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From Asa Gray   4 November 1856

Summary

Outlines the ranges of northern U. S. species common to Europe. Hopes to investigate the resemblances between the floras of the north-eastern U. S. and western Europe. Discusses routes by which alpine plants appear to have reached U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1982

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From Asa Gray   4 November 1856
  • … DAR 165: 95 Asa Gray Cambridge Mass. 4 Nov 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … to [J.  D. Hooker] 1856, a review of A.  de Candolle 1855 . CD forwarded Gray’s letter to …
  • … Joseph Dalton Hooker with his own letter to J.  D. Hooker, 18 November [1856] . …
  • … Mason. Geneva: J. Kessmann. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Convallaria majalis .ramme Cambridge 4 th Nov. 1856. Dear Mr. Darwin Your welcome favor of …
  • … In his letter to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] , CD had indicated that he considered the …
  • … see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). When he received the figures given by Gray in …
  • … dele’. Letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , in which CD referred to the first part …
  • … of A.  Gray 1856–7 . CD had asked Gray for some indication of the …
  • … the introduced species belonged (see letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] ). A.  Gray …
  • … 1856a. See letter to Asa Gray, 12 October [1856] , n.  6. Gray refers …

To Asa Gray   14 July [1856]

Summary

Asks whether Allegheny Mountains are sufficiently continuous so that plants could travel from north to south along them.

Hopes AG’s work on geographical distribution is progressing, as he has questions on plants common to Europe which do not range up to Arctic.

Are intermediate varieties less numerous in individuals than the varieties they connect?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  14 July [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1926

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To Asa Gray   14 July [1856] …
  • … in letter to J.   D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . …
  • … Letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . …
  • … Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 July [1856] Asa Gray …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . See …
  • … letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] , and the letters exchanged between Gray and CD in 1855 ( …
  • … the northern United States’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 ). See Natural selection , p.   537. William …
  • … A.  Gray 1856a). This point is made in Wollaston 1856 , pp.  105–6. See CD’s comments …
  • … 113-25; 3 (1844): 230–42. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … Press. 1975. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …

To Asa Gray   1 January [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for 2d part of "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403].

Is glad AG concludes species of large genera are wide-ranging, but is "riled" that he thinks the line of connection of alpine plants is through Greenland. Mentions comparisons of ranges worth investigating.

Believes trees show a tendency toward separation of the sexes and wonders if U. S. species bear this out. Asks which genera are protean in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  1 Jan [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2034

Matches: 16 hits

  • … topic after having first mentioned it in his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . See …
  • … also letters to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] and …
  • … 24 November [1856] , and letter from …
  • … Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Mason. Geneva: J. Kessmann. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern …
  • … northern U. S." , Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369– …
  • … by the relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . A.  Gray 1856–7 . In …
  • … his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] , CD had asked Gray to examine the ranges of species …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 1 December [1856] and …
  • … 10 December [1856] , and letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . CD had continued to remind Gray about this …
  • … genera, as Mr. Darwin suggests’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). See Natural selection , pp.   …
  • … species of small genera do. ’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  77). Comparing the northward range …
  • … through the polar regions’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  73). CD, on the other hand, believed …
  • … the similar or related species’ ( A.  Gray 1856–7 , pp.  78–84), in which Gray described …

To Frances Mackintosh Wedgwood   18 [August 1856 – January 1858]

Summary

Is flattered by a proposal that he undertake some reviewing work, but has many years’ work in prospect on his present book on species and varieties.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frances Emma Elizabeth (Fanny) Wedgwood
Date:  18 [Aug 1856 - Jan 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 148: 303
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1810

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To Frances Mackintosh Wedgwood   18 [August 1856 – January 1858] …
  • … DAR 148: 303 Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 Aug 1856 18 …
  • … Sept 1856 18 …
  • … Oct 1856 18 …
  • … Nov 1856 18 …
  • … Dec 1856 18 Jan 1857 18 Feb 1857 18 Mar 1857 18 Apr 1857 18 May 1857 18 June 1857 18 July …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … his species book ( Natural selection ). He began writing in May 1856. ‘Monday 18 th —. ’ …
  • … occurred in August 1856, May 1857, and January 1858. The next possible Monday fell in …
  • … but he resigned before publication began in 1856 ( Wellesley index 3: 135). Hensleigh and …
  • … illnesses to which CD refers. In August 1856 Henrietta Darwin was ill, and Emma Darwin …

To T. H. Huxley   1 July [1856]

Summary

Asks for information on geographical distribution of ascidians; are any closely allied species or genera found in north and south temperate zones that do not have representatives in the tropics?

Answers some questions on [cirripede] antennae.

If THH ever sees a tree washed ashore, will he observe whether any earth is embedded between roots?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  1 July [1856]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 175, 37–9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1914

Matches: 16 hits

  • … To T.  H. Huxley   1 July [1856] …
  • … Huxley 5: 175, 37–9) Charles Robert Darwin Down 1 July [1856] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … returned there again in September and October 1856 (L.  Huxley ed. 1900, 1: 143). A set of …
  • … which was completed late in the summer of 1856 ( Natural selection , p.  531). CD had …
  • … 1898–1903, 1: 194–6. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … selection , p.  46). See also letters to T.  H. Huxley, 8 July [1856] , and to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 13 July [1856]. Huxley endeavoured to compile a catalogue of the ascidians in …
  • … also letter to T.  H. Huxley, 8 July [1856] . CD refers to Huxley’s lectures on general …
  • … serially in the Medical Times & Gazette beginning with the issue of 3 June 1856 ( T.   …
  • … H. Huxley 1856–7 ). In …
  • … Huxley’s fifth lecture, published on 21 June 1856 and covering the Actinia, Huxley founded …
  • … be made to elucidate one another. ’ ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 , 12: 623). See letters to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 27 May [1856] , and to J.   …
  • … W. Lubbock, 27 May [1856]. Huxley was appointed examiner in comparative anatomy and …
  • … in the Medical Times & Gazette 13 (1856): 103. CD refers to the antennae of sessile …

To John Lubbock   [8 June 1856]

Summary

Wishes to borrow fly pincers for his son George.

Discusses T. V. Wollaston’s book on insect variation [On the variation of species (1856)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [8 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 4 (EH 88206452)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1896

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To John Lubbock   [8 June 1856] …
  • … 88206452) Charles Robert Darwin Down [8 June 1856] John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron …
  • … T. V. Wollaston’s book on insect variation [ On the variation of species (1856)]. …
  • … June 1856d from the reference to CD’s reading of Wollaston 1856 (see n.  3, below). …
  • … George Howard Darwin was nearly 11 years old. Wollaston 1856 . CD recorded …
  • … it in his reading notebook on 5 June 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, 128: 18). …
  • … Press. 1985–. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …

To J. D. Hooker   21 [May 1856]

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Summary

Huxley’s "vehement" [Royal Institution?] Lectures make it difficult to propose him for Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 [May 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 163
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1876

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   21 [May 1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 163 Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 [May 1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … books. London: Macmillan. Falconer, Hugh. 1856. On Prof. Huxley’s attempted refutation of …
  • … history’, published in the Medical Times & Gazette ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 ). The first two …
  • … printed in issues dated 3 May and 17 May 1856, deliberately attacked Richard Owen’s …
  • … of life ( Medical Times & Gazette 12 (1856): 430), Owen’ s apparent lack of reference to …
  • … London: Lovell Reeve. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. …
  • … proposed for election to the Athenæum Club in 1856 but was elected in 1858 under Rule 2, …
  • … issue of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History ( Falconer 1856 ). See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 17–18 [June 1856] . The Philosophical Club of the Royal Society. CD …
  • … council of the Royal Society on Thursday, 30 May 1856 (Royal Society council minutes). The …
  • … on N.  Zealand Flora *In conversation May 1856 [ added pencil ]’, CD wrote: ‘The Casuarinæ …

To J. D. Hooker   10 December [1856]

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Summary

CD is convinced of relation between separation of sexes and tree-habit.

Recent hard blows against crossing theory.

CD long tormented by land molluscs on oceanic islands; found transport possible experimentally.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  10 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 186
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2018

Matches: 12 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   10 December [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 186 Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Dec [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . Persoon 1805–7 . CD discussed this point …
  • … selection , pp.  61–2. See letter to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] , letter from H.   …
  • … C. Watson, 26 November 1856 , and letter to …
  • … George Bentham, 30 November [1856] . The difficulties that CD felt in relation to the …
  • … V. Wollaston, [11 or 18 December 1856] . …
  • … CD’s experiment, dated 3 December 1856, is recorded in his Experimental book, p.  17 (DAR …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … 35–91). It was completed on 16 December 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). See letter from …
  • … J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . See letter to P.   …
  • … H. Gosse, 28 September 1856 , n.  4, and the letter from T.   …

To T. H. Huxley   27 May [1856]

Summary

Has written very strong notes to Lord Overstone and Sir J. W. Lubbock and hopes they will be of service to THH.

Acknowledges receipt of THH’s lecture [unidentified].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  27 May [1856]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 174)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1878

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To T.  H. Huxley   27 May [1856] …
  • … Archives (Huxley 5: 174) Charles Robert Darwin Down 27 May [1856] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … third of Huxley’s lectures on general natural history ( T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 ), published …
  • … on 24 May 1856. CD had already received the first two lectures (see letter …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 21 [May 1856] ). …
  • … the letter to J.  W. Lubbock, 27 May [1856] . Both letters relate to Huxley’s application …
  • … at London University, which fell vacant in 1856. Samuel Jones Loyd, Baron Overstone, was a …
  • … The Athlone Press. Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1856–7. Lectures on general natural history. …

To J. D. Hooker   1 December [1856]

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Summary

Questions JDH on separation of sexes in trees in New Zealand flora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 185
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2008

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   1 December [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 185 Charles Robert Darwin Down 1 Dec [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 24 December [1856] ). Hooker had previously identified other …
  • … seeds from birds’ dung for CD (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, 22 November 1856 ). …
  • … crossing of trees, also discussed in the letters to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . See …
  • … letters to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and …
  • … 30 November [1856] . CD addressed the question of the crossing of trees in Natural …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, 7 December 1856 . CD’s results are given in Natural selection , …

To C. J. Andersson   25 March [1856]

Summary

Thanks for proof sheets of Lake Ngami: or, exploration and discoveries during four years’ wanderings in the wilds of South Western Africa (Andersson 1856).

Is very grateful for the information CJA has provided about cattle in South Africa, and wishes to ask further questions about native breeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles John (Carl Johann) Andersson
Date:  25 Mar [1856]
Classmark:  National Library of South Africa, Cape Town
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1845F

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To C.  J.  Andersson   25 March [1856] …
  • … Cape Town Charles Robert Darwin Down 25 Mar [1856] Charles John (Carl Johann) Andersson …
  • … wilds of South Western Africa (Andersson 1856). Is very grateful for the information CJA …
  • … Africa from 1850 to 1852 (Andersson 1856). For Andersson’s reply to this question, see …
  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter from C.  J.  Andersson, [6 April 1856]. …
  • … letter from C.  J.  Andersson, [6 April 1856] ( Correspondence vol.  6). CD refers to the …
  • … the wilds of South Western Africa (Andersson 1856). They have not been found in the Darwin …
  • … s observations of cattle in Andersson 1856 (under the title Travels in South Africa ) in …
  • … 6, letter from C.  J.  Andersson, [6 April 1856] for the surviving part); but CD wrote in …

To T. H. Huxley   13 [December 1856]

Summary

Pleased by what THH says on cement glands and organs in higher Crustacea. Content to be moderately right.

Hopes THH will dissect the Conchoderma.

Asks for cases of organs in which there is no apparent transition from other organs or in which transition can be shown in an unexpected way and for instances of odd and inexplicable connections between parts, such that if one part varies the other varies also.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  13 [Dec 1856]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 44, 375)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2020

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To T.  H. Huxley   13 [December 1856] …
  • … Archives (Huxley 5: 44, 375) Charles Robert Darwin Down 13 [Dec 1856] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter to T.  H. Huxley, 9 December [1856] . Siebold …
  • … 1857 , the English translation of Siebold 1856 . CD referred to the Italian dark bee in …
  • … See letter to T.  H. Huxley, 9 December [1856] , n.  7. See Correspondence vol.  5, letter …
  • … in the letter to T.  H. Huxley, 8 July [1856] . Henrietta Anne Huxley was pregnant. …
  • … The Huxleys’ first child, a son, was born 31 December 1856 (L.  Huxley ed. 1900, 1: 151). …
  • … See letter to T.  H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] , n.  2. CD was gathering such cases for …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … 1975. Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von. 1856. Wahre Parthenogenesis bei Schmetterlingen und …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   28 [September 1856]

Summary

Specifies pigeons in which he is interested. Has become almost more interested in rabbits than anything else.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  28 [Sept 1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2068

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   28 [September 1856] …
  • … Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday ( Post Office London directory 1856). See letters to W.   …
  • … B. Tegetmeier, 20 March [1856] , n.   …
  • … 8 and 24 June [1856] . …
  • … Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 28 [Sept 1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 21 September [1856] . John Bailey Jr of Mount Street and his …
  • … CD paid for these skeletons on 7 October 1856. A carrier left the George Inn, Borough High …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   30 August [1856]

Summary

Will forward the Scandaroons.

Is crossing all his pigeons to see which are fertile.

Hopes WBT’s work on fowls’ skulls is not forestalled by T. C. Eyton who also has a grand collection of skeletons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  30 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1947

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   30 August [1856] …
  • … Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 30 Aug [1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. Tegetmeier 1856 . Possibly the breeder who had exhibited …
  • … CD had inquired in his letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 14 August [1856] . See letter to W.   …
  • … B. Tegetmeier, 24 June [1856] . …
  • … Sunderland. Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 1856. On the remarkable peculiarities existing …
  • … to in the letter to Eyton, 31 August [1856], and by the relationship to the letter to W.   …
  • … B. Tegetmeier, 23 August [1856] . See letter to W.   …
  • … B. Tegetmeier, 23 August [1856] . Reginald Orton’s Physiology of breeding ( Orton 1855 ) …

From J. D. Hooker   4 August 1856

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Summary

JDH’s arguments against transmutation: 1. Plants do not show the confusion he would expect; 2. Under clearly similar physical conditions we do not find same species.

JDH’s argument against migration: commonality of alpine species. Believes migration opposes facts of botanical distribution in Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand; prefers continental extension theory.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 100–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1937

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   4 August 1856
  • … DAR 100: 100–4 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated 4 Aug 1856 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … delivered at the Royal Institution on 6 June 1856 ( …
  • … Tyndall 1856 ), John Tyndall discussed cleavage in rocks and other solids with the …
  • … 1985–. Godwin-Austen, Robert Alfred Cloyne. 1856. On the possible extension of the coal- …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . …
  • … Godwin-Austen 1856  was read at a meeting of the Geological Society of London on 30 May …
  • … Aug 4 th . 1856 – Dear Darwin Thanks for Lyells letters which are very tough reading— I …
  • … in 1860 (J.  D. Hooker 1855[–60]). See letter from Charles Lyell, 17 June 1856 . See …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 5 July [1856] . An allusion to the transmutationist views …
  • … creation ( [Chambers] 1844 ). See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 30 July [1856] . In a lecture …
  • … second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. …
  • … University Press. 1975. Tyndall, John. 1856. Comparative view of the cleavage of crystals …

To J. D. Hooker   7 August [1856]

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Summary

Antarctic plants most difficult to account for on any theory. Lyell’s iceberg transportal of seeds.

Are there more representative species of American origin in Tristan da Cunha than in Kerguelen land?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 Aug [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 174
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1940

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   7 August [1856] …
  • … DAR 114: 174 Charles Robert Darwin Down 7 Aug [1856] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … selection , p.  561). Hooker’s review of A.  de Candolle 1855 ([J.  D. Hooker] 1856). …
  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 10 July 1856 , in which Hooker’s list of Tristan d’Acunha …
  • … referred to, and by the reference to [J.  D. Hooker] 1856 (see n.  6, below). See letter …
  • … to J.  D. Hooker, 5 [July 1856] , n.  4. For CD’s difficulties in interpreting the flora …
  • … see also letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 July [1856] . See Natural selection , pp.  560–5. See …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   4 June [1856]

Summary

Reports safe arrival of rabbit sent by WBT.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  4 June [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1888

Matches: 6 hits

  • … To W.  B. Tegetmeier   4 June [1856] …
  • … with him on his return from London (see letters to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 31 May [1856] and …
  • … 24 June [1856] ). …
  • … Cox Collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 4 June [1856] William Bernhard Tegetmeier …
  • … doe mentioned in letter to W.  B. Tegetmeier, 31 May [1856] . There is an entry in CD’s …
  • … MS) for a payment to Tegetmeier on 4 June 1856. It reads: ‘Tegetmeier Rabbit & Pigeon: …

To T. C. Eyton   5 October [1856]

Summary

Offers TCE dog’s skin and skull received from W. F. Daniell in West Africa.

Mentions his experiments involving hawk pellets in seed distribution.

Reminds TCE about pig crosses and incisors.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  5 Oct [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.139)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1968

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To T.  C. Eyton   5 October [1856] …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.139) Charles Robert Darwin Down 5 Oct [1856] Thomas Campbell Eyton …
  • … from W.  F. Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856. William Freeman Daniell had been an army …
  • … of Wight (see letter from W.  F. Daniell, 8 October – 7 November 1856). Letter to T.   …
  • … C. Eyton, 31 August [1856] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [19 October 1856] . An entry in CD’s Experimental book, …
  • … p.  15 (DAR 157a), dated 23 September 1856, reads: ‘1 Partridge shot by M r Innes, had 10  …
  • … fea‘ del ] plumose feather? —planted. ’ See letters to T.  C. Eyton, 21 August [1856] and …
  • … 31 August [1856]. Eyton 1840  and either Eyton 1837a or 1837b. …

To T. V. Wollaston   6 June [1856]

Summary

Comments on TVW’s book [On the variation of species with special reference to the Insecta (1856)].

On TVW’s Unitarianism. Predicts TVW will fall further away from Christianity.

[Letter sent by TVW to Charles Lyell.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Date:  6 June [1856]
Classmark:  Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen. 1999/1/30)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1893

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To T.  V. Wollaston   6 June [1856] …
  • … Gen. 1999/1/30) Charles Robert Darwin Down 6 June [1856] Thomas Vernon Wollaston …
  • … with special reference to the Insecta (1856)]. On TVW’s Unitarianism. Predicts TVW will …
  • … must be an exception to it’ ( Wollaston 1856 , pp.  72–3). Attached to the original of …
  • … Wollaston concerned Lyell’s view of Wollaston 1856 . CD’s notes on this letter survive in …
  • … headed: ‘Lyell letter to Wollaston. June 1856’. Perhaps a reference to CD’s intention to …
  • … 1848 ). CD’s annotated copy of Wollaston 1856 , presented to him by the author, is in the …
  • … John van Voorst. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …
  • … it into his reading notebook on 5 June 1856 (see Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix IV, 128: …
  • … cited Lyell’s views on the effects of exterminating species in Wollaston 1856 , p.  179. …
  • … The passage occurs in Wollaston 1856 , p.  35, where Wollaston discussed his belief in the …

To Edward Sabine   23 April [1856]

Summary

CD and Hooker suggest Sir John Richardson for Royal Medal. Other suggestions are George Bentham, Joseph Prestwich, Albany Hancock.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Sabine
Date:  23 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  The Royal Society (Sa: 387)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1858

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To Edward Sabine   23 April [1856] …
  • … The Royal Society (Sa: 387) Charles Robert Darwin Down 23 Apr [1856] Edward Sabine …
  • … diary and letter to J.  D. Hooker, 8 April [1856]). J.  Richardson 1829–37  and 1848. J.   …
  • … nominated by CD and seconded by Huxley. See letter to H.  T. Stainton, 13 April [1856]. …
  • … In his 12 April 1856 editorial in the Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer , Henry Tibbats …
  • … recognise the value of Westwood’s work than had some Europeans ( [Stainton] 1856 , p.  9). …
  • … 52 (1851–2): 322–3. [Stainton, Henry Tibbats]. 1856. Why did Mr Westwood get the Royal …
  • … Medal? Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer , 12 April 1856, pp. 9–10. …
  • … meeting of the Royal Society, 1 December 1856, for ‘his contributions to Natural History …
  • … Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 8 (1856–7): 257–8. George Bentham was awarded …
  • … name, see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 8 April [1856]. See Correspondence vol.  5, letters to …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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