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Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 19 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by
  • Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). Seventy years old Darwins seventieth birthday on 12
  • the veteran of Modern Zoology’, but it was in Germany that Darwin was most fêted. A German
  • with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as Francis Darwin reported from Germany that
  • the children correctly’, mentioning in particular that Francis Galton was the son of one of Erasmus
  • to contradict false statements that had been published by Francis Galtons aunt, Mary Anne
  • for Captain Robert FitzRoy on the Beagle voyage, Francis Beaufort of the Admiralty described the
  • and poet’ ( Correspondence vol. 1, letter from Francis Beaufort to Robert FitzRoy, 1 September
  • perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12 July [1879] ). It was
  • in plants. Over the previous two years, he and his son Francis had worked together on the
  • of radicles, the embryonic roots of seedlings ( letter to Francis Darwin, 16 June [1879] ). …
  • to continue experiments on the sensitivity of radicles. Francis experienced obstacles from the start

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments …
  • … of most advanced plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … (see Movement in plants , pp. 112–13). He explained to Francis on 2 July : ‘I go on maundering …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … the bassoon & apparently more by a high than a low note.’ Francis apparently played the musical …
  • … on plant movement were intensely collaborative, with Francis playing a more active role than ever. …
  • … exchanged when they were apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in …
  • … ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular …
  • … to talk to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two …
  • … is horrid not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). …
  • … topics and dictating experimental method and design. Francis seems to have been allowed to work more …
  • … cells of oats to determine whether they had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 8 hits

  • Known to his family asFrank’, Charles Darwins seventh child himself became a distinguished
  • but then transferring to natural sciencesFrancis completed his studies at Cambridge, …
  • into debt and had kept the matter secret for some months. Darwin was very stern in his advice: ‘I
  • an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin18 October [1870] ). …
  • engaged to Amy Ruck in 1872; the couple married in 1874. Francis was already living in Down. and
  • a laboratory run by Julius von Sachs in WurzburgFrancis Darwin was elected to the Royal
  • his father had not been knighted, although in 1877 Charles Darwin was awarded an honorary degree
  • … ( The Power of Movement in Plants, 1880). Perhaps Francis Darwin, whom the family regarded as a

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … G. E. (1) Beaufort, Francis (5) …
  • … Boole, M. E. (3) Boott, Francis (7) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Darwin, Emma (191) Darwin, Francis (287) …
  • … Everest, Robert (1) Ewbank, Francis (1) …
  • … Fox, W. D. (225) Francis, George (1) …
  • … Galton, Erasmus (1) Galton, Francis (118) …
  • … Archibald (1) Lloyd, Francis (1) …
  • … Parker, Charles (2) Parker, Francis (1) …
  • … Walford, Edward (2) Walker, Francis (6) …
  • … George (2) Warner, Francis (1) …
  • … F. M. (2) Wedgwood, Francis (4) …
  • … (2) Wemyss-Charteris-Douglas, Francis (1) …
  • … White, Adam (2) White, Francis Buchanan (3) …

Francis Darwin marries

Summary

The Darwins' son, Francis, marries Amy Ruck; Francis starts work as his father's assistant

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  • … The Darwins' son, Francis, marries Amy Ruck; Francis starts work as his father's assistant …

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

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  • … | Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during
  • Man (1872). This teaching module focuses on work done by Darwin with his son Francis on
  • and his role as an attentive and affectionate father. Darwin's letters to Francis mix advice on
  • notice that although they come from the last decade of Darwins life, he is still interested in his
  • move In The Power of movement in plants Darwin continued his experiments with and
  • in behavioral responses. In the conclusion of the book Darwin argues that gradual modifications in
  • SOURCES Books Darwin, C.R. The power of movement in plants. 1880. London: …
  • of movement in plants Letter 7346 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 18 October 1870
  • compromising their character. Letter 10517 - Darwin to Francis Darwin, 29 May 1876
  • they would be worth making. Letter 11628 - Francis Darwin to Darwin, 24 July 1878

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 11 hits

  • and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwins, having descended from his grandfather
  • a natural historical narrative of the journey (Galton 1853). Darwin enjoyed and admired Galtons
  • Hereditary Genius (1869), which contained an entry on the Darwin family, including theauthor of
  • for subjects of natural history”. Shortly after Darwin published his preliminary hypothesis
  • on rabbits to test the theory. He reported regularly to Darwin on these experiments, which involved
  • Royal Society claiming that his results tended to disprove Darwins theory (Galton 1871). This
  • 1871 ). His views on inheritance continued to diverge from Darwins, however. He studied cases of
  • Galton shared his views in several lengthy letters, but Darwin struggled with the abstract reasoning
  • and infirmities, with the aim of improving the population. Darwin was less optimistic about such a
  • … ( 4 January [1873] ). Like most of his contemporaries, Darwin continued to believe in the
  • men of science: their nature and nurture (Galton 1874), Darwin insisted that he had no particular

Francis Darwin born

Summary

Son, Francis Darwin, born

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  • … Son, Francis Darwin, born …

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 21 hits

  • By John SchaeferHarvard University* Charles Darwins enthusiasm for carnivorous plants -- …
  • …  than the origin of all the species in the world. ’ Darwins rigorous experimentation with these
  • plants in the scientific and public imagination. Darwins son, Francis, carried on his father
  • experience with his father's thorough experiments, Francis sought to elaborate on the books
  • fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster together. Darwin senior had theorized in
  • protoplasm . Inspired by his investigation of  Drosera , Francis set out to examine the cup-like
  • The Loves of the Plants  (1789) his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, wrote that each dew-filled cup
  • to prevent insects from creeping up to devour its seed.’ Francis, however, expected to find that the
  • sent to his father from Kew Gardens by Joseph Dalton Hooker, Francis began growing his own specimens
  • into deciphering plant carnivory. On 28 May 1876, Francis wrote to his father that he had
  • emphatically exclaimingHooray theory. Blow facts. ’ Francis drew comparisons tothe absorption
  • article on aggregation in  D. rotundifolia  tentacles, Francis had to  delay further examinations
  • investigation and suggested further observations, imploring FrancisI would work at this subject
  • … ‘Seed-bearingexperiments with  Dipsacus . While Darwin wascurious if the movements of the
  • golden eggs. ’ With his father's encouragement, Francis recordedsplendid
  • After witnessing thisgrand discoveryhimselfDarwin excitedly described the protoplasmic
  • feeding on solid particles of decaying insects. ’ Francis  consulted with William Thiselton
  • for the rest of the summer. Although it can be surmised that Francis privately carried on with his
  • would weaken his will to pursue scientific endeavours, Darwin gently yet consistently  encouraged
  • Wales. Having suffered through the deaths of two children, Darwin deeply believed in the value of
  • home, authoring the  Dipsacus  paper and proofreading Darwins second edition of  Orchids  (1877

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 19 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • the first member of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amys child expected in
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwins three volumes of the geology of
  • single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at
  • volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was neverthelessfirmly resolved not
  • Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the meeting. Darwin
  • subject takes an opposite line’. Although he conceded that Francis had the best of an argument with
  • to propose the young rising star of Cambridge morphology, Francis Maitland Balfour, for fellowship
  • of the earliest available commercial models of typewriter. Francis Darwin and his wife, Amy, …
  • point, and he was reliant on his son George and cousin Francis Galton for the calculations. ‘I have
  • in their research. He revelled in the praise heaped on Francis by George Henry Lewes for an article
  • chemical pycrotoxine in vivisection experiments ( letter to Francis Darwin, [1 May 1876] ). Darwin
  • 2 May [1876] ). Darwin even cautioned the otherwise healthy Francis, ‘Take care and do not overwork
  • first time to a large and healthy boy, the son of Amy and Francis. Just four days later, Darwin had

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 24 hits

  • evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost
  • … (1875) and  Cross and self fertilisation  (1876). Darwins son Francis became increasingly
  • career to become his fathers scientific secretary. Darwin had always relied on assistance from
  • the previous year. As was typical, readers wrote to Darwin personally to offer suggestions, …
  • some of which were incorporated in a later edition. Darwin also contributed to discussions in the
  • in animals. The subject was brought closer to home by Francis Galtons work on inherited talent, …
  • Station at Naples. Plants that eat and feel? Darwin had resumed experiments on the
  • 12 January [1873] ).  Drosera  was the main focus of Darwins study of insectivorous plants, a
  • and alkaloids, and even electrical stimulation. On sending Darwin a specimen of the carnivorous  …
  • … ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 12 January 1873 ). Darwin found that the glandular hairs on the
  • to bend inward, so that the plant closed like a fist. Darwin was fascinated by this transmission of
  • plants , p. 63). The plants secreted a viscid fluid, which Darwin suspected attracted insects by
  • … ., p. 17). Through a series of painstaking experiments, Darwin determined that the secretions
  • botanist Mary Treat, who performed experiments suggested by Darwin on the North American species  …
  • Poisons and electrocution . . . His son Francis was assisting the histologist Edward Emanuel
  • of medical research in London. On the advice of Klein, Francis obtained a new microscope for his
  • on botany, he drew more on assistance from his son Francis. While visiting his fiancée, Amy Ruck, in
  • notes and take tracings of their burrows” ( letter from Francis Darwin, 14 August [1873] ). …
  • … [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for Francis to rent a house in the village (Down
  • to H. E. Litchfield, 20 February 1873 ). The surgeon Francis Stephen Bennet Francois de Chaumont, …
  • of instinct and inheritance when he was asked by his cousin Francis Galton to participate in a study
  • aims but regarded the project asutopian” ( letter to Francis Galton, 4 January [1873] ). …
  • and investing money very well” ( letter to Francis Galton, 28 May 1873 ). Among character traits, …
  • his own character, he asked his sons to complete the list. Francis added to his fathers virtues: …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • …  27 July [1872] ). By the end of the year Darwin was immersed in two of the studies that
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • worms , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new
  • begun many years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, …
  • The last word on Origin The year opened with Darwin, helped by his eldest son William, …
  • on 30 January , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of
  • and sixth editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final
  • closely involved in every stage of publication of his books, Darwin was keen to ensure that this
  • to bring out the new edition in the United States, Darwin arranged with Murray to have it
  • had to be resetThe investment in stereotype reinforced Darwins intention to make no further
  • A worsening breach The criticisms against which Darwin had taken the greatest trouble to
  • objections to the theory of natural selection’, Darwin refuted point by point assertions published
  • Although Mivart was among those who wrote in January to wish Darwin a happy new year, before the
  • critical and anonymously published review of  Descent . Darwins supporters had rallied to his
  • The republication of Wrights paper had been arranged by Darwin himself (see  Correspondence  vol. …
  • so bigotted a person as I am made to appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5
  • that he would willingly acknowledge himself at fault if only Darwin would renounce `fundamental
  • letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwins request that he drop the
  • … ( letter from St GJMivart,  10 January 1872 ).  Darwin, determined to have the last word in
  • 11 January [1872] ). 'I hate controversy,’ Darwin wrote later in the year, possibly with this
  • … ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  Darwin's theories under siege
  • drawings shortly afterwards ( letter from Samuel Butler to Francis Darwin, [before 30 May 1872] , …
  • the claims of spiritualists, and Darwin, through his cousin Francis Galton, had with some interest
  • however, incorporated in the second edition, produced by Francis Darwin after his fathers death. …
  • new name on the list of volunteers: by the beginning of May, Francis Darwin, the Darwinsthird son, …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 25 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals
  • he istorn to piecesby people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February
  • letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The profits for Darwin were considerable. After
  • man.’ Promoting the book As usual, Darwin did his best to obtain a wide and favourable
  • … (see Correspondence vol. 19Appendix IV). Four of Darwins five sons received a copy, and his
  • received a special acknowledgment in the form of a gift. Darwin credited her for whatever he had
  • … ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction
  • 1871). The geologist William Boyd Dawkins remarked on Darwins booksreception amongstartisans
  • liberal or orthodox. The American philosopher and journalist Francis Ellingwood Abbot incorporated
  • man & we were the best of friends’, he wrote to his son Francis on 28 February . However, …
  • Darwin had been receiving regular reports from his cousin Francis Galton on the progress of
  • in order to facilitate cross-circulation ( letter from Francis Galton, 13 September 1871 ). …
  • science ( letter to Horace Darwin, [15 December 1871] ). Francis was now studying medicine at St
  • of Trinity College, planned a trip to America, and invited Francis and two Cambridge friends. Darwin
  • …  be almost superhuman virtue to give it up’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 16 May [1871] ). Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton
  • measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual
  • primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other
  • dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March
  • which include heterstyled species. This pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small
  • separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance more speculative views
  • both pollen and seeds’ ( Forms of flowers , p. 344). Darwin was typically pessimistic about the
  • In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but Francis later reported some of the results of
  • 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and Francis devised a method of recording leaf
  • with thread, card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed
  • eminent German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn, who confirmed Franciss observations: ‘the most
  • Infusoria’ ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). Franciss paper eventually appeared in the
  • had visited Down House and become friendly with George and Francis. He wrote to Francis on 24
  • … ‘As fornatural selection”’, he wrote to Francis on 25 November , ‘frankly to me it now seems a
  • for he began to receive petitions from strangers. The writer Francis Lloyd, who was in poor health
  • for his further work. Lloyd had written a critique of Francis Galtons theory of heredity in 1876, …
  • will allow me to send you a cheque for £10’ ( letter to [Francis Lloyd], 1 May [1877] ). Another
  • In the end, Darwin made the journey along with Emma. George, Francis, and Horace also attended. The

Life of Erasmus Darwin

Summary

The Life of Erasmus Darwin (1879) was a curious departure for Darwin. It was intended as a biographical note to accompany an essay on Erasmus's scientific work by the German writer Ernst Krause. But Darwin became immersed in his grandfather's…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … scientific work by the German writer Ernst Krause. But Darwin became immersed in his grandfather& …
  • … his grandfather's mind and character. To compose the work, Darwin gathered materials and …
  • … book into grist for controversy.  In February 1879, Darwin received an unusual birthday …
  • … an essay by Ernst Krause on the evolutionary ideas of Darwin's grandfather. Darwin was familiar …
  • … poems, The Botanic Garden and Temple of Nature . But Darwin had never known his grandfather, …
  • … in Darwinismus '; ' It piles up the glory and would please Francis '. Darwin' …
  • … 'men of science'. The biographical sketch was thus a way for Darwin to trace his own …
  • … character. Once a celebrated poet and philosopher, Erasmus Darwin's fame had declined sharply …
  • … wholly & shamefully ignorant of my grandfathers life ', Darwin wrote to Krause on 14 March …
  • … storehouse of private thoughts and experiences. Reading it, Darwin said, was like ' having …
  • … Priory where he resided at his death, both appeared in Darwin's Life .   & …
  • … word “benevolent” has always been associated with Dr. Darwin by his friends '. She recalled an …
  • … bedside & made him a sign to be silent. He then said “Dr. Darwin I am the Jockey who is to ride …
  • … just at the last, & come in third or fourth'.  Darwin tried to verify such tales …
  • … in the Life , pp. 63–5.  One of Darwin's aims in assembling these episodes …
  • … which had been tarnished by previous biographies. Many of Darwin's relations had expressed …
  • … Erasmus's character and restored his good reputation. Francis Galton was pleased to have been …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwins
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber
  • Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] …
  • Darwin, [9 January 1871] Darwins brother-in-law, Francis, reports on the appearance and
  • tells her eldest son, William, that her third eldest son, Francis, is receiving help with his plant
  • February 1857] Darwins nephew, Edmund, writes to Francis with the results of his
  • in his home. Letter 10517  - Darwin to Francis, F., [29 May 1876] Darwin
  • Letter 10517  - Darwin t o Francis, F., [29 May 1876] Darwin gives his son, Francis

Darwin's 1876 letters online

Summary

Birth, tragic death . . . and cardigan jackets. To mark the 211th anniversary of Darwin's birth, we have released online the transcripts and footnotes of over 460 letters written to and from him in 1876 and a supplement of 180 letters written before…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … . . . and cardigan jackets. To mark the 211th anniversary of Darwin's birth, we have released
  • of 180 letters written before 1876. Read more about Darwin's life in 1876 and see  a full
  • The year 1876 started energetically, with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • in August and the book was published by John Murray, Darwins usual publisher, in November; he
  • quantity of work left in me for new matter. Darwin had to be disciplined about his urge
  • second edition of Orchids was published in January 1877; Darwin had been working on it since May
  • Annies death, though not so grievous to me. Darwins daughter-in-law, Amy, died a few
  • his parents; Emma and Charles took on the care of the baby. Francis too took refuge in work, …
  • from a recently discovered collection of letters to Charles Darwin from his son William. They reveal

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those
  • imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it wasall imposture’ …
  • stop word getting to America of thestrange newsthat Darwin had alloweda spirit séanceat his
  • the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwins enterprises in the 1870s, were family
  • 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in
  • had cost twenty-four shillings.) Murrays partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the
  • … (see G. B. Airy ed. 1881). Darwins third son Francis married Amy Ruck, the sister of a
  • work on insectivorous plants. Amy drew a plant and Francis was disappointed that they seemed not to
  • from Cornwall, but Darwin was unwell when it arrived, so Francis worked on the tiny bladders under
  • 1874 , and  Correspondence  vol. 21, letter from Francis Darwin,  [11 October 1873] ). …
  • work’ ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 18 September [1874] ).Franciss new wife, Amy, drew the plant ( …
  • After his wife read  Expression , the military surgeon Francis François de Chaumont sent
  • a donation of £100, and £10 each from his sons George and Francis ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 7 March
  • a photograph of the station to be sent to Darwin by Francis Maitland Balfour; Darwin offered to try

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 28 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägelis paper
  • principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägelis theory
  • in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now