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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … Benson, W. H. (2) Bentham, George (66) …
  • … Browne, Walter (6) Brownen, George (1) …
  • … Bush, John (3) Busk, George (18) …
  • … Claus, C. F. (9) Clendon, George, Jr (1) …
  • … Crookes, William (1) Cross, George (5) …
  • … Cupples, A. J. (2) Cupples, George (56) …
  • … Alexander (1) Dickie, George (3) …
  • … Fox, W. D. (225) Francis, George (1) …
  • … F. S. B. (10) Fraser, George (3) …
  • … Gibbons, W. H. S. (1) Gibbs, George (1) …
  • … Gordon, C. G. (1) Gordon, George (a) (3) …
  • … Grenville, G. N. (1) Grey, George (3) …
  • … Grove, G. (1) Grove, George (1) …
  • … Gull, W. W. (1) Gulliver, George (3) …
  • … Harris, G. E. (2) Harris, George (5) …
  • … Hensgen, Carl (1) Henslow, George (37) …
  • … Friedrich (39) Hill, George Birkbeck (1) …
  • … Hoddick, Fritz (1) Hodgskin, George (1) …
  • … Hooker, W. J. (9) Hookham, George (1) …
  • … F. B. (1) Johnston, George (2) Jones …
  • … King, Frederick (2) King, George (17) …
  • … Maudsley, Henry (3) Maw, George (29) …
  • … Morris, John (1) Morrish, George (1) …
  • … Newman, H. W. (1) Newport, George (2) …
  • … Pattrick, R. S. (1) Paul, George (1) …
  • … Frederick (7) Ransome, George (3) …

George Keen

Summary

George Keen (1794–1884) was born in England. He had arrived in Buenos Aires by 1820, making him one of the earliest settlers from Britain. In 1821 he married Mary Yates (1802/3–72), the sister of John, William and Elizabeth Yates, another family of early…

Matches: 3 hits

  • George Keen (1794–1884) was born in England. He had arrived in Buenos Aires …
  • … the megatherium. He was eager to dispatch some examples to Henslow in Cambridge, and Edward Lumb, …
  • … profit to growing markets in Europe and America; George and his son George Edward Keen (1836–1911) …

George Peacock

Summary

George Peacock was born 9 April 1791 in Denton near Darlington in Yorkshire. He was the son of a clergyman, the Rev. Thomas Peacock, curate of Denton for 50 years and school master. George was educated at Sedbergh School, Cumbria and Richmond School in…

Matches: 3 hits

  • George Peacock was born 9 April 1791 in Denton near Darlington in Yorkshire. He …
  • … Peacock, curate of Denton for 50 years and school master. George was educated at Sedbergh School, …
  • … person to go out as a naturalist ‘aboard HMS Beagle . Henslow suggested Darwin as the right …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and executing some of the key experiments. Darwin's sons George and Francis helped him with …

Edward Lumb

Summary

Edward Lumb was born in Yorkshire. According to the memoirs of his daughter Anne, Lady Macdonell, he travelled to Buenos Aires aged sixteen with his merchant uncle, Charles Poynton, and after some fortunate enterprises set up in business there. In 1833…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Mrs Lumb’s sister Mary Yates (1802/3–72) had married George Keen (1794–1884), a sheep farmer with …
  • … from Mr Keen had been sent on their way to England, since Henslow was eager that every scrap be …
  • … sent through Mr Lumb; but by 1852 Darwin confessed to George Waterhouse that he did not know if …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Other contacts such as William Bernard Tegetmeier and George Frederick Cupples, introduced him to …
  • … or 20 Nov 1843] Darwin knows Cambridge botanist J. S. Henslow has sent some of Darwin’s South …
  • … Mentors This collection of letters documents Henslow’s mentoring while Darwin was on the …
  • … mail to Montevideo. He talks of being a sort of Protégé of Henslow’s and it is Henslow’s “bounden …
  • … S., 24 July & 28 Oct & 7 Nov 1834 Darwin is excited by Henslow’s high opinion of his …
  • … all his classical knowledge. He asks Cambridge botanist J. S Henslow’s help in naming cirripedes, on …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … as Anthropologist. Cambridge University Press 1989. George Stocking, George. Race, Culture, …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lyell are some of the most fascinating in the volume. George Henry Kendrick Thwaites …
  • …  rather than against Darwin’s book per se . Prodded by Henslow’s defence of the integrity of …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … theory on purely religious grounds. The Christian publisher George Morrish urged Darwin to rest the …
  • … the baboon is as the Creator made it’ ( letter from George Morrish, 18 March 1871 ). Darwin …
  • … 20 August 1871 ). The Anglican clergyman and naturalist George Henslow reported that he had been …
  • … of utilitarianism to assist his father in answering Morley. George and Henrietta remarked upon his …
  • … far the most vexing critic for Darwin was the zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. An expert on …
  • … Alexander Agassiz, Abraham Dee Bartlett, Albert Günther, George Busk, T. H. Huxley, Osbert Salvin, …
  • … December 1871] ). Francis was now studying medicine at St George’s Hospital in London, although he …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … suffered a serious concussion from a riding accident, and George Darwin’s ill-health grew worse, …
  • … ignore the accusation made by the comparative anatomist St George Jackson Mivart in his Lessons …
  • … down completely until Mivart made a slanderous attack on George Darwin in late 1874 in an anonymous …
  • … fearful that Mivart still had the capacity to damage George’s reputation. ‘I care little about …
  • … the Vivisec. Commissions recommendation this bill is’, George Darwin declared to his father on 31 …
  • … Burdon Sanderson was keen for the society’s secretary, George Romanes, to write articles for the …
  • … Pangenesis v. perigenesis The young zoologist George Romanes was also carrying out …
  • … is a good lesson which will last for my life’, he told George Stokes, secretary of the society, on …
  • … Horace, however, who was the first to type a letter, telling George on 1 May (in the only script the …
  • … been Darwin’s strong point, and he was reliant on his son George and cousin Francis Galton for the …
  • … research. He revelled in the praise heaped on Francis by George Henry Lewes for an article on the …
  • … aware of both the highs and the lows of scientific work. George was cautioned not to be too …
  • … Cambridge astronomer John Couch Adams not only approved of George’s work but intended to present it …
  • … from scientific research was dangerous, and approved when George, who had worrying symptoms of …
  • … 27 December 1876 ). In England, the clergyman botanist George Henslow, son of John Stevens Henslow, …
  • … … are really in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … findings had been spread by the publication by J. S. Henslow and Adam Sedgwick of excerpts from his …
  • … neglected. During the voyage Darwin had expected that J. S. Henslow would describe his botanical …
  • … the other on the Keeling Island flora. Darwin’s letters to Henslow show a gradual realisation that …
  • … knowledge of plant distribution and classification (see Henslow 1837a and 1838; W. J. Hooker and G. …
  • … 1845, 1846, 1853–5, and 1860). In 1980, two notebooks in Henslow’s hand were discovered that contain …
  • … taxa as they were worked out at the time. As the late George Gaylord Simpson pointed out: ‘What …
  • … sometimes months, at a time. In September 1837 he told Henslow that doctors had recommended that he …

Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies

Summary

The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … review published in the July issue of the  Zoologist  by George Maw, for example, singled out …
  • … the imperfection of the geological record ( see letter to George Maw, 19 July [1861] ). The …
  • … advanced from his inheritance. Negotiations with the banker George Atherley, partner in the …

Books on the Beagle

Summary

‘Considering the limited disposable space in so very small a ship, we contrived to carry more instruments and books than one would readily suppose could be stowed away in dry and secure places’. So wrote Captain FitzRoy in the Narrative (2: 18). CD, in his…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … they were on board is to be found in them § Anson, George.  A voyage round the world, in the …
  • … notebook , p. 86). Darwin Library–Down †. Byron, George Anson, 7th Baron.  Voyage of H.M.S. …
  • … tracts’, Darwin Library–CUL †. Greenough, George Bellas.  A critical examination of the …
  • … of essays.  London, 1819. (DAR 32.2: 77) Greenough, George Bellas. Anniversary address (1834 …
  • … FitzRoy, [10 October 1831]). DAR 196.2 †. * Juan, George and Ulloa, Antonio de.  A voyage to …
  • … 1773. (DAR 31.2: 362v.; 38.1: 887). Scrope, George Julius Poulett.  Considerations on …
  • … history and botany.  London, 1822. Vancouver,George.  A voyage of discovery to the North …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Anne Jane Cupples, wife of the Scottish scientist George Cupples, shares her observations on the …
  • … Asa Gray about the observations of orchids made by his son, George. He details George’s findings and …
  • … the second edition of  Descent  to Darwin's son George. The work is tedious and Wallace …
  • … editing the second edition of  Descent  to his son, George. Darwin warns George that it will …
  • … editing the second edition of  Descent  to his son, George. Darwin warns George that it will …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … worth studying in a metaphys. point of view Henslow has list of plants of Mauritius with …
  • … [Gaertner 1788–91] (Plates on all seeds) R. Soc Henslow says there is a grand book with …
  • … Von. J. Metzger. Heidelberg 1841 [Metzger 1841] Read Henslow in Botanist 36  has written on …
  • … 1834]— d[itt]o d[itt]o d[itt]o. d[itt]o. 15 th  Henslow’s Botany [Henslow 1837].— d[itt]o d …
  • … ] 4. Vol. references at End Feb. 23 rd . Henslow Pamph. on Wheat [Henslow 1841]— fact about …
  • … or Review in a Medical Journal which Hooker has & lent to Henslow Huxley [DAR *128: 178 …
  • … Notes to Jardine & Jesses Selbourne [E. Jesse ed. 1849] George’s Copy Aug. St. Hilaire. …
  • … L. Ossoy [Walpole 1848] 1 st  vol. —— History George III [Walpole 1845]. 1. vol. —— …
  • … May 28 th . Delineations of the Ox Tribe &c by George Vasey. 1851 [Vasey 1851]. May 28. …
  • … Botanist , 5 vols. (1837–41), edited by John Stevens Henslow and B. Maund. 37  See …
  • … 1841 . Oxford.  119: 13b Atkinson, Henry George and Martineau, Harriet. 1851.  Letters …
  • … etc.  2 vols. London.  *119: 12v. Bennett, George. 1860.  Gatherings of a naturalist in …
  • … Edinburgh and London. [Other eds.] 128: 9 Bentham, George. 1826.  Catalogue des plantes …
  • … ou peu connues . Paris.  *128: 159 Berkeley, George. 1784.  The works of George Berkeley …
  • … [Abstract in DAR 71: 150–1.]  128: 18 Borrow, George Henry. 1843.  The Bible in Spain; or …
  • … sketches of statesmen who   flourished in the time of George III . 3 pts. London.  119: 21b …
  • … London. [Other eds.]  119: 3a Browne, William George. 1799.  Travels in Africa, Egypt and …
  • … and London.  119: 9a Bubb, afterwards Dodington, George. 1784.  The diary of the   late …
  • … atlases. Paris.  *119: 5v. [Bulwer-Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton]. 1835.  Rienzi,   …
  • … and   reason.  Edinburgh.  *119: 11v. Busk, George. 1852–4.  Catalogue of marine …
  • … 1835 to 1847 . 2 vols. London.  128: 8 Byron, George Gordon Noel. 1813.  The Giaour, a …
  • … England from the earliest   times till the reign of King George IV.  7 vols. London.  *119: 22, …
  • … and French. 2 vols. London.  128: 16 Catlin, George. 1841.  Letters and notes on the …
  • … 3 vols. Paris. [Other eds.]  119: 9a Chesterton, George Laval. 1856.  Revelations of …
  • … [Abstract in DAR 71: 164–5.]  119: 15a Combe, George. 1828.  The constitution of man …
  • … of England, from the   earliest times to the death of George II by Oliver   Goldsmith. The 11th …

Leonard Jenyns

Summary

When Darwin returned from the Beagle voyage there was no-one available to describe the fish that he had collected. At Darwin’s request Jenyns, a friend from Cambridge days, took on the challenge. It was not an easy one: at that time Jenyns had only worked…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … When Captain FitzRoy approached his friend George Peacock, then a Fellow of Trinity College, to …

Essay: Evolution & theology

Summary

—by Asa Gray EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY The Nation, January 15, 1874 The attitude of theologians toward doctrines of evolution, from the nebular hypothesis down to ‘Darwinism,’ is no less worthy of consideration, and hardly less diverse, than that of…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … brief notice which it falls in our way to take of the Rev. George Henslow’s recent volume on ‘The …
  • … natural philosophers of the day. As a theologian, Mr. Henslow doubtless is not to be compared …
  • … itself upon the minds of many naturalists and thinkers, Mr. Henslow has briefly explained in the …
  • … by a great proportion of the naturalists of our day, Mr. Henslow maintains is fully compatible with …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … neglected either, as the correspondence with Charles Lyell, George Robert Waterhouse, John Stevens …
  • … The names of Lonsdale, Forbes, and Owen were deleted, Henslow’s was queried, and J. D. Hooker’s was …
  • … of experts such as palaeontologists Edward Forbes and George Brettingham Sowerby, and the German …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … in three parts in the  Pall Mall Gazette , was by George Henry Lewes, well-known in London’s …
  • … very fruitful. On 1 May , Darwin received a letter from George Cupples, who was encouraged to …
  • … advice from the entomologist and librarian at Cambridge, George Robert Crotch, writing to his mother …
  • … Darwin passed Wallace’s pages over to his son George, now a Cambridge-trained mathematician, who …
  • … the expression of natives faces as I meet them,’ wrote George Henry Kendrick Thwaites on 1 April …
  • … for fellowship of the Linnean Society ( letter from George Bentham, [after 29 September 1868] ). …
  • … now in life’. In January, the family learned the news that George’s performance on the mathematical …
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