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To T. C. Eyton   27 [August 1856]

Summary

Asks about strains of Herefordshire cattle.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  27 [Aug 1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.136)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1946

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To T.  C. Eyton   27 [August 1856] …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.136) Charles Robert Darwin Down 27 [Aug 1856] Thomas Campbell Eyton …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letters to T.  C. Eyton, 21 August [1856] and …
  • … 31 August [1856] . Eyton had published The herd book of Hereford cattle (Eyton 1846[–53]). …
  • … See letter to T.  C. Eyton, 31 August [1856] . …

To J. D. Hooker   5 October [1856]

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Summary

Agrees with JDH that Cytisus report [presumably of a large change] not sound. CD pleased because, if true, species would change too quickly.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Oct [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 178
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1969

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   5 October [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 178 Charles Robert Darwin Down 5 Oct [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] . It is not clear from the correspondence …
  • … what seeds CD had requested. See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 22 June [1856] and …
  • … 8 September [1856] . …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   3 November [1856]

Summary

Has received nine skins from Walter Elliot of Madras; WBT may describe them if he wishes.

Expects some Persian fowls.

Can WBT inquire about the fertility of certain duck hybrids?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  3 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1981

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   3 November [1856] …
  • … Finney Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 3 Nov [1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 19 October [1856] . Eaton 1852 . CD’s annotated copy is in …
  • … Library–CUL. See letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 19 November [1856] . See letter to W.   …
  • … B. Tegetmeier, 21 September [1856] . In the …
  • … 11 November issue of the Cottage Gardener 17 (1856–7): 103, Tegetmeier reported on the 14  …
  • … J.  A. H. de Bosquet, [before 3 November 1856] . Samuel Bult was a leading pigeon fancier …
  • … poultry sale was to take place on Tuesday, 4 November 1856 ( Gardeners’ Chronicle and …
  • … Agricultural Gazette , 25 October 1856, p.  719). Catalogues for the sale were available …

From T. V. Wollaston   [early November 1856]

Summary

Variability of certain features within insect genera.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 138
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2030

Matches: 8 hits

  • … From T.  V. Wollaston   [early November 1856] …
  • … DAR 181: 138 Thomas Vernon Wollaston unstated [early Nov 1856] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … John van Voorst. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …
  • … book, p.  17 (DAR 157a) on 30 November 1856. CD had apparently requested further details …
  • … characters of variation’, of Wollaston 1856 . The ‘opus diab[olicus]’ is Wollaston 1854 . …
  • … to be joined was discussed in Wollaston 1856 , pp.  96–7, and Natural selection , pp.   …
  • … from T.  V. Wollaston, [11 or 18 December 1856] . The ‘Q’ stands for quoted. CD used this …

To Charles Lyell   3 May [1856]

Summary

Discusses possibility of publishing a sketch of his views.

Comments on CL’s letter [1862].

Mentions various geological topics.

Asks to borrow publication by Heer.

Mentions flight of Colymbetes over ocean.

Recalls visit by Wollaston.

Notes views of Hooker and Huxley on species.

Mentions ability of ducks to transport plant seeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 May [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.127)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1866

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To Charles Lyell   3 May [1856] …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.127) Charles Robert Darwin Down 3 May [1856] Charles Lyell, 1st baronet …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . See …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 21 April [1856] . Heer 1855 . …
  • … See letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 . CD mentioned this case in Origin , p.  386. …
  • … letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856  and n.  7). CD further debated the pros and cons …
  • … outline of his theory with J.  D. Hooker (see letters to J.  D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] and …
  • … 11 May [1856] ) before he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice writing species sketch’ on 14 May (‘ …
  • … Appendix II). CD went to London on 5 May 1856. On Tuesday, 6 May, he read a paper at the …
  • … see letter to W.  E. Darwin, [26 February 1856] ). The case referred to here was of seeds …

To J. D. Hooker   18 November [1856]

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Summary

CD encloses letter from Asa Gray, although it is critical of JDH.

Role of struggle in forming species in retreat from advancing glaciers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  18 Nov [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 183
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1991

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   18 November [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 183 Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 Nov [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 (see n.  2, below). A letter to …
  • … from Asa Gray , sent by Gray to CD enclosed in the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [16 November 1856] . This experiment was recorded in CD’s Experimental book, …

To Thomas Henry Huxley   2 April [1856]

Summary

Invitation to THH and wife to come to Down to meet H. C. Watson, T. V. Wollaston, and the Hookers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  2 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 46)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1847

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To Thomas Henry Huxley   2 April [1856] …
  • … Archives (Huxley 5: 46) Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 Apr [1856] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … On Physiology and Comparative Anatomy’, was advertised for 22 April 1856 ( Medical Times & …
  • … Gazette 12 (1856): 404). CD was subsequently invited to attend the lecture (see letter …
  • … to T.  H. Huxley, 9 April [1856] ). …
  • … wife Frances arrived at Down on 22 April 1856. Thomas Vernon Wollaston came on 25 April …
  • … of lectures on physiology and comparative anatomy in 1856 (L.  Huxley ed. 1900, 1: 138). …

From Richard Thomas Lowe   12 April 1856

Summary

Discusses the flora of Porto Santo in relation to that of Madeira. While these islands have some 20 endemic species in common, there are 7 or 8 species endemic to Porto Santo alone, and 25 common to Porto Santo and Europe that are not found on Madeira. Believes the great difference in soil and climate is enough to explain this: plants common on one island cannot be made to grow on the other. Believes J. D. Hooker has underestimated the number of species endemic to Madeira. There are some remarkable endemic species of common plants in the Dezertas.

The eel is the only freshwater fish on Porto Santo and Madeira.

Author:  Richard Thomas Lowe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Apr 1856
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1852A

Matches: 9 hits

  • … From Richard Thomas Lowe    12 April 1856
  • … Kinnordy MS (private collection) Richard Thomas Lowe 12 Apr 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Chrysanthemum haematomma , described in Lowe 1856 , p.  296. It was distinguished from its …
  • … visited CD at Down House from 13 to 16 April 1856, and the ‘Migration of Plants & Shells’ …
  • … about Madeiran shells, dated 16 April 1856, are in DAR 205.3 (Letters). The date as given …
  • … Monizia by Lowe and described in Lowe 1856 , pp.  295–6. It comprised only one species, …
  • … the name Arthrochortus and described in Lowe 1856 , pp.  301–2. Lowe considered the single …
  • … 25, 265–86, 461–79. Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1856. Species Plantarum Maderensium quædam novæ, …
  • … of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany ( Lowe 1856 ). The list includes species from Porto …

From W. F. Daniell   14 November 1856

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Summary

Believes he can give CD information on Mammalia of St Thomas [São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea]. Quotes from a Portuguese history of the islands on unique species of monkeys and civet cats found there.

Author:  William Freeman Daniell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 270, 271
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1988

Matches: 10 hits

  • … From W.  F. Daniell   14 November 1856
  • … 271 William Freeman Daniell London, Gt Russell St, 25 14 Nov 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … to explain by natural means. See also letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1856] . …
  • … Great Russel Street | Bloomsbury. Nov. 14. 1856. My dear Sir. I have just received your …
  • … from W.  F. Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856 , has not been found. Charles Roderic and …
  • … directory 1857). HMS Scourge was serving off the west coast of Africa in 1856 ( Navy …
  • … list 1856). Edmund Gabriel was an anti-slave-trade commissioner in Luanda, Angola. See …
  • … CD memorandum, [December 1855]. See letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 19 November [1856] and …
  • … 29 November [1856] . ‘The only mammalian species found on these islands when they were …
  • … W.  F. Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856) . The statistical work referred to is Lopes …

To James Dwight Dana   14 July [1856]

Summary

Asks whether the blind cave animals described by B. Silliman Jr [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 11 (1851): 332–9] belong to genera found only on the American continent.

On geographical distribution of Crustacea, CD asks whether northern genera sent species to the Southern Hemisphere or did southern genera send species north?

Does he know of any author who has described fossil trees in South Shetland Islands?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  14 July [1856]
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Dana Family Papers (MS 164) Series 1, Box 2, folder 44)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1925

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To James Dwight Dana   14 July [1856] …
  • … Series 1, Box 2, folder 44) Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 July [1856] James Dwight Dana …
  • … to J.  D. Dana, 27 September [1853] ). Lubbock had married on 10 April 1856 (see letter to …
  • … John Lubbock, 24 April [1856] ). Dana had not become professor of geology at any ‘new …
  • … see letter from J.  D. Dana, 8 September 1856 ). CD and Dana had corresponded since 1849  …
  • … Humphrey Milford. 1928–95. Eights, James. 1856. Description of an Isopod crustacean from …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Dana’s opinion, see letter from J.  D. Dana, 8 September 1856 . See also letter from J.   …
  • … O. Westwood, 23 November 1856 , in which John Obadiah Westwood discussed the insect genera …
  • … letter to J.  D. Dana, 29 September [1856] . James Eights had collected in the Antarctic …
  • … by CD, along with a reference to Eights 1856 , in the manuscript of his species book (see …
  • … the letter from J.  D. Dana, 8 September 1856 , which is now incomplete. William Hallowes …

To Edward Cresy   26 [December 1843 – April 1846 or September 1855 – October 1860?]

Summary

Says Hooker does not want plant.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Cresy, Jr
Date:  26 [Dec 1843 - Apr 1846 or Sept 1855 - Oct 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 311
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13787

Matches: 12 hits

  • … 26 Mar 1846 26 Apr 1846 26 Sept 1855 26 Oct 1855 26 Nov 1855 26 Dec 1855 26 Jan 1856 26 …
  • … Feb 1856 26 …
  • … Mar 1856 26 …
  • … Apr 1856 26 …
  • … May 1856 26 …
  • … June 1856 26 …
  • … July 1856 26 …
  • … Aug 1856 26 …
  • … Sept 1856 26 …
  • … Oct 1856 26 …
  • … Nov 1856 26 …
  • … Dec 1856 26 Jan 1857 26 Feb 1857 26 Mar 1857 26 Apr 1857 26 May 1857 26 June 1857 26 July …

To W. D. Fox   15 March [1856]

Summary

Believes WDF’s case of mongrel Scotch deerhound is very valuable for him.

Mentions his work on pigeons and chickens.

Fears sometimes he will break down: "My subject gets bigger and bigger".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  15 Mar [1856]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 97)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1843

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To W.  D. Fox   15 March [1856] …
  • … Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 97) Charles Robert Darwin Down 15 Mar [1856] William Darwin Fox …
  • … Shropshire Infirmary and CD’s brother-in-law, had died in January 1856 ( Eddowes Salopian …
  • … Journal , 16 January 1856, p.  5). …
  • … See letter from W.  D. Fox, 8 March [1856] , in which Fox related his view that the …
  • … See letter to Samuel Birch, [12 March 1856] . The alula is the ‘bastard-wing’ of birds, …
  • … See letter to W.  D. Fox, 8 March [1856] and n.  7. CD’s series of young pigeons was …
  • … entries in CD’s reading notebooks for March 1856 relating to early ornithological works. …
  • … letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 20 March [1856] ). The differences in the number of ribs is …

To T. H. Huxley   9 April [1856]

Summary

Arrangements for visit of Huxleys to Down on 26 Apr.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  9 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 33)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1852

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To T.  H. Huxley   9 April [1856] …
  • … Archives (Huxley 5: 33) Charles Robert Darwin Down 9 Apr [1856] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter to T.  H. Huxley, 2 April [1856] and the letter to …
  • … Joseph Dalton Hooker, 8 April [1856] . See letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 2 April [1856] , n.  2, for the members of the party staying at Down House. …
  • … joined them for dinner on 26 April. See letter to T.  H. Huxley, 2 April [1856] , n.   3. …

To Thomas Davidson   23 December [1856]

Summary

Asks TD about variation among brachiopods.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Davidson
Date:  23 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.142)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2021

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To Thomas Davidson   23 December [1856] …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.142) Charles Robert Darwin Down 23 Dec [1856] Thomas Davidson …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … See letter from Thomas Davidson, 29 December 1856 . In Natural selection , p.  106, CD …
  • … Prof. E.  Forbes & from Mr. Woodward. ’ See letters from S.  P. Woodward, 2 May 1856  and …
  • … 15 July 1856 . …
  • … letter from Thomas Davidson, 29 December 1856 . Davidson was a fellow of the Geological …

From Charles Lyell   17 June 1856

Summary

CD forgets an author [CD himself in Coral reefs] "who, by means of atolls, contrived to submerge archipelagoes (or continents?), the mountains of which must originally have differed from each other in height 8,000 (or 10,000?) feet".

CL begins to think that all continents and oceans are chiefly post-Eocene, but he admits that it is questionable how far one is at liberty to call up continents "to convey a Helix from the United States to Europe in Miocene or Pliocene periods".

Will CD explain why the land and marine shells of Porto Santo and Madeira differ while the plants so nearly agree?

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 146: 475
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1905

Matches: 12 hits

  • … From Charles Lyell   17 June 1856
  • … 475 Charles Lyell, 1st baronet London, Harley St, 53 17 June 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … 53 Harley St. , Lond. , June 17, 1856. My dear Darwin I wonder you did not also mention …
  • … Sharpe 1856 , which had been read on 5 December 1855. …
  • … Daniel Sharpe had died on 31 May 1856. …
  • … Sharpe 1856 , pp.  118–23. The map given in the second volume of C.  Lyell 1830–3 , facing …
  • … 3 vols. London: John Murray. Sharpe, Daniel. 1856. On the last elevation of the Alps; with …
  • … see letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] ). McAndrew 1854. CD had corresponded with …
  • … See letter to Charles Lyell, 25 June [1856] . Lyell evidently considered his questions to …
  • … Irish Academy 6: 354–5. Haughton, Samuel. 1856. Discussion of tidal observations made by …
  • … is childish (see the Anniversary Address, 1856). But how far you are at liberty to call up …
  • … was entirely covered by shallow seas. Haughton 1856 , pp.  137–9, read on 24 April 1854. …

To Charles Lyell   16 [June 1856]

Summary

Condemns theory of Edward Forbes and others that many islands were formerly connected to South America by now submerged continents.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  16 [June 1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.131)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1902

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To Charles Lyell   16 [June 1856] …
  • … Mss.B.D25.131) Charles Robert Darwin Down 16 [June 1856] Charles Lyell, 1st baronet …
  • … of great antiquity in letter to S.  P. Woodward, 27 May 1856 . See also letter from S.   …
  • … P. Woodward, 4 June 1856 . Webb and Berthelot 1836–50; …
  • … Heer 1855 (see letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 ); and Maury 1855a. …
  • … see letter from Charles Lyell, 17 June 1856 ). E.  Forbes 1846 , pp.  348–50, 382–3, and …

To J. D. Dana   29 September [1856]

Summary

Thanks JDD for replies to queries [in 1925]; would like to know whether teeth of cave rat are of New or Old World type.

Wishes Louis Agassiz would publish his theory of parallels of geological and embryological development. "I wish to believe but have not seen nearly enough as yet to make me a disciple."

Is working hard on variations and origin of species, but fears it will be a couple of years before he publishes.

Describes his recent work on rabbits and pigeons.

The dispersal of land Mollusca is a most difficult problem.

Confesses he is sceptical of immutability of species; discusses difficulty of proving it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  29 Sept [1856]
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Dana Family Papers (MS 164) Series 1, Box 2, folder 44)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1964

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To J.  D. Dana   29 September [1856] …
  • … candidate. Buchanan was elected. See letter to J.   A. H. de Bosquet, 9 September [1856]. …
  • … Series 1, Box 2, folder 44) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 Sept [1856] James Dwight Dana …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from J.  D. Dana, 8 September 1856 . Letter from J.   …
  • … D. Dana, 8 September 1856 . The answer to CD’s question was probably in the missing …
  • … the letter from J.  D. Dana, 8 September 1856 . In the manuscript of his species book, CD …
  • … his scientific journals (Wilson ed. 1970). The 1856 presidential elections of the United …
  • … See also letter to P.  H. Gosse, 28 September 1856 . [Chambers] 1844 . Lyell’s prolonged …

From Charles Lyell   1–2 May 1856

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Summary

Urges CD to publish his theory with small part of data.

Corrects names of land shells on list of shells picked up at Down.

Discusses transport of Ancylus from one river-bed to another by water-beetle.

"I hear that when you & Hooker & Huxley & Wollaston got together you made light of all Species & grew more & more unorthodox."

Mentions discussion of old Atlantis by Oswald Heer.

Comments on Helix and Nanina.

Mentions beetle discovered with small bag of eggs of water-spider under wing.

Madeira evidence favours single species birth-place theory.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1–2 May 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 282
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1862

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From Charles Lyell   1–2 May 1856
  • … DAR 205.3: 282 Charles Lyell, 1st baronet unstated 1–2 May 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … had visited the Darwins from 13 to 16 April 1856 ( Emma Darwin’s diary). Lyell’s list of …
  • … May 1. 1856. My dear Darwin As I sent you a list of the land-shells picked up at Down when …
  • … Mollusca, living and fossil’ in February 1856. Ancylus fluviatilis was included among the …
  • … see letter to T.  H. Huxley, 2 April [1856] , n.  2). Lyell had evidently heard about the …
  • … pp.  56–7). In a letter of 30 April 1856 to Charles James Fox Bunbury , Lyell stated: ‘ …
  • … 2: 212). CD made notes, dated 28 April 1856, on his conversation with Wollaston. These …
  • … are preserved in DAR 197.2, together with further notes dated 8 May 1856. In …
  • … a letter to Lyell dated 12 May 1856 (F.  J. Bunbury ed. 1891–3, Middle life 2: 391–2), …
  • … CD recorded having read Heer 1855  on 7 August 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, …
  • … notes on this conversation, dated 16 April 1856 and headed ‘With Darwin: On the Formation …
  • … p.  54). In a letter to Bunbury, 30 April 1856 (see n.  7, above), Lyell again discussed …

To Samuel Birch   6 February [1856]

Summary

Is grateful for SB’s note and assistance. Will call upon him in London in a fortnight.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Birch
Date:  6 Feb [1856]
Classmark:  British Museum (Department of the Middle East, correspondence 1826–67: 1492)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1829A

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To Samuel Birch   6 February [1856] …
  • … East, correspondence 1826–67: 1492) Charles Robert Darwin Down 6 Feb [1856] Samuel Birch …
  • … to the letter to J.  E. Gray, 14 January [1856] . CD had asked Birch, through John Edward …
  • … animals and cultivated plants (see letter to J.  E. Gray, 14 January [1856] ). See …
  • … letter to Samuel Birch, [12 March 1856] . …

From Asa Gray   23 September 1856

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Summary

Plants that are social in the U. S. but are not so in the Old World.

Distribution of U. S. species common to Europe.

Gives Theodor Engelmann’s opinion on the relative variability of indigenous and introduced plants and notes the effects of man’s settlement on the numbers and distribution of indigenous plants.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1959

Matches: 10 hits

  • … From Asa Gray   23 September 1856
  • … DAR 165: 94 Asa Gray Cambridge, Mass. 23 Sept 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Humphrey Milford. 1928–95. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … Cambridge, Mass. Sept. 23 d . 1856. My Dear Mr. Darwin D r . Engelmann, of St. Louis, …
  • … DAB ). See letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . ‘Maruta=Anthemis’ was written in pencil in …
  • … Mountains to Oregon and California. In 1856 he was the Republican nominee in the American …
  • … presidential elections. A.  Gray 1856–7 , the first part …
  • … of which appeared in September 1856. CD’s annotated copy is in DAR 135 ( …
  • … 3). See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , for CD’s response to this information. …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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