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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To A. R. Wallace   28 [May 1864]

Summary

Response to ARW’s papers on Papilionidae ["On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1866): 1–71; abstract in Reader 3 (1864): 491–3],

and man ["The origin of human races", J. Anthropol. Soc. Lond. 2 (1864): clviii–clxxxvi].

The former is "really admirable" and will be influential.

The idea of the man paper is striking and new. Minor points of difference. Conjectures regarding racial differences; the possible correlation between complexion and constitution. His Query to Army surgeons to determine this point. Offers ARW his notes on man, which CD doubts he will be able to use.

On sexual selection in "our aristocracy"; primogeniture is a scheme for destroying natural selection.

[Letter incorrectly dated March by CD.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  28 [May 1864]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add. MS 46434: 39)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4510

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  6, letter from C.  J.  Andersson, [6 April 1856] , letter to W.  B.   …
  • … Mantell, 10 April [1856] and n.  5, and Correspondence vol.  8, letter to Thomas Bridges, …

From J. D. Hooker   6 April 1864

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Summary

J. H. Balfour gives Scott excellent character reference, but says he is unfit either to superintend or be subordinate.

Herbert Spencer’s review of J. M. Schleiden is interesting [see 4457].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Apr 1864
Classmark:  DAR 101: 204–5; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Directors’ Correspondence English letters Balfour 1866–1900 vol. 78: 311)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4452

Matches: 1 hit

  • … Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (English letters 1856–1900, vol.  98: 371). Hooker refers to …

To B. D. Walsh   21 October [1864]

Summary

Thanks for letter and memoirs.

Suggests a "rather hopeless experiment" of introducing poisons into tissues of plants on the chance that monstrous growths may be produced.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Benjamin Dann Walsh
Date:  21 Oct [1864]
Classmark:  Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Walsh)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4640

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol.  7, Supplement, letter to John Lubbock, [March? 1856] and n.  3, and Descent 2: 314). …
  • … vol.  7, Supplement, letter to John Lubbock, [March? 1856] and nn.  2 and 3. See also this …

From J. D. Hooker   29 March 1864

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Summary

John Scott’s career.

Huxley’s vicious attack on anthropologists.

Critique of Joseph Prestwich’s theory of rivers.

Bitter feelings between the Hookers and the Veitch family of nurserymen.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Mar 1864
Classmark:  DAR 101: 193–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4439

Matches: 1 hit

  • … see Correspondence vol.  6, letter to Edward Sabine, 23 April [1856] , and Correspondence …

From John Scott   14 April [1864]

Summary

Thanks for CD’s consoling letter. His mind cannot concentrate after losing his position, and he feels "an inward dread of life’s future". Would have been glad to work for CD. Understands why Hooker cannot recommend him.

Author:  John Scott
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Apr [1864]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 104
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4463

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and Page 1856 ; both were published in several editions ( DNB , NUC ). See letter to John …

To J. D. Hooker   22 [May 1864]

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Summary

CD’s pleasure at JDH’s willingness to help Scott find a position in India.

Naudin underrates contamination of his experiments by insects. Thus CD doubts Naudin’s results on rapidity and universality of reversion in hybrids.

Wallace’s paper on man [see 4494] reflects his genius, although CD does not fully agree with it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 [May 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 236
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4506

Matches: 1 hit

  • … including Naudin 1852 , 1856, and 1858, see Correspondence vol.  10, letter from C.  V.   …

From C. V. Naudin   6 December 1864

Summary

Congratulates CD on the Copley Medal.

Directs CD to his short memoir on crossing ["De l’hybridité", C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. 59 (1864): 837–45].

Author:  Charles Victor Naudin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Dec 1864
Classmark:  DAR 172: 7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4703

Matches: 2 hits

  • 1856 are in DAR 205.7: 141. Naudin’s major work on Cucurbitaceae was not published in full until 1865 (Naudin 1865; see also Correspondence vol.  10, letter
  • letters to J.  D.  Hooker, 22 [May 1864] and 13 September [ 1864] and nn.  3 and 4). See also Geison 1969 , pp.  404–11, and J.  Harvey 1997b. In Variation 1: 357–60, CD cited Naudin’s early work on Cucurbitaceae (Naudin 1856  …

To J. D. Hooker   10 December [1864]

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Summary

Has found incipient stages of adhesive discs in Hanburia tendrils.

Huxley was probably right to have challenged Sabine, but the poor old man is sick.

CD remembers the old Disraeli novel [Tancred (1847)] that sneers at transmutation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  10 Dec [1864]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 256
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4712

Matches: 1 hit

  • … and Correspondence vol.  6, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 9 November 1856 ). He is cited …

From George Bentham   10 July 1864

Summary

Sends specimens of two species of Aegiphila [see Forms of flowers, p. 123]. Discusses similar forms in other plants.

Author:  George Bentham
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 July 1864
Classmark:  DAR 110: B107–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4556

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856, p.  171 n. ). In 1861, Gray had referred CD to the Rubiaceae because of their dimorphic flowers (see Correspondence vol.  9, letters

From J. D. Hooker   2 December 1864

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Summary

Recounts row at the Royal Society over exclusion of mention of Origin from Sabine’s address awarding Copley Medal to CD.

Encloses two letters to JDH from James Hector in New Zealand.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Dec 1864
Classmark:  DAR 101: 260–1; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Directors’ correspondence 174: 429–31 & 433–4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4692

Matches: 1 hit

  • … vol.  5, letter from J.  D.  Hooker, [before 7 March 1855] ). In 1856, he helped to …

To William Erasmus Darwin   [1 May 1864]

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Summary

Writes of dimorphic plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [1 May 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 122
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5127

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter of 3 May [1864] ( Correspondence vol.  12), CD sent flowers of long-styled and short-styled P.  angustifolia and asked William to outline the size of the anthers of the two forms. CD refers to Flora Vectensis: being a systematic description of the phænogamous or flowering plants and ferns indigenous to the Isle of Wight (Bromfield 1856). …

To J. D. Hooker   [1 September 1864]

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Summary

CD continues to have trouble reconciling the Veitch’s names for Bignonia plants and Kew names.

Lyell and Falconer called on CD in London.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [1 Sept 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 248
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4605

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 30 August 1864 . Charles Lyell and Hugh Falconer . CD refers to a fragment of human skull recovered from Forbes Quarry, Gibraltar. George Busk had argued that the find was of immense significance because the cranium resembled the disputed Neanderthal skull specimen found in 1856  …

To J. D. Hooker   [10 and 12 January 1864]

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Summary

CD very ill.

Suspects F. Boott’s widow is illegitimate granddaughter of Erasmus Darwin.

CD, like JDH, has speculated that agrarian weeds have become adapted to cultivated ground. Suggests comparison with country of origin.

Wallace’s praise of Herbert Spencer’s Social statics baffles CD.

[Letter completed by E. A. Darwin.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  10 and 12 Jan 1864
Classmark:  DAR 115: 216
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4389

Matches: 1 hit

  • letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 24 January 1864 , and Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 8 (1865): xxiii–xxvii). CD refers to his paternal grandfather, Erasmus Darwin , the author of Zoonomia; or, the laws of organic life (1794–6). Between his two marriages, Erasmus Darwin had two daughters with Mary Parker (1753–1820): Susanna Parker (1772–1856) …

From Charles Wright to Asa Gray   20, 25, and 26 March and 1 April 1864

Summary

Describes the flower and mode of action of a particular orchid.

Has been examining Spiranthes and is experimenting to see whether insects are necessary for its fertilisation.

It seems that Oncidium is designed so as not to be fertilised.

Author:  Charles Wright
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20, 25 and 26 Mar 1864 and 1 Apr 1864
Classmark:  DAR 181: 163
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4433

Matches: 1 hit

  • letters from Gray to Hooker are in the Director’s Correspondence, Library and Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Much of Wright’s correspondence was forwarded through Gray, who also purchased his collections and sent him books and supplies (see Dupree 1959 , pp.  165–6, 211, and Howard 1988 , p.  20). Wright had been collecting plants in Cuba since 1856. …

From John Lubbock   28 July 1864

Summary

Has obtained microscopes for CD.

Author:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 July 1864
Classmark:  DAR 170: 46
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4575

Matches: 1 hit

  • letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. Edited by Francis Darwin. 3 vols. London: John Murray. 1887–8. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second part of his big species book written from 1856

From Ernst Haeckel   9 [July 1864]

Summary

No book has made such a powerful impression on EH as the Origin. Most older German scholars opposed to it, but number of supporters growing among the young. Fortunately strength of religious dogmas now small among educated Germans. Situation in Jena especially favourable. Defended CD’s theory last year at Congress of German Scientists in Stettin.

Intends special study of jellyfish.

Plans general work on natural history.

Hard fate [death of Anna Sethe Haeckel] has made EH indifferent to criticism.

Colleagues August Schleicher and Carl Gegenbaur also convinced by CD’s theory.

Author:  Ernst Philipp August (Ernst) Haeckel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 [July 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 166: 35
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4555

Matches: 1 hit

  • 1856, Haeckel had been Virchow’s assistant at the Würzburg pathologisch–anatomische Anstalt (see Krauße 1987 , p.  31). Haeckel published several works in 1864 and 1865 on the Coelenterata, a class of invertebrates that included sea anemones and medusae (see Haeckel 1864b, 1865a, 1865b). He eventually sent CD copies of these papers (see letter
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Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that he ‘Began by Lyell’s advice  writing …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Re: Design – performance version – 25 March 2007 – 1 Re: Design – Adaptation of the …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Observers |  Fieldwork |  Experimentation |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘ Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Friendship | Mentors | Class | Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The origin of language was investigated in a wide range of disciplines in the nineteenth century. …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet …

Correlation of growth: deaf blue-eyed cats, pigs, and poison

Summary

As he was first developing his ideas, among the potential problems Darwin recognised with natural selection was how to account for developmental change that conferred no apparent advantage.  He proposed a ‘mysterious law’ of ‘correlation of growth’ where…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …   Darwin made many changes to the text of Origin across different editions as he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwin’s mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … When I was in spirits I sometimes fancied that my book w d  be successful; but I never even …
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