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To J. D. Hooker   30 July [1866]

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Summary

His reasons for rejecting Atlantis hypothesis connecting Madeira and Canary Islands.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 July [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 294, 294b
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5167

Matches: 8 hits

  • … 1856 , p.  83; see also T.  V.  Wollaston 1854 , p.  xiii), no specific proportion was …
  • … John Murray. 1859. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of …
  • … 1857): paper 2. Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1854. Catalogus Molluscorum pneumonatorum Insularum …
  • … Porto Santo to be very different ( Lowe 1854 ; see also Correspondence vol.  5). For the …
  • … letters from R.  T.  Lowe, 19 September 1854 ( Correspondence vol.  5). In his letter of [ …
  • … 1866 ). CD refers to T.  V.  Wollaston 1854 , p.  xii, and T.  V.  Wollaston  1856 , pp.   …
  • … CD’s detailed abstract of T.  V.  Wollaston 1854 , with his additional calculations of the …
  • … of Insecta Maderensia ( T.  V.  Wollaston 1854 ), CD pasted his own estimate of the number …

To John Murray   22 February [1866]

Summary

CD is pleased [about need for a new edition of Origin] but even more grieved – for it will delay his next book [Variation]. Progress of natural history will make many changes necessary in Origin. Nevertheless, proceeds with 32 more woodcuts for Variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  22 Feb [1866]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff. 139–142)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5016

Matches: 6 hits

  • … University Press. 1985–. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Freeman, Richard Broke. 1977. The works …
  • … George Brettingham Sowerby Jr drew the figures for Fossil Cirripedia (1854) , Living …
  • … Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ), and Orchids (1862). CD had already asked Murray about Sowerby’ …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …

From M. T. Masters   20 April 1866

Summary

Expects R. Caspary’s paper to be published soon.

Reports the conclusions of another of RC’s papers on the movement of tree branches due to cold [Bull. Congr. Int. Bot. & Hortic. Lond. (1866): 98–117]

and discusses a paper by H. Lecoq on the mountain flora of the Auvergne [Proc. Bot. Congr. (1866): 158–65]. He disagrees with CD on glaciation and its effect on geographical distribution.

Author:  Maxwell Tylden Masters
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Apr 1866
Classmark:  DAR 171: 75
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5062

Matches: 4 hits

  • … géologie. Paris: P. Bertrand. Lecoq, Henri. 1854–8. Études sur la géographie botanique de …
  • … pp.  163–4. The reference is to Lecoq 1854–8 . There is an annotated copy in the Darwin …
  • … see Marginalia 1: 488–96). Before he read Lecoq 1854–8 , CD added a note to his historical …
  • … replaced the note with a quotation from Lecoq 1854–8 , 1: 250, which suggested that Lecoq’ …

To Edouard Bornet   1 December 1866

Summary

Thanks JBEB for Papaver seeds. Has long wished to see some of the closely allied subspecies and hopes to make some crossing experiments with them.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Jean-Baptiste-Édouard (Édouard) Bornet
Date:  1 Dec 1866
Classmark:  Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Bibliothèque de Botanique, Paris (Ms CRY 501, fol. 387)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5292

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Murray. 1859. Thuret, Gustave Adolphe. 1854–5. Recherches sur la fecondation des Fucacées, …
  • … the fertilisation of Fucus in 1857 ( Thuret 1854–5 ; see Correspondence vol.  6, letter to …

To Robert Hunt   3 May [1866]

Summary

Encloses a sketch of the principal events in his life [for RH’s memoir on CD in Walford, ed., Portraits of men of eminence (1863–7)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Hunt
Date:  3 May [1866]
Classmark:  The Natural History Museum (tipped into General Special Collections MSS HUN/49)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5524

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Observations on South America”. In 1851 & 1854 Mr Darwin published two volumes by aid of …
  • … and South America in 1846. CD refers to Living Cirripedia (1851) and (1854), and Fossil …
  • … Cirripedia (1851) and (1854). On the publication of these books, see Correspondence vol.   …

To Rudolf Suchsland   4 April 1866

Summary

Cannot support another edition of Origin, so unable to send English pages. Suggests some of his other works that might be worth translating into German.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Georg Rudolf Emil (Rudolf) Suchsland
Date:  4 Apr 1866
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (16 December 2010); Kotte Autographs (dealers) (March 2016)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5054F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … s monograph on barnacles was published as Living Cirripedia (1851) and (1854) and Fossil …
  • … Cirripedia (1851) and (1854). From 1851, Coral reefs , Volcanic islands , and South …

From Charles Lyell   10 March 1866

Summary

Comments on cool-period MS. Still believes geographical changes principal cause of former changes of climate.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Mar 1866
Classmark:  K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 408–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5031

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1, above), CD wrote, citing J.  D.  Hooker 1854: ‘Looking south we find in the Himalaya …
  • … elsewhere in the Himalayas in J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 1: 248, 380. The mountains of Sikkim …

From J. D. Hooker   [24 July 1866]

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Summary

Working on "Insular floras" lecture for BAAS Nottingham meeting [see 5135].

Puzzled at distribution of Madeiran and Canaries plants and insects.

Supports Forbes’s Atlantis hypothesis [see 956], which he has reread and to which he will allude.

Wollaston disappointing on Madeiran insects.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 July 1866]
Classmark:  DAR 205.2 (letters): 239
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5165

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Society 22: 55–77. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of …
  • … s Insecta Maderensia (see T.  V.  Wollaston 1854 , p.  xii; see also T.  V.  Wollaston  …

From J. D. Hooker   4 February 1866

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Summary

Asks CD whether he knows of a medicine to check vomiting – for a friend dying from starvation as a result.

Duke of Somerset is looking for two naturalists for survey ship to Korea and Strait of Magellan.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Feb 1866
Classmark:  DAR 102: 57–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4996

Matches: 1 hit

  • … by the Sikkim rajah in 1849 (J.  D.  Hooker 1854, 2: 202–38). Hooker apparently refers to …

From A. R. Wallace   4 February 1866

Summary

Looks forward to reading Variation.

Explains how two or more female forms occur in one species through selection. The physiological problem remains of how each produces offspring like the other without intermediates. Is not CD’s case of varieties that will not blend the physiological test of a species needed for "complete proof of the origin of species"?

"Travels" postponed.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Feb 1866
Classmark:  DAR 106: B31–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4997

Matches: 1 hit

  • … throughout the Malay Archipelago from 1854 until 1862, and had started ‘a small book’ …

From James Shaw   14 February 1866

Summary

Reports instances of birds admiring their images in mirrors or on pictures.

Author:  James Shaw
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Feb 1866
Classmark:  DAR 177: 150
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5005

Matches: 1 hit

  • … vols. and 4 supplements. Conducted by Charles Knight. London: Bradbury and Evans. 1854–73. …

To Fritz Müller   11 January 1866

Summary

Has read FM’s paper on sponges ["Über Darwinella aurea", Arch. Miskrosk. Anat. 1 (1865): 344–53] with interest.

Has also read FM’s work on the metamorphoses of Peneus [Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. 14 (1864): 104–15], an interesting and important embryological discovery.

CD regards Louis Agassiz’s opinions as valueless.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  11 Jan 1866
Classmark:  British Library (Loan MS 10 no 5)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4972

Matches: 1 hit

  • … now called Itajaí Açu), where he had lived from 1854 to 1856 (see Correspondence vol.  13, …

From B. J. Sulivan   25 December 1866

Summary

Discusses the South American mission.

Has been busy digging out fossil leaves from local Eocene deposits.

Author:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Dec 1866
Classmark:  DAR 177: 287
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5325

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the Allen Gardiner , which was built in 1854 to serve as an offshore base for the society’ …
Document type
letter (13)
Date
1866
01 (1)
02 (4)
03 (1)
04 (2)
05 (1)
07 (2)
12 (2)
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …
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