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To ?   20 June [1861–8]

Summary

Sends a copy of the paper [with A. R. Wallace, "On the tendency of species to form varieties" (1858), Collected papers 2: 3–19] about which his correspondent asked; CD’s parts were written years ago and not intended for publication; he gave permission for publication of the extracts. Wallace’s paper seems to him excellent.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  20 June [1861-8]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13879

To Samuel Pickworth Woodward   5 June [1861]

Summary

Gives directions to Down. Would be happy to see SPW but regrets they "have no attractions".

Agrees about colonisation of Arctic region.

CD thought that his St Helena land shells had quite recently become embedded; his specimens are at the Geological Society.

Can SPW ask A. Günther for any references to Silurus escaping from the Danube?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  5 June [1861]
Classmark:  British Library (Add MS 42579: 230–32b)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3043

From Emma Darwin   [June 1861]

Summary

Describes her compassion for all his sufferings and writes of her wish that his gratitude could be offered to heaven as well as to herself. To her, the only relief is to try to believe that suffering and illness are from God’s hand "to help us to exalt our minds & to look forward with hope to a future state".

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [June 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 210.8: 35
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3169

To C. W. Crocker   1 June [1861]

Summary

Suggests procedures for breeding experiments with hollyhocks. Recommends C. F. v. Gärtner [Bastarderzeugung (1849)]. [See also 3151]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles William Crocker
Date:  1 June [1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.251)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3170

To W. E. Darwin   1 [June 1861]

Summary

Writes about dealings through John Lubbock regarding [a banking partnership for] WED.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  1 [June 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 66
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3171

To John Lubbock   1 June [1861]

Summary

William Darwin can go to Southampton any time should the banking proposition come to anything. CD is sure he would work hard.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  1 June [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 42 (EH 88206486)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3172

To P. L. Sclater   2 June [1861]

Summary

Discusses feral rabbits of Porto Santo. Arranges for care of rabbits while the Darwins visit Torquay.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  2 June [1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.252)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3173

To A. G. More   2 June 1861

Summary

Asks for specimens of Aceras.

Mentions orchid species he has seen. Asks AGM to make observations.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  2 June 1861
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3174

To A. G. More   4 June 1861

Summary

Sends queries concerning insect fertilisation of Epipactis palustris.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  4 June 1861
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3175

To Asa Gray   5 June [1861]

Summary

AG’s review of John Phillips’ book [Life on earth (1860), in Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 31 (1861): 444–9].

Thinks his experiments will explain Primula dimorphism.

Insect fertilisation of orchids.

Wishes that the "greatest curse on Earth", slavery, were abolished.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  5 June [1861]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (60)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3176

To John Lubbock   6 June [1861]

Summary

Arrangements for a meeting.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  6 June [1861]
Classmark:  DAR 261.7: 3 (EH 88205928)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3177

To W. E. Darwin   6 [June 1861]

Summary

Writes regarding the possibility of banking partnership for WED; second note arranges a meeting between the involved parties in London.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  6 [June 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 69–70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3178

To John Lubbock   [8 June 1861]

Summary

Asks to meet JL for a final talk about the banking partnership for William Darwin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [8 June 1861]
Classmark:  DAR 261.7: 2 (EH 88205927)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3179

To ?   11 June [1861–8]

Summary

CD regrets he has to turn down an invitation because of his ill health.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  11 June [1861-8]
Classmark:  Christie’s, London (dealers) (online 31 October – 8 November 2018, lot 6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3179F

From Thomas Francis Jamieson   13 June 1861

thumbnail

Summary

Will look for botanical specimens CD requested.

Tells of a kestrel with a broken leg which apparently was forced to change its diet to worms and snails because of the injury.

Author:  Thomas Francis Jamieson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 June 1861
Classmark:  DAR 47: 171–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3180

To Edward Walford   13 June [1861]

Summary

Sends "the dates of the principal events of my Life" requested by EW [for use in his Men of the time (1862)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Walford
Date:  13 June [1861]
Classmark:  Ralph Colp Jr (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3181

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 15 June 1861]

Summary

Reports his experiment with fertilising the large periwinkle (Vinca major), which he had never known to produce seed. He found that the pollen could not reach the stigma without the aid of insects, which in England never visit the flower. CD produced seeds by inserting a fine bristle, like the proboscis of a moth. Asks readers to repeat this experiment with other species that do not habitually seed and to report the result.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 15 June 1861]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 15 June 1861, p. 552
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3182

To the Field   [before 15 June 1861]

Summary

His thanks to "Eques" of Argyllshire for his remarkable information on the inheritance of colour in horses. Acknowledges the difficulty of defining dun. Requests further information.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  The Field
Date:  [before 15 June 1861]
Classmark:  The Field, the Farm, the Garden, the Country Gentleman’s Newspaper 17 (1861): 521
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3182A

To Bingham Sibthorpe Malden   15–16 June [1861]

Summary

Thanks BSM for orchid specimens. Discusses various species of Orchis and Ophrys.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Bingham Sibthorpe Malden
Date:  15-16 June [1861]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.254)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3183

From B. P. Brent   15 June 1861

Summary

On his father’s crossing experiments with cacti, in which hybrids were found quite fertile.

On his breeding of guinea-pigs.

Sends Miss E. Watts’s message about crested fowls and Brahmas.

Author:  Bernard Peirce Brent
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 June 1861
Classmark:  DAR 160.2: 300
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3184
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Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … animals made him ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later …
  • … old honoured guide & master’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwin …
  • … a fitting opportunity’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). …
  • … in the fossil record ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). Only until March did …
  • … Dana, 20 February [1863] , and letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). In March, after …
  • … 29 May [1863] , and letter to Hugh Falconer, [25–6 August 1863] ). Sterility and …
  • … [1863] that he had been ‘ordered to do nothing for 6 months’ by his doctors, mentioning that even …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned …
  • … on the outcome ( enclosure to letter from G. H. Darwin, 6 [August] 1874 ): I think you …
  • … & it had been refused’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, [6 or 7 August 1874] ). When the letter was …
  • … to the vomit and ate it ( letter from W. G. Walker, 6 December 1874 ). The Zoological …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage

Summary

Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 7 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, …
  • … Index-maker’, Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 6 January . Darwin had sent the manuscript …
  • … but never fulfilled. He was sent a news clipping on 6 July from the  Maryport Weekly Advertiser …
  • … House of Commons than any assembly in the world’ (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin …
  • … The Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle described on 6 July the inheritance over eight …
  • … is too short for so long a discussion’, he wrote on 6 April . Yet Wallace continued to press him, …
  • … you as their leader’ ( letter from Gaston de Saporta, 6 September 1868 ). The support …

Natural Selection: the trouble with terminology Part I

Summary

Darwin encountered problems with the term ‘natural selection’ even before Origin appeared.  Everyone from the Harvard botanist Asa Gray to his own publisher came up with objections. Broadly these divided into concerns either that its meaning simply wasn’t…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … confounded ( Charles Darwin to Charles Lyell   6 June [1860 ]) Darwin …
  • … explainer. ( Charles Darwin to Charles Lyell, 6 June [1860]) To Lyell, Darwin …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … (2) Appleton, T. G. (6) Arnold, F. S. …
  • … (15) Bartlett, Edward (6) Bartlett, R. S. …
  • … (1) Boardman, A. F. (6) Boccardo, Gerolamo …
  • … (2) Bonham-Carter, E. M. (6) Bonham-Carter, …
  • … (1) Browne, Walter (6) Brownen, George …
  • … (17) Buckland, William (6) Buckler, William …
  • … (2) Child, G. W. (6) Children, J. G. …
  • … (1) Clarke, W. B. (b) (6) Claus, C. F. …
  • … P. (2) Coe, Henry (6) Coghlan, John …
  • … (2) Crüger, Hermann (6) Cuming, Hugh …
  • … (1) Darwin, Amy (6) Darwin, Anne Eliza …
  • … (47) Darwin, Sara (6) Darwin, V. H. …
  • … (2) Davidson, Thomas (6) Davis, J. E. …
  • … (1) Dear Friend (6) Delage, Yves (1) …
  • … (13) Denny, John (6) Desmarest, Eugène …
  • … (3) Elliot, Walter (6) Elliott & Fry …
  • … (39) Fabre, Jean-Henri (6) Fairfax, Mary …
  • … (9) Galton, E. S. (6) Galton, Erasmus …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and [of] all the scientist's colleagues. 6. Darwin's poetic sensibility …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … below, ‘Textual changes made to C. Lyell 1863c’). On 6 February 1863, Antiquity of man (C. Lyell …
  • … over the comparative anatomy of human and ape brains. 6 Many of Lyell’s supporters were …
  • … Lyell, see Bynum 1984 and L. G. Wilson 1996. 6. Owen’s complaints about C. Lyell 1863a …
  • … See Correspondence vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. …
  • … T. H. Huxley, 7 June 1865, Imperial College, Huxley papers 6: 110). For more on the X-club, see …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin’s best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 …
  • … intellectual errors’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin likened the …
  • … effect on my mind’ ( letter to Chauncey Wright, 6 April 1872 ).  A competing theory on the …
  • … in his `Literary Banquet’ (letters from John Murray, 6 November [1872] and 9 November 1872 ). …

Darwin's life in letters

Summary

For all his working life, Darwin used letters as a way both of discussing ideas and gathering the ‘great quantities of facts’ that he used in developing and supporting his theories. They form a fascinating collection from many hundreds of correspondents,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … with letters. ( Darwin to John Jenner Weir, [6 March 1868] ) For all his working …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also greatly honoured …
  • … book had to go along on the excursion,’ he reported on 6 July , ‘and it did us excellent service. …
  • … laurel in the wreath of your fame ’, Haeckel wrote on 6 June , ‘to have a predecessor in the …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … which Darwin approved ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [5 or 6 August 1874] ), while reiterating his …
  • … and sent a fair copy of his letter with his letter of 6 [August] 1874 . George and Darwin were …
  • … Huxley’s reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker and Huxley …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … a paper for the Linnean Society ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 October [1862] ). However, it was not …
  • … different translator ( see letter from Edouard Claparède, 6 September 1862 ). In Germany, …
  • … of the human species ( see letter from John Lubbock, 6 January 1862 ). Ramsay’s was not the …
  • … of the pot of life’? ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 6 May 1862 ). In his address, Huxley also …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Jamieson, 3 September 1861 To Thomas Jamieson, 6 September [1861] To Charles …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v.] 6 Books to be Read …
  • … [Le Couteur 1836] Bechstein on Caged Birds. 10 s  6 d . translated by Rennie [Bechstein …
  • … de la Geographie des trois Regnes de la nature. Paris. 6: folio par Céran de Lemonier. Bailliere …
  • … Organique dans l’echelle animale, par A. Dugés, 4to. avec 6 planches, ibid, 1832. 6 s . [Dugés …
  • … p. 195) “Boltons Harmonia Ruralis” [Bolton 1794–6]— Yarrell probably has it. account of …
  • … of Carnation. Auricula. Polyanth tulip. Rose. Hyacinth. 6 s . a catalogue of vars. [T. Hogg 1820] …
  • … Edition, with Plates and Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 9 s . 6 d . [Knapp] 1838] Read Gleanings in …
  • … Pœppig Travels in S. America. German [Pöppig 1835–6].— Zoologie Generale. Iside. St Hilaire …
  • … 1809]. Communicat to Board of Agriculture. vol 6 quoted by Youatt on migration of Sheep [Anon …
  • … [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6]// on Horses [C. H. Smith 1841]// Exotic …
  • … Nacht. von einigen Berlin 1763? [Kölreuter 1761–6] Godwins answer to Malthus [Godwin 1820] …
  • … [Etherington 1841–3]. Whittaker 1844. in Parts. cheap. 1.6 a part. 38 Schlegel Essay on …
  • … Darluc. Hist Nat. de la Provence [Darluc 1782–6] 8vo. 1782. Tom I p. 303 to 329 gives account of …
  • … of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which species are …
  • … Jussieus introduct to Bot. price 6 s  [Jussieu 1842] [DAR *119: 20v.] …
  • …  40 vols. 12mo. coloured plates, cloth lettered, (pub. at 6 s  per vol.) reduced to 5 s  1834–43 …
  • … 5. Peacocks, Pheasants, &c. [Jardine 1834a] 6. Birds of the Game kind [Jardine 1834b]. …
  • … Ruminating Animals (Deer, Antelopes, &c.) [Jardine 1835–6] 12. Ruminating Animals (Goats, …
  • … of  Vertebrate  animals 54 folio Plates. Maclise 2”12.6. [Maclise 1847] good for woodcuts. (Roy. …
  • … Analysis & theory of the Emotions by G. Ramsay B.M. 6. 6. Black Edin. Longman [Ramsay 1848] …
  • … (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has & …
  • … when out Lisianky’s Voyage round world 1803–6 [Lisyansky 1814]— nothing Lyell’s …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From the 3 rd edition on, each English edition up to the 6 th (the final one published in …
  • … 1866 5 th English edition published, 1869 6 th English edition published, 1872 …
  • … significant correspondents.   5 th to 6 th edition Proposed …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] ). Sic transit …
  • … modification of structure’ (G. D. Campbell 1864, pp. 275–6). Campbell argued further that natural …
  • … observations to high scientific account’ (A. Gray 1865–6, pp. 273-4). Darwin had also written to …
  • … to the Anthropologicals?’ ( letter from F. H. Hooker, 6 September [1865] ). Before he returned …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ( Letter from A. A. van Bemmelen and H. J.  Veth, 6 February 1877 ) Dutch …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 2 hits

  • … for demonstration or illustration. “ 6. —Licensed persons to use anasthetics in all …
  • … in all painful experiments when possible. 6.—It shall not be lawful for any person …
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