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Darwin Correspondence Project

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To Henry Tibbats Stainton   13 April [1856]

Summary

Thanks HTS for Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer [no. 2, 12 Apr 1856]. Agrees with his remarks [in "Why did Mr Westwood get the Royal Medal?"], but explains that a change in rules for awarding the Royal Medal has been made. Earlier it had to be given for publications in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, which explains small number of entomologist recipients.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Tibbats Stainton
Date:  13 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum (Gen. lib. MSS/ DAR : 16)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1853

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Westwood’s ‘Introduction’ ( Westwood 1839–40 ) and his ‘various Monographs and Papers on …
  • … council minutes). However, since Westwood 1839–40  had been published more than ten years …
  • … pp. 9–10. Westwood, John Obadiah. 1839–40. An introduction to the modern classification of …
  • … been published many years previously ( Westwood 1839–40 ). He concluded that the recent …

To T. H. Huxley   8 July [1856]

Summary

Will use Boltenia case cautiously, if at all.

Polyzoa.

Bisexualism in Flustra and Ascidia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  8 July [1856]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 40)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1922

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Press. 1975. Nordmann, Alexander von. 1839. Polype nouveau de la Mer-Noire (extrait …
  • … Owen on sexes separate in Flustra. L’Institut 1839, p.  95—on sexes in coralline allied to …
  • … n.  1). The reference is to Nordmann 1839 , which was cited in Richard Owen’s discussion …

From J. D. Hooker   9 November 1856

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Summary

JDH approves MS section on geographical distribution.

Never felt so shaky about species before.

His objections to some mechanisms of distribution that CD proposes.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 105–10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1983

Matches: 3 hits

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …
  • … the voyage of the Erebus and Terror (1839–43) to establish the point that the movement of …
  • … Ross on the Antarctic expedition of 1839–43. Hooker refers to CD’s statement: ‘Dr. Hooker …

To J. D. Hooker   8 [July 1856]

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Summary

CD writing species sketch; must cite cases favouring multiple creations.

Requests details on species JDH listed as common to Chile and New Zealand. Notes their genera are mundane.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 [July 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 168
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1921

Matches: 2 hits

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …
  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To J. D. Hooker   5 July [1856]

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Summary

Troubled by JDH’s connection between Antarctic island flora and Fuegia, which CD sees as part of a general relation to southern circumpolar flora. Encloses list [not found] of plants from Tristan d’Acunha.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1919

Matches: 2 hits

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …
  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To J. D. Hooker   5 [July 1856]

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Summary

CD cannot swallow continental extensions. Has written to Lyell giving a lengthy criticism of the concept [see 1910] and has asked Lyell to forward the letter to JDH.

Perhaps Aristolochia and Viscum are protandrous.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 [July 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 166
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1918

Matches: 1 hit

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …

To J. D. Hooker   1 December [1856]

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Summary

Questions JDH on separation of sexes in trees in New Zealand flora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Dec [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 185
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2008

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To W. D. Fox   14 June [1856]

Summary

Does not intend to work systematically on cats. Their origin is in doubt and they have been crossed too many ways.

It would be valuable to know whether half-bred ducks are fertile inter se or with a third breed. Is investigating this with pigeons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  14 June [1856]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 98)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1901

Matches: 1 hit

  • … CD had been a member of the society since 1839. CD was collecting skeletons of wild and …

To J. D. Hooker   30 July [1856]

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Summary

CD’s predicament with continental extensions: they would remove argument for multiple creations, yet he opposes the doctrine. Lyell will not express an opinion on this.

Lyell fears mutability would lead to more specific names.

Encloses copy of letters to Lyell [1910 and 1917].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  30 July [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 172, 165, and 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1933

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

From J. D. Hooker   7 December 1856

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Summary

Has done New Zealand flora calculations. Results support CD’s theory of necessity of crossing. Trees tend to have separate sexes.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Dec 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 113–14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2014

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To Charles Lyell   16 [June 1856]

Summary

Condemns theory of Edward Forbes and others that many islands were formerly connected to South America by now submerged continents.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  16 [June 1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.131)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1902

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

From S. P. Woodward   4 June 1856

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Summary

SPW and Waterhouse agree on island faunas; gives Australia and Tasmania as examples. The "stream of migration" from Asia to Tasmania.

Looks forward eagerly to the publication of CD’s "specific" researches.

Invites CD to send his memoranda [on Manual of Mollusca].

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 303
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1889

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Pickering, Charles. [1848. ] The races of …

From Peter Wallace   10 September 1856

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Summary

Reports on the naturalised animal life of Ascension.

Author:  Peter Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 261
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1953

Matches: 1 hit

  • … By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Variation : The variation of animals and …

To Asa Gray   2 May [1856]

Summary

Suggests affinities of the U. S. flora that he considers would be worth investigating. Wants to know the ranges of species in large and small genera.

Questions AG on naturalised plants; whether any are social in U. S. which are not so elsewhere and how variable they are compared with indigenous species. Would like to know of any differences in the variability of species at different points of their ranges and also the physical states of plants at the extremes of their ranges.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  2 May [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1863

Matches: 1 hit

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …

To Syms Covington   9 March 1856

Summary

Thanks SC for his interesting account of the state of the colony. SC was wise to settle there where his sons have much better prospects.

Has finished his book on barnacles [1854]. Royal Medal awarded him chiefly for this work.

Asks SC whether he has observed any odd imported breeds of poultry, for his work on variation of species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Syms Covington
Date:  9 Mar 1856
Classmark:  Sydney Mail, 9 August 1884, p. 255
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1840

Matches: 1 hit

  • … voyage, had emigrated to Australia in 1839 and become postmaster at Twofold Bay, New South …

To J. D. Hooker   21 [May 1856]

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Summary

Huxley’s "vehement" [Royal Institution?] Lectures make it difficult to propose him for Athenaeum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  21 [May 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 163
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1876

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …

To J. S. Henslow   16 June [1856]

Summary

Sends a cultivated specimen of Myosotis (first generation) grown from seed sent by JSH. Asks for a tuft of flower.

Hopes JSH will publish a book on teaching botany, because he has no idea how to begin with his children.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  16 June [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A110–11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1903

Matches: 1 hit

  • … classes and orders of plants (London, 1839). See Correspondence vol.  5, letters to J.  S. …

To C. J. F. Bunbury   21 April [1856]

Summary

CD writes on geographical distribution – "a grand game of chess with the world for a board".

Gives his hypothetical explanation why zoology of Cape [of Good Hope] is not so peculiar as its botany: it was once a group of islands – later united.

Tries hard to set forth the difficulties of his [species] theory.

Tells CJFB in confidence of his theory of the glacial epoch and its effect on plant distribution, such as identical species being found on summits of mountains in the tropics. Invites him to attack his "doctrine".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles James Fox Bunbury, 8th baronet
Date:  21 Apr [1856]
Classmark:  Suffolk Record Office, Bury St Edmunds (Bunbury Family Papers E18/700/1/9/6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1856

Matches: 1 hit

  • … en Abyssinie exécuté pendant les années 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843 par une commission …

From Samuel Pickworth Woodward   2 May 1856

Summary

Proportion of molluscan species to genera in various periods. The difficulty of determining species increases with the number of species per genus. Identifying species within a genus is most difficult in that period in which the genus shows its greatest development.

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 May 1856
Classmark:  DAR 181: 153
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1864

Matches: 1 hit

  • … discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir …

From J. D. Hooker   7 May 1856

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Summary

Non-endemic Ascension Island plants brought by man, not wind-transported.

Bentham has found intermediates between oxlip and cowslip in Herefordshire.

JDH finds quantity of albumen in seeds is not variable within a species.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 May 1856
Classmark:  DAR 100: 94–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1869

Matches: 1 hit

  • … ships Erebus and Terror , in the years 1839–1843, under the command of Captain Sir James …
Document type
letter (30)
Date
1856
01 (1)
03 (1)
04 (3)
05 (4)
06 (8)
07 (5)
08 (1)
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Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … to read in Notebook C ( Notebooks , pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in …
  • … in the Royal Society of London (Royal Society of London 1839) has been heavily marked, and quite a …
  • … Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. …
  • … 1814–29] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle 1839] (read) Smellie Philosophy of …
  • … 12  by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat. & Physiology [R. Owen 1839] Dampier probably worth …
  • … on subjects of science connected with Nat. Theol: [Brougham 1839] on instinct & animal …
  • … 1808] Brit. & Foreign Medical Rev. N o  14. Ap 1839 [Anon. 1839b] Rev. on Walker on …
  • … Smart 17  Beginning of a New School of metaphysic. [Smart 1839] about connection of language & …
  • … Babbington on Flora of Channel Isl d . [Babington 1839] says he has remarks on affinities of …
  • … 1816 [Gallesio 1816]— quoted by D r . Holland [Holland 1839] (p. 27) as good— Decandoelle …
  • … [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 Athenæum 1839. p. 546— M r  Conrad has published …
  • … Arboretum [Loudon 1838] in Edinburgh Review July 1839 [Anon. 1839a]— there are pencil remarks on it. …
  • … would contain facts for me [DAR *119: 9v.] 1839. Decemb. Advertised . …
  • … Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 1839–40] 24 Flourens “Resume …
  • … publishing Travels into interior of N. America [Wied-Neuwied 1839–41]— in Geograph Soc …
  • … 1840. Octob & Jan. Papers on Instinct by Flourens [Flourens 1839] (read) Index of Clarkes …
  • … S. Bellamy on Nat. Hist. of S. Devonshire [Bellamy 1839] chiefly on distribution of forms said to be …
  • … at end of Catalogue of Royal Soc. [Royal Society of London 1839]— Meckel’s Anatomy. French …
  • … ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6] …
  • … on the Obligations of man to the inferior animals’ [Youatt 1839] discusses their minds. …
  • … by  Hooker . [A. P. de Candolle 1839–40] Jussieus …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … they show for one another’s sensibilities. Early in 1839 the couple set up house in London and at …
  • … and set in type by November 1837, though not published until 1839, when it appeared as the third …
  • … of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] ).   note book, after note …
  • … Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His hopes and fears about married life …
  • … to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not matters that she would …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] Written shortly before their …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 October 1839] Darwin details his typical …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … races, lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect …
  • … development from the day of his birth, 27 December 1839, until September 1844. Parallels in the …
  • … 1 [9] W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10] During first week. yawned, streatched …
  • …  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  Correspondence  vol. 2, …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … on subjects connected with natural theology  (1839), Brougham commented that bees acted with a …
  • … suppose when we recollect who is her teacher’ (Brougham 1839, 1: 35, 77). William Kirby wrote of the …
  • … no bee in the world ever made cylindrical cells (Brougham 1839, 1: 32). However, Darwin knew that …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious …

Journal of researches

Summary

The Journal of researches, Darwin’s account of his travels round the world in H.M.S. Beagle, was his first published book. The circumstances of its publication were not shaped by Darwin, however, but by the Beagle’s captain, Robert FitzRoy, who, according…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his ship . The Journal of Researches thus began life in 1839 as the third volume of the N …
  • … the time the Narrative was eventually published in May 1839, FitzRoy’s volume showed just how …
  • … with the title Journal of researches as early as August 1839. The speed with which this occurred …

York Minster (Elleparu)

Summary

York Minster was known as Elleparu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. He was captured by FitzRoy in 1830 after one the small boats used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del Fuego had been…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London  (1839) pt 1: 39-81. [ Shorter publications , pp.  50 …
  • … Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London  9 (1839): 528-9.  [ Shorter publications , …

Fuegia Basket (Yokcushlu)

Summary

Fuegia Basket was known as Yokcushlu among the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Jemmy Button (Orundellico)

Summary

Jemmy Button was known as Orundellico among the Yahgan, or canoe people of the southern part of Tierra del Fuego.  He was the fourth hostage taken by FitzRoy in 1830 following the theft of the small surveying boat. This fourteen-year old boy was called…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … FitzRoy.] 3 vols. and appendix. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. …

Darwin in letters, 1821-1836: Childhood to the Beagle voyage

Summary

Darwin's first known letters were written when he was twelve. They continue through school-days at Shrewsbury, two years as a medical student at Edinburgh University, the undergraduate years at Cambridge, and the of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … until FitzRoy completed his volume of the Narrative  in 1839. London scientific society …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … employ, paying him extra for secretarial duties. In January 1839 CD married his cousin, Emma …

Journal of Researches published

Summary

Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a great success. It appeared as the third volume of the Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, with the title Journal and remarks but…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's account of the Beagle voyage, based on his personal diaries, is published and is a …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …

Darwin's works in letters

Summary

To celebrate Darwin's 210th birthday, we present a new section on Darwin's works in letters, featuring Journal of researches, Living and fossil cirripedia, Descent of man, and Expression of emotions. And here is a song with lyrics based on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the hidden life of: Journal of researches (1839; better known as The voyage of the …

Marriage

Summary

Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 November 1838, describing it as the 'day of days!'.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood are married. They were first cousins. Darwin had proposed on 11 …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … coast of Australia is named after him. However in May 1839 he was so badly injured when a musket …
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