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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To Robert Fitch   3 December [1849]

Summary

Asks to borrow specimen of Pollicipes from the Chalk.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Fitch
Date:  3 Dec [1849]
Classmark:  Norwich Castle
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1274

Matches: 6 hits

  • … The Ray Society published the two volumes of Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ). The …
  • … two volumes of Fossil Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ) were published by the Palaeontographical …
  • … Society. 1851. Fossil Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the fossil Balanidæ and Verrucidæ …
  • … Darwin. London: Palaeontographical Society. 1854. Living Cirripedia (1851): A monograph of …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Sharpe, Daniel. 1846. On slaty cleavage. [ …

To Albany Hancock   [29 or 30 October 1849]

Summary

Thanks him for specimens of Alcippe.

Comments on sketches by AH and on cirripede paper by Lovén.

Discusses Lithotrya and its burrowing habits.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  [29 or 30] Oct 1849
Classmark:  Maine Historical Society
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1262

Matches: 4 hits

  • … papers 1: 250–1). In Living Cirripedia (1854):  512, CD adopted this chemical means of …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … known cirripede ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  563–6). CD generally noted the derivation of …

To A. A. Gould   20 August [1849]

Summary

Thanks J. D. Dana for cirripede specimens. Describes his work. Comments on Ibla. Would like to see AAG’s notes and figures on Anatifa. Asks for references to cirripede descriptions by T. A. Conrad.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Augustus Addison Gould
Date:  20 Aug [1849]
Classmark:  Houghton Library, Harvard University (Augustus A. Gould papers, 1831–66 MS Am 1210: 229)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1251

Matches: 4 hits

  • … 4, Appendix I). In Living Cirripedia (1854) , Gould is frequently cited as having provided …
  • … In Living Cirripedia (1851):  307 and (1854): 447, 465, citations of species named by him …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To Albany Hancock   29 September [1849]

Summary

Thanks AH for specimens of Alcippe.

Discusses capacity of Lithotrya to bore its own hole. Believes Arthrobalanus also makes cavities this way.

Asks to see paper on cirripedes by Sven Lovén.

Comments on paper by AH [see 1253].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  29 Sept [1849]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1256

Matches: 6 hits

  • … 21 September 1849]. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  527, CD thanked Hancock, ‘to whose very …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Lovén, Sven. 1844. Ny art af Cirripedia [ …
  • … 25 December [1850] ). Living Cirripedia (1854):  568, 570. CD’s original description of …
  • … cirripedes. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  439, CD related his dismay when, believing the …
  • … analogically similar ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  445–6). See also letter to J.  J. S. …

To William Thompson   [1 March 1849]

Summary

Encloses diagram illustrating difference between Chthamalus and Balanus. Specimens sent. Finds no Chthamalus in WT’s collection.

Has read with much interest WT’s book [The natural history of Ireland, vol. 1 (1849)].

Recommends E. S. Dixon’s book [Ornamental and domestic poultry; their history and management (1848)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Thompson
Date:  [1 Mar 1849]
Classmark:  Trinity College Library, Cambridge (Add.L.b.1: 24)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1232

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Gardeners’ Chronicle”. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, …
  • … etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Thompson, William. 1849–56. The natural …
  • … diagram appears in Living Cirripedia (1854):  39 and depicts these and three other genera …
  • … of this species (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  272–3, and letter from William Thompson, …

To Albany Hancock   [21 September 1849]

Summary

Describes his research on cirripedes.

Comments on paper by AH ["Notice of a burrowing barnacle", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. 4 (1849): 305–14]. Asks to borrow specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  [21 Sept 1849]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1253

Matches: 3 hits

  • … examined it in 1853 (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  526–9, and the correspondence between …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To Johannes Peter Müller   10 February [1849]

Summary

Requests JPM’s assistance by lending or giving him cirripede specimens. The anatomy of cirripedes has been most imperfectly done, and their classification is a perfect chaos.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johannes Peter (Johannes) Müller
Date:  10 Feb [1849]
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Slg. Darmstaedter Lc 1859: Darwin, Charles, Bl. 216–217 )
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1224

Matches: 3 hits

  • … are described in Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ). CD listed Anatifa villosa as a dubious …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

To Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup   30 December [1849]

Summary

CD is distressed that JS’s shipment of fossils has been lost: "of all the Cirripedes in the world, I most wish to dissect the Alepas squalicola". Welcomes JS’s offer to send some northern recent species. CD finds great confusion in the current classification of cirripedes in British museums; different genera are made into one species, mere varieties are made into distinct species. If JS would give him some named common northern species, it would be of great assistance.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johannes Japetus Smith (Japetus) Steenstrup
Date:  30 Dec [1849]
Classmark:  Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen (NKS 3460 4to)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1281

Matches: 3 hits

  • … genus Xenobalanus (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  439 and Correspondence vol.  5, letter …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Steenstrup, Johannes Japetus Smith. 1842. Om …

To J. D. Dana   8 October 1849

Summary

Discusses cirripedes collected by JDD.

Gratified that he agrees "to some extent" with CD’s views on coral reefs.

Mentions his health.

Asks for JDD’s publication on cirripedes.

Sends message from William Baird concerning Crustacea research of J. O. Westwood.

Mentions Joseph Leidy’s discovery of cirripede eyes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  8 Oct 1849
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Dana Family Papers (MS 164) Series 1, Box 2, folder 43)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1259

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … 2). Acasta sporillus ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  319–21). Dana described how he examined …
  • … this unusual form in Living Cirripedia (1854): 602: I can hardly express the perplexity …

To H. E. Strickland   [4 February 1849]

Summary

HES’s arguments are of great weight, but CD cannot yet bring himself to reject well-known names for obscure ones. Sends four cases that he thinks will stagger HES. Cites his problems in classifying cirripedes. CD cannot bear to give new names, yet may do wrong to attach old ones. Not one species is correctly defined. The harm done by "species mongers".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hugh Edwin Strickland
Date:  [4 Feb 1849]
Classmark:  Museum of Zoology Archives, University of Cambridge (Strickland Papers)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1221

Matches: 3 hits

  • … omnium Picturæ. London. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … cited several times in Living Cirripedia (1854) . Agassiz 1842–6 . CD’s copy of the second …

To Hugh Edwin Strickland   29 January [1849]

Summary

Has altered and added to HES’s list [compiled for Bibliographia zoologiæ et geologiæ, edited by Louis Agassiz and enlarged by HES, (1848–54)].

On zoological nomenclature CD cites a case in which he believes more harm than good would be done by following the rule of priority. Thinks the rule of the first describer’s name being attached in perpetuity to a species has been the greatest curse to natural history. Every genus of cirripedes has a half-dozen names and not one careful description.

Sends a paper he once wrote [missing] on the subject [of zoological nomenclature].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hugh Edwin Strickland
Date:  29 Jan [1849]
Classmark:  Museum of Zoology Archives, University of Cambridge (Strickland Papers)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1215

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Olfers, Ignaz Franz Werner Maria von. 1818. …
  • … 1802, was retained in Living Cirripedia (1854):  397. The original has not been found, but …

To J. D. Dana   5 December [1849]

Summary

Comments on JDD’s book [Geology (1849)]. Is sending copies of various geological papers. Their agreements and differences on coral reefs, volcanic geology, denudation, and subsidence.

Comments on Robert Chambers’ book [Ancient sea-margins (1848)].

Asks to borrow cirripede specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  5 Dec [1849]
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Dana Family Papers (MS 164) Series 1, Box 2, folder 43)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1276

Matches: 3 hits

  • … stomatopods. In Living Cirripedia (1854):  18–19, CD compared Cirripedia to other sub- …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. South America : Geological observations on …

To Albany Hancock   25 December [1849]

Summary

Discusses the new genus, Alcippe, described by AH ["Notice of the occurrence on the British coast of a burrowing barnacle", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. 4 (1849): 305–14]. Comments on Lithotrya, Clitia, and Anatifa. Discusses cirripede larvae. Asks which Mollusca specimens AH wishes to borrow.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  25 Dec [1849]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.87)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1280

Matches: 3 hits

  • … mia) is discussed in Living Cirripedia (1854):  512–18. CD concluded that, unlike other …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …

From J. D. Hooker   30 September 1849

Summary

CD partly right. JDH was calling "stratification" what CD calls "foliation". Answers CD’s question on cleavage foliation in Himalayas. Glacial action.

Charmed by CD’s Admiralty instructions on geology [in Manual of scientific enquiry (1849), Collected papers 1: 227–50], but complains he does not give prices of books and instruments he recommends.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Sept 1849
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: India letters 1847–51: 217–18
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1257

Matches: 3 hits

  • … at Momay Samdong, 15,362 ft (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 117–44). He left Momay on 30 September …
  • … glaciers are described in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 133–8. John Grant Malcolmson had died in …
  • … at Calcutta. In an appendix to J.  D. Hooker 1854, Hooker discussed the merits of various …

From H. E. Strickland   8 February 1849

Summary

The priority rule has only diverted vanity to a rush to be first. Has no objection to CD’s suggestion that good books be quoted in preference to first descriptions if there is a chance by this means of developing this silly vanity into ambition to advance knowledge. Still, this must not affect the rule of priority. Responds to CD’s four cases.

Author:  Hugh Edwin Strickland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Feb 1849
Classmark:  Museum of Zoology Archives, University of Cambridge
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1223

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Strickland, Hugh Edwin, et al. 1863. Rules …
  • … able to use Balanus in Living Cirripedia (1854) without contravening the law of priority …

From J. D. Hooker   3 February 1849

Summary

Physical description of Sikkim mountains.

Travelling through Kinchin snows.

Transported boulders.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Feb 1849
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: India letters 1847–51: 131–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1219

Matches: 2 hits

  • … up most of the first volume of J.  D. Hooker 1854. Many of the details in this letter are …
  • … of London, viz. , 50 o ’ (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 115). See Campbell 1849 , p.  525, for …

To Henri Milne-Edwards   2 March [1849]

Summary

CD is obliged to put off his journey to Paris because of ill-health, but this will give CD more time to study the specimens.

Values HM-E’s opinion on CD’s barnacle work more than any man’s in Europe.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henri Milne-Edwards
Date:  2 Mar [1849]
Classmark:  Piasa SA, Paris, 2008
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1232F

Matches: 1 hit

  • … described by CD, see Living Cirripedia (1854), pp.  611–40. CD refers to Alepas parasita , …

From J. D. Hooker   24 June 1849

Summary

Pleasure at receiving CD’s scientific letters to JDH and Hodgson.

The H. Wedgwoods’ pecuniary loss.

Condolences at CD’s father’s death.

Rajah harasses JDH’s work. Lack of supplies, rain, malarial valleys, and landslips make going difficult. Cannot get into Tibet.

"Twenty species [of plants] here [Camp Sikkim] to one there [Tierra del Fuego?] always are asking me the vexed question, ""where do we come from?""."

From observation of terraces descending to steppes and plains of India, he thinks that the Himalayas were once a grand fiord coast.

Has information CD requested on Yangsma valley. JDH’s detailed hypothesis of origin of dam there. Does not agree with CD’s interpretation.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 June 1849
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: India letters 1847–51: 187–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1247

Matches: 1 hit

  • … the border with Tibet. See J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 54–63. Perpetual Snow. CD had requested …
Document type
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Date
1849
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02 (4)
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them.   …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

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  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

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  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

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  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

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  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

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  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

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  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

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  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

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  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

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  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …
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