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From C. J. F. Bunbury   16 April 1856

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Summary

Is interested by what CD tells him about his researches and speculations on species, variation, and distribution. Hopes he will not give up the idea of publishing his views. Advises CD on need for caution and candour. Raises some difficulties with "specific centre" theory of distribution.

Author:  Charles James Fox Bunbury, 8th baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Apr 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 218
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1854

Matches: 2 hits

  • … DCP-LETT-1854
  • … Lyell, 1–2 May 1856 , n.  7. E.  Forbes 1854. Discussed by Bunbury in C.  J. F. Bunbury …

From J. D. Hooker   [3 November 1854]

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Summary

JDH’s contempt for R. I. Murchison.

There is a Cyperus species and a Pteris species endemic to hot volcanoes of Ischia. Why are there no other migrators?

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [3 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 214–15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1629

Matches: 13 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [3 November 1854] …
  • … DAR 104: 214–15 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated [3 Nov 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … for several days at the end of October 1854. They visited the Crystal Palace at Sydenham …
  • … botanist and palaeobotanist. Murchison 1854 . Unger’s work on the fossil flora of Europe ( …
  • … Paris. 1824–44. Murchison, Roderick Impey. 1854. Siluria; the history of the oldest known …
  • … John C. 1981. R. I. Murchison’s Siluria (1854 and later). Archives of Natural History 10: …
  • … letter from G.  R. Waterhouse, 11 November 1854 , n.  2. J.  D. Hooker 1854b. Hooker had …
  • … 14 November 1844 , n.  2). CD had been elected a fellow on 7 March 1854 and admitted …
  • … on 2 May 1854 ( Gage 1938 , p.  52). Thomas Bell had been elected president of the society …
  • … the Mediterr: see Hookers Jour. Bot for Nov 1854. p.  351. (it is on Athenæum table—) now …
  • … account of the publication of Murchison 1854 . David Lyall had been assistant surgeon in …
  • … s visit to Down at the end of October 1854 (see n.  12, below), CD had evidently asked …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] ). A note in DAR 114.4: 222a may be the text …

From J. D. Hooker   25 August 1854

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Summary

JDH and F. W. Binney identify Calamites specimens as pith casts. They are cryptogams related to, but higher than, Lycopodiaceae and contradict progression.

Insects found in coal.

Lyell says Stonesfield slate marsupials are actually placentals.

JDH reading Alexander Braun on individuality ["Das Individuum der Pflanze in seinem Verhältniss zur Species", Abh. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (Phys. Kl.) (1853): 19–122].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Aug 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 384
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1581

Matches: 17 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   25 August 1854
  • … DAR 205.9: 384 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew 25 Aug 1854 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Royal College of Surgeons. Owen, Richard. 1854. On some fossil reptilian and mammalian …
  • … remains from the Purbecks. [Read 7 June 1854. ] Quarterly Journal of the Geological …
  • … 10: 420–33. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1854. Contributions to fossil entomology. Quarterly …
  • … James Clark (not Clarke). In the autumn of 1854, through Sir James’s influence, Hooker was …
  • … botaniques. Paris. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Meneghini, Giuseppi. 1853. On the animal …
  • … Hooker 1855). It was read on 14 December 1854 at the Royal Society. In their paper, Binney …
  • … Hooker 1855, p.  151). See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [29 June 1854] , and letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 7 July [1854] , concerning the subject of ‘high and low’ development in the …
  • … at a meeting of the Geological Society on 10 May 1854 in which he noted the difficulty in …
  • … some fossils of vegetable origin ( Westwood 1854 , pp.  382, 386–7). The nature of certain …
  • … had recently read a paper ( R.  Owen 1854 ) describing Spalacotherium , a new mammalian …
  • … Bonney 1919 , p.  6). See letter to Fanny Mackintosh Wedgwood, 18 [August 1854] . …
  • … Living Cirripedia (1854) , available for distribution in early September ( letter to T.   …
  • … H. Huxley, 2 September [1854] ). Possibly a reference to Hooker’s application to the East …

From J. D. Hooker   [6 November 1854]

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Summary

Fossil leaves from Disko Island.

JDH to begin working out the botanical geography of the polar sea.

Has not forgotten CD’s request on aberrant species.

Has taken a house on Richmond Hill.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [6 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 385
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1600

Matches: 9 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [6 November 1854] …
  • … DAR 205.9: 385 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated [6 Nov 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … for whom CD was seeking a place at Kew (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1854] ). …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 November [1854] . Disko Island, off the west coast of Greenland …
  • … of the Philosophical Club on 23 November 1854 ( Bonney 1919 , p.  126). The Arctic fossils …
  • … Tertiary period. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [3 November 1854] , n.  4. J.  D. Hooker …
  • … See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [3 November 1854] , n.  7. George Bentham. When Bentham …
  • … Montague Villas, Richmond Hill, in December 1854 (L.  Huxley ed. 1918, 1: 352). According …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 November [1854] , n.  5). Joachim Barrande and Edward Forbes. …

From J. D. Hooker   [29 June 1854]

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JDH on "highness" of Coniferae: they are genuine Dicotyledons, not a link to cryptogams; that is a geologists’ fallacy. Thus they are highest plants in Carboniferous.

Does not agree with CD’s "elastic" species theory. Long correspondence with Lyell on this.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [29 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 383
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1576

Matches: 9 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [29 June 1854] …
  • … DAR 205.9: 383 Joseph Dalton Hooker Hitcham [29 June 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … ibid . , pp.  95–117). See also letter to S.  P. Woodward, 6 May 1854 , n.  4. J.  D. …
  • … Hooker 1855 (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 7 July [1854] ). …
  • … after letter to J.  D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] . The use of chloroform as a general …
  • … chloroform. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [24 June 1854] . See letter to J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] . Vegetable kingdom. Forbes and Hanley [1848–]1853, 1: xi. The …
  • … Bibliography Carpenter, William Benjamin. 1854. Principles of comparative physiology. 4th …
  • … Jones 1845–52 , 1: 50, 53, 59. Carpenter 1854 , pp.  16–20, 59. An annotated copy is in …

From Richard Thomas Lowe   19 September 1854

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Summary

The land shells, both fossil and recent, of Madeira and Porto Santo have features peculiar to them, so RTL would have no difficulty in identifying them.

Author:  Richard Thomas Lowe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 Sept 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 392
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1593

Matches: 11 hits

  • … From Richard Thomas Lowe   19 September 1854
  • … 392 Richard Thomas Lowe Lea Rectory, Gainsborough 19 Sept 1854 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … arising from a paper on the Madeiran Mollusca ( Lowe 1854 ) read at a meeting of the …
  • … Zoological Society of London on 25 July 1854. In his paper, Lowe described both recent and …
  • … of the Cambridge Philosophical Society . Lowe 1854  was intended to replace those parts of …
  • … etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1851. Primitiæ et …
  • … Society. London. Lowe, Richard Thomas. 1854. Catalogus Molluscorum pneumonatorum Insularum …
  • … Lowe 1851  that dealt with the Mollusca ( Lowe 1854 , p.  161 n. ). …
  • … H.  arcinella is described in Lowe 1854 , p.  181. Thomas Vernon Wollaston, entomologist …
  • … attached to CD’s copy of Living Cirripedia (1854) in Cambridge University Library). In the …

From J. D. Hooker   [24 June 1854]

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Birth of JDH’s second child.

Asks CD’s view of "highness" and "lowness" in animals. Gives his own for plants; extent of deviation from type, e.g., floral parts deviating from leaf.

Reading B. C. Brodie’s Psychological inquiries [1854].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 202–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1572

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [24 June 1854] …
  • … DAR 104: 202–4 Joseph Dalton Hooker Hitcham [24 June 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Bibliography [Brodie, Benjamin Collins]. 1854. Psychological inquiries: in a series of …
  • … floral parts deviating from leaf. Reading B. C. Brodie’s Psychological inquiries [1854]. …
  • … see n.  2, below). The Hookers’ second child, Harriet Anne, born on 23 June 1854. [ …
  • … Brodie] 1854 . After ‘great’, Hooker had written and then deleted: ‘*deviation from [ …
  • … see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] . CD had been in London 21 to 23 June. He …

From J. D. Hooker   [after 11 December 1854]

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List of most anomalous Leguminosae [from George Bentham].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 11 Dec 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 391
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1546

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [after 11 December 1854] …
  • … DAR 205.9: 391 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated [after 11 Dec 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 11 [December 1854] ). The numbers in the column indicate the …
  • … represented by very few species. See letters to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1854] and …
  • … 11 [December 1854] . …

From H. C. Watson   20 November [1854]

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Sends a count of the number of species of flowering plants and ferns on the islands of Fayal and Flores in the Azores.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Nov [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.4: 101
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1605

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From H.  C. Watson   20 November [1854] …
  • … DAR 205.4: 101 Hewett Cottrell Watson Thames Ditton 20 Nov [1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter from Hewett Cottrell Watson, [19 November 1854] , n.  1. …

From J. D. Hooker   5 December [1854]

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Bentham’s list of aberrant genera: CD’s worry that he eliminated large genera a priori is half right. He eliminated those large, anomalous genera that virtually constitute natural orders. JDH criticises CD’s tabulations of aberrants.

Difficulty of distinguishing affinity and analogy in plants.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Dec [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 388–90
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1611

Matches: 8 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   5 December [1854] …
  • … Dalton Hooker London, Montagu Villas, Richmond, 3 5 Dec [1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] , enclosing Bentham’s list, and letter to …
  • … J.  D. Hooker, 4 December [1854] . It is not clear whether Hooker is making a literal …
  • … 1846 ), as mentioned in letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1854] . See letter from J.   …
  • … D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] . J.  D. Hooker and Thomson 1855, introductory essay, pp.   …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 11 [December 1854] . The memorandum is preserved with Hooker’ …
  • … here in the letter to Hooker, 11 [December 1854]. CD discussed the scarcity of individual …

From Hewett Cottrell Watson   [19 November 1854]

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In response to CD’s query, HCW says he cannot supply "any list of species as the flora of a single and sterile soil". Suggests a possible source of information, and provides some figures for Britain, but these apply to diverse soils.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [19 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 402
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1604

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From Hewett Cottrell Watson   [19 November 1854] …
  • … DAR 205.9: 402 Hewett Cottrell Watson unstated [19 Nov 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter from H.  C. Watson, 20 November [1854] , is surmised from the formal style of the …
  • … the letter from Watson, 20 November [1854]. CD was gathering information on the diversity …
  • … areas. The origin and advantages of diversification was a main concern from late 1854. …
  • … In a note dated November 1854 (DAR 205.5: 149), he commented: It is indispensable to show …

From J. D. Hooker   [26 February 1854]

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Is relieved his book [Himalayan journals] has been well received and glad he has successfully completed it.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [26 Feb 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 86–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1557

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [26 February 1854] …
  • … DAR 100: 86–9 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew [26 Feb 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … friend, J.  D. Hooker. Kew, Jan. 12th, 1854. ’ CD’s annotated copy is in the Darwin …
  • … a second letter from Lyell, dated 21 February 1854 from Tenerife, in which the geological …
  • … 139). Frances Hooker was pregnant. Her second child was expected in June 1854. Charles …
  • … s letter from Madeira, dated January 1854, was read at a meeting of the Philosophical Club …
  • … see letter to Charles Lyell, 18 February [1854] , n.  2). There is, however, no passage in …

From John Gwyn Jeffreys   7 September 1851

Summary

Has sent CD some cirripedes and notes which he hopes will be of use. Gives details of occurrence and source of some of the specimens.

Author:  John Gwyn Jeffreys
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Sept 1851
Classmark:  D. Gwyn Jeffreys (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1452

Matches: 9 hits

  • … In the introduction to Living Cirripedia (1854):  2, CD stated: ‘I have given much fewer …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Post Office London directory : Post-Office …
  • … B . amphitrite in Living Cirripedia (1854):  240. William Clark of Exmouth. He contributed …
  • … Balanus improvisus ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  250–3). Jeffreys’s specimen is mentioned …
  • … for B.  porcatus ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  256). This cirripede is generally found on …
  • … that B.  amphitrite was not found in British waters (see Living Cirripedia (1854):  241). …
  • … is described in Living Cirripedia (1854):  261–8. In the section ‘Range, habits, &c. ’, …
  • … is described in Living Cirripedia (1854):  225–6. Jeffreys’s specimen was the largest CD …

From J. D. Hooker   [c. 25 March 1854]

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JDH summarises letter from Humboldt.

JDH answers CD’s questions on glacial action in Himalayas.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 25 Mar 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 382
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1559

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [ c . 25 March 1854] …
  • … DAR 205.9: 382 Joseph Dalton Hooker unstated [c. 25 Mar 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Journal of researches 2d ed. , p.  322. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 10 March [1854] . …
  • … in the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 26 March [1854] , to having received Hooker’s letter …
  • … on the morning of 26 March 1854. The two surviving pages of the letter are numbered ‘III’ …

From William Thompson   29 September 1848

Summary

Concerning the measurements of Balanus specimens with respect to growth.

Author:  William Thompson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 Sept 1848
Classmark:  Living Cirripedia (1854): 272–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1200A

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Living Cirripedia (1854): 272–3 William Thompson 29 Sept 1848 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with …
  • … or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc. By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. …
  • … s letter, CD recorded ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  273): Mr. Thompson goes on to say, that …
  • … or another letter ( Living Cirripedia (1854):  272): I am informed by Mr. Thompson, that …

From Thomas Vernon Wollaston   2 March [1855]

Summary

Hybrid insects.

Description of the Salvages.

Variability of "transition groups" of insects; relation of variability to ranges of insects. The variability of wings, even within species. Reduction of flying ability on isolated islands.

Forbes’s "Atlantis" theory and insect fauna of the Atlantic islands, considered with regard to insect migrations.

Author:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 136
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1640

Matches: 15 hits

  • … s Insecta Maderensia ( Wollaston 1854 ) in the first months of 1855 ( Correspondence …
  • … 1855. ’ CD’s extensive notes on Wollaston 1854  are in DAR 197.1 and 197.2. CD frequently …
  • … necessarily encompassing Spain ( Wollaston 1854 , pp. xiii–xiv). Wollaston described his …
  • … species (p. ix). The concluding sentence of the introduction to Wollaston 1854 , p. xviii. …
  • … arithmetic and the ‘principle of divergence’, 1854–1858. Journal of the History of Biology …
  • … John Murray. 1859. Wollaston, Thomas Vernon. 1854. Insecta Maderensia; being an account of …
  • … between the Harpalides and Chlœniidea ( Wollaston 1854 , pp.  22–3). CD’s reference is to …
  • … and Calathus complanatus in Wollaston 1854 , p.  25. Wollaston’s collection of four …
  • … of Dezerta Grande in the Madeiras ( Wollaston 1854 , p.  25). CD had evidently counted the …
  • … Leacock of Funchal is described in Wollaston 1854 , p.  501. Richard Thomas Lowe, a friend …
  • … abundant individually of all with which we are concerned. ’ ( Wollaston 1854 , p. xiii). …
  • … Actually Wollaston 1854 , pp.  483–4, with reference to the taxonomic position of the …
  • … a tendency to be wingless ( Wollaston 1854 , p. xii). CD discussed the origin of apterous …
  • … on apterous beetles are cited from Wollaston 1854  in Origin , pp.  135–6. Wollaston, like …
  • … grand and comprehensive idea. ’ ( Wollaston 1854 , p. xiii). The island of Porto Santo. CD …

From J. D. Hooker   [15 November 1854]

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George Bentham’s list of aberrant plant genera. JDH appended the number of species in each genus according to E. G. Steudel’s catalogue [Nomenclator botanicus (1840–1)] and according to JDH and Bentham.

JDH speculates on effect of splitting Australia longitudinally on distribution; it becomes an argument for new creations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [15 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 386
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1607

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [15 November 1854] …
  • … DAR 205.9: 386 Joseph Dalton Hooker Kew [15 Nov 1854] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [3 November 1854] , n.  7). Steudel 1840–1. CD’s copy, lightly …
  • … See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 4 December [1854] , for CD’s rephrasing of these comments. In …
  • … and letter to J.  D. Hooker, 4 December [1854] , CD also made the following note (DAR …

From Frederick Smith   26 February 1858

Summary

Identifies an ant described by CD and discusses the predatory habits of Formica sanguinea.

Describes some wasps’ nests.

Author:  Frederick Smith
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Feb 1858
Classmark:  DAR 177: 191 (fragile)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2226

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Cambridge University Press. 1975. Smith, Frederick. 1854. Essay on the genera and species …
  • … of British Formicidæ. [Read 4 December 1854. ] Transactions of the Entomological …
  • … Society of London n.s. 3 (1854–6): 95–135. Smith, Frederick. 1857. Revision of an essay on …
  • … known species of British ants in F.  Smith 1854  and revised this list in F.  Smith 1857 . …
  • … areas of southern England ( F.  Smith 1854 , pp.  101, 103). CD must have asked Smith …
  • … s account of the subject ( F.  Smith 1854 ). In CD’s copy of the work, Smith’s description …

From Hermann Kindt   5 September 1864

Summary

Requests permission, for a friend, to publish extracts of Orchids in German translation.

Author:  Hermann Adolph Christian August (Hermann) Kindt
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Sept 1864
Classmark:  DAR 169: 11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4609

Matches: 5 hits

  • … barnacle work, conducted between 1846  and 1854, see Correspondence vol.  4, Appendix II. …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Ray Society. 1854. Orchids : On the various contrivances by …
  • … 9 [July 1864] and n.  6. Living Cirripedia ( 1851 , 1854 ) was published in two volumes by …
  • … the Ray Society in 1851 and 1854. In recognition of his work on the first volume, CD was …
  • … Ray Society. 1851. Living Cirripedia (1854): A monograph of the sub- class Cirripedia, …

From G. R. Waterhouse   11 November 1854

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Summary

Sends list of aberrant forms of Curculionidae.

Discusses in detail the artificiality of Carl Johan Schönherr’s classification. Sound generalisations about geographical distribution depend on sound classifications. Warns against putting too much faith in current catalogues.

Author:  George Robert Waterhouse
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Nov 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 401
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1598

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From G.  R. Waterhouse   11 November 1854
  • … DAR 205.9: 401 George Robert Waterhouse British Museum 11 Nov 1854 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … arithmetic and the ‘principle of divergence’, 1854–1858. Journal of the History of Biology …
  • … 1844] , and, in this volume, [3 November 1854]). Correlated with CD’s idea that aberrant …
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 June 1854 Middelburg 13 October …
  • …   Deventer 11 September 1854 Deventer 8 March 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 July 1854 Batavia 8 March 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 April 1854 Amsterdam 4 January 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 April 1854 Amsterdam 4 January …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 August 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …
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