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To W. B. Tegetmeier   2 June [1865]

Summary

Has lost time through illness.

Suggests an experiment to see whether the progeny of a pigeon cross are affected by a previous impregnation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  2 June [1865]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4848

Matches: 7 hits

  • … 1990. Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 1856. On the remarkable peculiarities existing in the …
  • … skulls of Polish fowl at the 25 November 1856 meeting of the Zoological Society of London …
  • … Zoological Society of London ( Tegetmeier 1856 ). No other paper on fowls by Tegetmeier …
  • … 262–5  and 2: 332–3, and cited Tegetmeier 1856  in Variation 1: 262. Tegetmeier had begun …
  • … were published (Wingfield and Johnson 1856–7) is in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia …
  • … personally, instead of Wingfield and Johnson 1856–7, if CD thought fit (see letter from …
  • … fanciers, are cited in Wingfield and Johnson 1856–7 and in Variation. Owing to the delay …

From J. D. Hooker   [23] December 1865

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Summary

No one believes in Karsten.

Surprised by CD’s observations that illegitimate crosses within a species produce hybrid-like offspring.

JDH’s scepticism of Scott’s observations.

On proposing James Hector vs Julius von Haast for Royal Society; on learned society honours.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [23] Dec 1865
Classmark:  DAR 102: 47–50
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4954

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Bibliography Braun, Alexander Carl Heinrich. 1856. Über Parthenogenesis bei …
  • … Pflanzen. [Read 23 October 1856. ] Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der …
  • … Mercurialis , and possibly Bryonia (see Naudin 1856 and Radlkofer 1857 , pp.  250–1). …
  • … had probably fallen accidentally from a different plant ( Braun 1856 , p.  324). …
  • … Hooker visited Vienna in 1856 ( Correspondence vol.  6, letter to J.   …
  • … D.  Hooker, 28 September [1856] ). …
  • … A French translation of Braun 1856  appeared in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles ( …

From J. D. Hooker   24 December 1865

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Summary

Oliver says H. E. Baillon found stamens on female flowers of Coelebogyne, but JDH and many botanists have never found any stamens.

Lyell wants to propose JDH for Copley Medal.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Dec 1865
Classmark:  DAR 102: 51–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4955

Matches: 5 hits

  • … de France 4: 692–9. Braun, Alexander Carl Heinrich. 1856. Über Parthenogenesis bei …
  • … Pflanzen. [Read 23 October 1856. ] Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der …
  • … which he also sent to Kew (see Braun  1856 , p.  327, and n.  7, below). Robert Brown had …
  • … 23] December 1865  and n.  5. In his 1856 paper on Coelebogyne ilicifolia , Alexander Carl …
  • … sexually and parthenogenetically ( Braun 1856 , pp.  327–33). In a subsequent paper on …

From Fritz Müller   5 November 1865

Summary

Thanks CD for the copy of Orchids and papers on Linum and Lythrum [Collected papers 2: 93–105; 106–31].

Intends to travel to the River Itajahy and will make observations on climbing plants. Is not sure whether Dalbergia is a winding plant.

CD has changed FM’s whole perception of nature.

CD has helped him to understand distribution of coastal flora.

The vegetation on Desterro is changing.

Louis Agassiz is seeking evidence against transmutation in the distribution of the fish in the Amazon.

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Nov 1865
Classmark:  Möller 1915–21, 2: 76–7.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4929A

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Fluss zurückzukehren, wo ich von 1852–1856 lebte und wo ich eine kleine Kolonie besitze. …
  • … to the Itajahy River, where I lived from 1852–1856 and where I own a small homestead. The …
  • … had performed experiments between 1855 and 1856 in which he immersed seeds and fruits in …
  • … in south-eastern Brazil between 1852 and 1856. In 1854, he acquired a homestead in the …
  • … school in Destêrro (Florianópolis) in 1856, but retained his property in Itajaí (Möller …

From Benjamin Dann Walsh   1 March 1865

Summary

Sends his paper on "Willow-galls" [Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philadelphia 3 (1864): 543–644].

Lengthy criticism of Agassiz’s views on species as stated in his Essay on classification [1857].

Interested by CD’s trimorphism in Lythrum. Thinks some great mystery may lie in the fact that in some genera, some species are tri-, some di-, and some monomorphic, and in other genera, Apis, Vespa, Bombus, all the known species are dimorphic.

Author:  Benjamin Dann Walsh
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Mar 1865
Classmark:  Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4778

Matches: 6 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Chicago Press. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1856. On the variation of species with especial …
  • … a wingless habit (see T.  V.  Wollaston 1856 , pp.  82–7). See also Origin , pp.  135–6, …
  • … to CD’s discussion of T.  V.  Wollaston 1856  in Origin , pp. 135–6. See also n.  34, …
  • … Wollaston, 2 March [1855] and nn.  11 and 12, and Wollaston 1856 , pp.  81–7, 186–94). CD’ …
  • … s annotated copy of T.  V.  Wollaston 1856  is in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia …

From George Henslow   1 November 1865

Summary

Has made observations on pollination mechanism in Medicago sativa [J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 9 (1867): 327–9], which his brother-in-law [J. D. Hooker] would accept. Wants to check that CD has not already made them.

Also sends interpretation of Salvia.

His observations come from following CD’s generalisation in Origin [p. 79] on necessity of out-crossing.

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Nov 1865
Classmark:  DAR 166: 150
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4928

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … pollination of papilionaceous flowers in Leguminosae in 1856 (see Correspondence vol.   …
  • … letter to George Bentham, 26 November [1856] and n.  2). He experimented with leguminous …

To W. B. Tegetmeier   14 March [1865]

Summary

Asks for WBT’s help in arranging for woodcuts to illustrate pigeon chapters of Variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  14 Mar [1865]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4786

Matches: 3 hits

  • … vol.  6, letter to W.  B.  Tegetmeier, 15 March [1856] , and Variation 1: 132 n.  2). Weir …
  • … by Tegetmeier; Wingfield and Johnson 1856–7); his illustrations were drawn from life and …
  • … page). An annotated copy of Wingfield and Johnson 1856–7 is in the Darwin Library–CUL (see …

To J. D. Hooker   22 and 28 [October 1865]

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Summary

Thinks Royal Society’s failure to honour W. J. Hooker may be due to small number of botanists on Council.

Interest in H. J. Carter’s papers in Annals and Magazine of Natural History on lower organisms.

On Wallace; anthropology.

H. H. Travers’ paper on Chatham Islands [J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 9 (1865): 135–44].

W. C. Wells’s paper of 1813 ["Essay on dew", Two Essays (1818)] anticipates discovery of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 and 28 Oct 1865
Classmark:  DAR 115: 277
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4921

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … 6, letter to J.  D.  Hooker, 8 April [1856], and Record of the Royal Society of London , …
  • … CD’s copies of the journal for the years 1856 to 1864 have not been found, but volumes 15  …
  • … are in the Darwin Library–CUL.  Between 1856 and 1865 Henry John Carter published about …

From William Duppa Crotch   10 April 1865

Summary

Supports Atlantis hypothesis.

Author:  William Duppa Crotch
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Apr 1865
Classmark:  DAR 161: 274
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4811

Matches: 2 hits

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …
  • … Ireland and Newfoundland, Canada, in 1856 (see W.  H.  Russell 1865 , especially p.  7). …

From George Maw   1 June 1865

Summary

Reports a monstrous pig that looks like an elephant. It was born of a pregnant sow which had been frightened by a circus elephant. He offers the monster, which died at birth, to any London museum.

Author:  George Maw
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 June 1865
Classmark:  DAR 171: 100
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4847

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the City of Bristol. London: Kelly & Co. 1856–79. Richards, Evelleen. 1994. A political …
  • … curator of the Hunterian Museum from 1836 to 1856. Although Owen no longer held the post, …

To J. D. Hooker   27 [or 28 September 1865]

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Summary

Agrees with JDH on difference in grief over loss of father and of child. His love of his father.

The Reader.

Politics and science.

Health improved by Bence Jones’s diet.

[Dated "Thursday 27th" by CD.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [27 or 28] Sept 1865
Classmark:  DAR 115: 275
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4901

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Hutchinson. Bullard, Laura Curtis. 1856. Christine; or, woman’s trials and triumphs. New …
  • … or Geikie’. M.  C.  Harris 1860 , Bullard 1856 . Palgrave 1865 . For Hooker’s opinion of …

From E. A. Darwin   1 September [1865]

Summary

Sends a "Lanc & York" [railway share?].

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Sept [1865]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B35
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4889

Matches: 1 hit

  • … under trust property of Emma Darwin. In 1856, 720 shares of East Lancashire stock were …

To Charles Lyell   21 February [1865]

Summary

Belated thanks to CL for copy of Elements. Praises CL’s work. Notes especially Atlantic continents, the Weald, the Purbeck beds, glacial action, and the formation of lake-basins.

Also mentions account of Heer’s work

and CD’s disagreement with J. D. Forbes.

Suggests that CL have Murray print a two-volume edition [of the Elements].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  21 Feb [1865]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.306)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4775

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 13 March 1846] , and Correspondence vol.  6, letters to Charles Lyell, 16 [June 1856] and …
  • … 25 June [1856] . For CD’s earlier discussions of Heer’s hypothesised continent once …

To A. D. Bartlett   14 February [1865]

Summary

CD sends thanks for feather of the Gallus.

The rabbit arrived safely, but unfortunately the entrails had been removed; if ADB catches the other one, CD would like it sent unmutilated.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Abraham Dee Bartlett
Date:  14 Feb [1865]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4771

Matches: 1 hit

  • … vol.  6, letter to W.  D.  Fox, 8 [June 1856] ; see also Variation 1: 116, 120, 122, 126– …

From Charles Lyell to J. D. Hooker   [31 May 1865]

Summary

Emcloses copies of correspondence concerning his dispute with John Lubbock.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [31 May 1865]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Letters to J. D. Hooker, vol. 14, doc. 323 JDH/2/1/14); Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen. 113/3650–3, 3813–20, 3821–4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4844F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bibliography Keller, Ferdinand. 1856–66. Die keltischen Pfahlbauten in den Schweizerseen. …
  • … lake-dwellings in Switzerland ( Keller 1856–66 ). Keller published the sixth article in …

From Francis Trevelyan Buckland   18 March 1865

Summary

Introduces Cholmondely Pennell of the Admiralty, who wants to speak to CD about a literary matter.

Author:  Francis Trevelyan (Frank) Buckland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Mar 1865
Classmark:  DAR 160: 359
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4789

Matches: 1 hit

  • … notables. 2d edition, 1853. 3d edition, 1856. 4th edition, 1857. New edition, 1865. 7th …

To Asa Gray   19 April [1865]

Summary

Congratulates AG on the "grand news of Richmond".

Still interested in dimorphism and would welcome new cases.

Working on Variation

and correcting proofs of Climbing plants.

Would like seed of AG’s dimorphic Plantago.

Cannot understand how the wind could fertilise reciprocally dimorphic flowers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  19 Apr [1865]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (77)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4467

Matches: 2 hits

  • … four North American species of heterostyled Plantago discussed in A.  Gray 1856, p.  269. …
  • … There is an annotated copy of A.  Gray 1856 in the Darwin Library–CUL (see Marginalia 1: …

From Lucy Caroline Wedgwood   [April–May 1865?]

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Summary

Observations for CD on oxlips, which she finds never grow near cowslips or primroses.

Author:  Lucy Caroline Wedgwood; Lucy Caroline Harrison
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Apr–May 1865?]
Classmark:  DAR 108: 171–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4370

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

From William Allport Leighton    29 May 1865

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Summary

Describes the floral structure of the lupin and gives his observations on its pollination by bees.

Author:  William Allport Leighton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 May 1865
Classmark:  DAR 76: B95–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4840

Matches: 1 hit

  • … of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Edited by R. C. Stauffer. Cambridge: …

From Charles Shaw   3 October 1865

Summary

Admiral FitzRoy’s daughters by his first marriage have been left without means. The largest subscription to the fund has been £100.

Author:  Charles Shaw
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Oct 1865
Classmark:  DAR 177: 147
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4908

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Mary Henrietta O’Brien. Emily-Unah died in 1856 (see letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 2 May  …
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s …
  • … Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker, who were joined in 1856 by Hooker’s friend the American …
  • … only source of information about his preoccupations during 1856 and 1857. They reveal little noticed …
  • … might work in nature ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 10 ). He was surprised that no …
  • … remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … on plants. Expanding projects set up during 1855 and 1856 (see  Correspondence  vol. 5), he tried …
  • … first two chapters of his species book, completed by October 1856 (‘Journal’; Appendix II). …
  • … Gray, vary in the United States ( letter to Asa Gray, 2 May 1856 )? What about weeds? Did they …
  • … hermaphrodite’ ( letter to to T. H. Huxley, 1 July [1856] ), which became a source of amusement in …
  • … that Asa Gray and Hooker confirmed during the course of 1856. Science at home: the botanical …
  • … many different experiments on plants through the summers of 1856 and 1857, particularly with garden …
  • … have grown well.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 December [1856] ). His faith in his ideas …
  • … trees (see letters to William Erasmus Darwin, [26 February 1856] and to Charles Lyell, 3 May …
  • … Waring Darwin, the sixth and last, was born on 6 December 1856) was a constant worry, particularly …
  • … in New South Wales ( letter to Syms Covington, 9 March 1856 ). Many other topics, …
  • … the geological phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into …
  • … visited the Darwins at Down House for several days in April 1856, and Darwin took this opportunity …
  • … made in a letter written by Lyell from London on 1–2 May 1856. Darwin took the suggestion seriously …
  • … him to write up his views ( letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1856] ). Darwin had also …
  • … At a second weekend party held at Down on 26 and 27 April 1856, he had discussed the question of …
  • … doctrine.’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 1–2 May 1856, n. 7 ). The excitement and intellectual …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of the …
  • … family duties (Darwin to W. B. Tegetmeier,  19 November [1856] ) made him unable to travel to many …
  • … his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal feelings …
  • … in this world.’ (Darwin to Syms Covington,  9 March 1856 ) In the late nineteenth century, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 21 JULY 1855 14  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 14 JULY 1856 15  A GRAY TO C DARWIN …
  • … 1855 23  JD HOOKER TO C DARWIN, 9 NOVEMBER 1856 24  C DARWIN TO JD …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856 that he publish a short version of his …
  • … in persuading Darwin not to publish an abstract in 1856 , Darwin explained to whole affair to him …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …
  • … as Natural selection ). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by June 1858. At …
  • … 2 13 October 1856 [Variation under domestication] [2] …
  • … 11 13 October 1856 Geographical distribution (DAR 14; …
  • … 3 16 December 1856 On the possibility of all organic …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … research notes, including letters going back to at least 1856 . Among them were accounts of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *128: 160] Mansfield’s Paraguay [Mansfield 1856] } read Chesterton Prison Life …
  • … Hutchison Dog Breaking 3 d . Edit [Hutchinson 1856] new information on Pointer & Retriever …
  • … Annal des Sc. Nat. 4 th  Series. Bot. Vol 6 [Naudin 1856]. Read Notes to Jardine & …
  • … 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 1856–7] —— 27 th . Mem. de l’Acad. …
  • … Das Ganze der Landwirttschaft [Kirchhof 1835].— 1856. Jan 10 th  G. Colin Traite de …
  • … [Rudolphi 1812] [DAR 128: 16] 1856 Jan 21. Huc’s Chinese Empire [Huc …
  • … Mar 1 Veith Naturgeschichte Haussaugethiere [Veith 1856].— 3 d  Knox Races of Man.— 1850 [R …
  • … 1741–55] d[itt]o [DAR 128: 17] 1856 . Jan 28. Watt’s Life by Muirhead …
  • … [Pepys 1848–9]— April 21 Sandwitt Kars [Sandwith 1856]. [DAR 128: 18] March …
  • … 1851–6] —— Wollaston on Variation [Wollaston 1856] F. Smith on Apidæ [F. Smith 1855] …
  • … 1835 [H. C. Watson 1835] [DAR 128: 20] 1856 June 26. Davis J. Barnard. …
  • … 1855] —— 19 Von Tschudi Alpine life [Tschudi 1856] 30. Brehm Handbuch Vogel …
  • … 1857 Nov. 15. Andersson Lake Gnami [Andersson 1856] —— 26 Slightly skimmed Forbes …
  • … 1765] Oct. 23. Tracings of Iceland Chambers [Chambers 1856]. —— Mansfield Travels in …
  • … 2 vols July D r . Kane’s Arctic Voyage [Kane 1856] Sept. 12. Ch. Napiers Life …
  • … rubbish yet amusing Nov. 15. Tender & True [Spence] 1856]: H. Coverdale [Smedley [1854–6] …
  • … Travels I ever read) Sept. Froude Henry VIII [Froude 1856]. 4 vols very interesting. …
  • … —— 16 Zoologist [ Zoologist ]. up Vol. 14. 1856 May 9 th  Voyage au Pol. Sud. Consid. Gen …
  • … 1859 Feb. 28 Olmstead S. States [Olmsted 1856] (excellent) March 21. Mill on Liberty …
  • … The revised edition of Johnston’s  Physical atlas  (1856) included ‘Map of the distribution of …
  • … 113  The  Cottage Gardener  ceased publication in 1856. 114  CD marked this entry …
  • … vols. London.  119: 14a Andersson, Carl Johan. 1856.  Lake Ngami; or, explorations and   …
  • … [Darwin Library.]  119: 20a; *128: 173 ——. 1856.  Tracings of Iceland and the Faröe …
  • … [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of prison life;   …
  • … 128: 5 Davis, Joseph Barnard and Thurnam, John. 1856–65.  Crania   Britannica. …
  • … Three visits to Madagascar during   the years 1853, 1854, 1856 . London.  128: 24 …
  • … . Lundæ.  *119: 5v. Froude, James Anthony. 1856.  History of England from the   fall of …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856 ‘y ou continental extensionists …
  • … of his old friend, the geologist Charles Lyell, who, in May 1856, twenty months after Darwin had …
  • … urgency to publish and, following Lyell’s advice in May 1856, began to write a sketch his theory. ‘I …
  • … without full details. ’ Writing to his cousin Fox in June 1856, Darwin openly confessed his fears …
  • … work ’ he had ‘desisted’. By November 1856, he had both good and bad news to report to Lyell: ‘ …
  • … press. Although Darwin had decided in the autumn of 1856 to write only from the materials he …
  • … wrote ten and a half chapters of his Big Book between May 1856 and June 1858. With a total of …
  • … length ’, he had complained to Hooker in December 1856. By mid-1858, only the first chapter on …
  • … being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge University …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Owen, and Louis Agassiz (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 9 May 1856 and 21 May 1856). But he considered …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

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  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist …
  • … Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and botanist Miles …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

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  • … it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855, Müller …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

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  • … Letter 1979 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

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  • … to write up a ‘preliminary essay’ on his views in 1856, he went back to Fox to check his facts, …
  • … the African explorer and army surgeon William Daniell in 1856 was probably in reply to such a …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

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  • … `big book’,  Natural selection , begun in 1856.  Coming hard on the heels of  The descent of man …

Begins 'Natural Selection'

Summary

Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but later formed the basis for On the Origin of Species

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  • … Darwin begins writing his 'big book', Natural Selection. The book was never finished, but …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

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  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Tenth child born

Summary

The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born

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  • … The Darwins' tenth and last child, Charles Waring Darwin, is born …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

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  • … work preparing his ‘big book’ on species. Begun in May 1856 at the urging of Lyell, the manuscript …

The expression of emotions

Summary

Darwin’s work on emotional expression, from notes in his Beagle diary and observations of his own children, to questionnaires, and experiments with photographs, was an integral part of his broad research on human evolution. It provided one of the main…

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  • … his other children followed, and the record was kept through 1856. Darwin’s wife, Emma also recorded …
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