 1872, p. 66). The …
  • … of a prize for a humane trap ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). The prize was still …
  • … England and Wales every night ( Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). Under these circumstances, …
  • … Star , 8 December 1862 (see Animal World , 1 January 1870, p. 75). 5 Animal baiting, …
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