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Darwin Correspondence Project

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From Walter White   26 October 1857

Summary

Writes concerning library books requested by CD.

Author:  Walter White
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Oct 1857
Classmark:  DAR 261.11: 19 (EH 88206071)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2159

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Royal Society ( Royal Society of London 1839 ). A copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL. See …
  • … the Royal Society ( Royal Society of London 1839 ). Vicq d’Azyr 1787–1830 . Andral et al. …
  • … 2 vols. London. Royal Society of London. 1839. Catalogue of the scientific books in the …

To J. D. Hooker   14 July [1857]

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Summary

Asks to borrow several Floras. Must redo calculations as John Lubbock has shown him an important error.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 July [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 204
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2124

Matches: 3 hits

  • … 5 July [1857] . Boreau 1840 . Fürnrohr 1839 . Richard Kippist was the librarian of the …
  • … Press. 1985–. Fürnrohr, August Emanuel. 1839. Flora Ratisbonensis, oder Uebersicht der um …
  • … in Naturhist. Topographie von Regenberg 1839. ”. If you can possibly spare them will you …

To J. D. Hooker   1 August [1857]

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Summary

Important issue at stake with new flora calculations: evidence that species are only strongly marked varieties. Planning large-scale survey.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Aug [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 206, 207
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2130

Matches: 3 hits

  • … August [1857] and 12 [August 1857]. Fürnrohr 1839  and Boreau 1840 . See letter to J.  D. …
  • … Press. 1985–. Fürnrohr, August Emanuel. 1839. Flora Ratisbonensis, oder Uebersicht der um …
  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To T. H. Huxley   26 September [1857]

Summary

Agassiz’s superficiality and wretched reasoning powers. But he stirred up Europe on glaciers. Lyell has been working on their effects – testing work of others.

CD believes "Natural Systems" ought to be simply genealogical. "Time will come when we shall have true genealogical trees of each great kingdom of nature."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  26 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 54)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2143

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Origin , p.  420). Hummel 1821, cited in Westwood 1839–40 , 1: 421 (see note 5, above). …
  • … London: John Murray. 1859. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern …
  • … M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 249–72). Westwood 1839–40 . Serres 1809b and 1811 both appeared in …

To Charles Lyell   11 February [1857]

Summary

Discusses a proposed expedition to Australia. Urges collecting and investigating productions of isolated islands. Recommends dredging the sea-bottom.

Mentions keeping Helix pomatia alive in sea-water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Feb [1857]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.145)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2050

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Narrative : Narrative of the surveying …
  • … vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Scherzer, Karl von. 1861–3. Narrative of …

To J. D. Hooker   22 August [1857]

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Summary

Tabulation of varieties goes on; very important as it shows the branching of forms. Mentions his principle of divergence.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  22 Aug [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 208
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2134

Matches: 2 hits

  • … exhibens synopsin plantarum quas aest. 1839 legit. 2 vols. Brunswick: F. Vieweg. Henslow, …
  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To Edward Sabine   16 March [1857]

Summary

Would rather not serve on Royal Society committee [for a North American exploring expedition]. Suggests subjects for geological investigation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Sabine
Date:  16 Mar [1857]
Classmark:  The Royal Society (MM4: 39)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2241

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Richardson, John. 1829–37. Fauna Boreali- …

To J. D. Hooker   30 September [1857]

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Summary

C. F. Ledebour [Flora rossica (1842–53)] particularly useful for variety tabulation. Results generally favourable.

Additions to Down House.

Last two chapters of MS took six months to write.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 210
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2148

Matches: 1 hit

  • … exhibens synopsin plantarum quas aest. 1839 legit. 2 vols. Brunswick: F. Vieweg. Koch, …

To J. D. Hooker   [after 20 January 1857]

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Summary

CD finds Alphonse de Candolle very useful, though JDH has low opinion.

CD argues for accidental introductions explaining some odd distributions, e.g., New Zealand vs Australian plants.

CD’s method.

Diverging affinities in isolated genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [after 20 Jan 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 190
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2033

Matches: 1 hit

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …

To J. D. Hooker   14 [November 1857]

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Summary

Rule that species vary most in larger genera seems universal.

Response to Gardeners’ Chronicle note on "Bees and kidney beans" [Collected papers 1: 275–7].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 [Nov 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 215
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2170

Matches: 1 hit

  • … exhibens synopsin plantarum quas aest. 1839 legit. 2 vols. Brunswick: F. Vieweg. Ledebour, …

From J. D. Hooker   [6 December 1857]

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Summary

Finds CD’s results [of his survey of well-marked varieties from A. P. and Alphonse de Candolle’s Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis (1824–73)] "very curious and suggestive". Thinks the Labiatae will present an obstacle to him as it is a very large and distinct order with well-defined species and genera. Would like to see him tackle more volumes of Candolle’s Prodromus, as his case can only be established by evidence from mundane plants. CD should beware of generalising from local species variability. A comparison of C. C. Babington’s and G. Bentham’s [British] Floras [Babington Manual of British botany (1843, 4th ed., 1856); Bentham Handbook of British flora (1858)] would be invaluable. Suggests CD write to Ferdinand Müller and Charles Moore in Australia. Moisture favouring extension of species is important for CD’s view.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [6 Dec 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 195–6, DAR 47: 192
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2181

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To J. D. Hooker   20 October [1857]

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Summary

Returns some of the systematics books borrowed from JDH. Will now take on A. P. and Alphonse de Candolle [Prodromus].

Arrangements for a visit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  20 Oct [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 212, 222c
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2156

Matches: 1 hit

  • … exhibens synopsin plantarum quas aest. 1839 legit. 2 vols. Brunswick: F. Vieweg. Ledebour, …

To John Lubbock   14 [July 1857]

Summary

Thanks JL for saving him from "a disgraceful blunder". Following their conversation he has divided the New Zealand flora as JL suggested and finds genera with four or more species are more variable than those with three or less. It will take several weeks to go back over all his material.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  14 [July 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 18 (EH88206467)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2123

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 12 November 1857]

Summary

Asks writer of an article on weeds why he supposes "there is too much reason to believe that foreign seed of an indigenous species is often more prolific than that grown at home?" The point is of interest to CD "in regard to the great battle of life which is perpetually going on all around us". Cites analogous observations by Asa Gray and J. D. Hooker. Does writer know "of any other analogous cases of a weed introduced from another land beating out … a weed previously common in any particular field or farm?"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 12 Nov 1857]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 14 November 1857, p. 779
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2169

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To J. D. Hooker   2 June [1857]

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Summary

Qualifications of John Lindley, Huxley, Albany Hancock, Joseph Prestwich, J. C. Ross, and Francis Beaufort for Royal Medal.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  2 June [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 199
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2099

Matches: 1 hit

  • … had commanded the Antarctic expedition (1839–43) on which Hooker had served as assistant …
Document type
letter (15)
Date
1857
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02 (1)
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06 (1)
07 (2)
08 (2)
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … coast of Australia is named after him. However in May 1839 he was so badly injured when a musket …

William Darwin born

Summary

The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to record observations on his behaviour and development. Years later these are published in the journal Mind.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' first child, William Erasmus Darwin, is born.  His father immediately starts to …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …
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