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To Francis Darwin   [c. 20 March 1877]

Summary

Asks FD to mollify Daniel Oliver and assure him that CD asks "only for what I wd. give my life’s blood for".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [c. 20 Mar 1877]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10752

From J. D. Hooker   [2 March 1877]

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Summary

JDH reports on Frank’s reading of his Dipsacus paper at the Royal Society. Huxley slept through much of it, but JDH is well pleased with it.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [2 Mar 1877]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 93–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10873

To [John Colby?]   2 March [1877?]

Summary

Does not think the pistil behaved as JC described, except by mere accident.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Colby
Date:  2 Mar [1877]
Classmark:  National Library of Israel (Abraham Schwadron collection, Schwad 03 04 07)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10873F

To J. D. Hooker   3 March [1877]

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Summary

CD counters Thiselton-Dyer’s objection to protoplasmic filaments of Dipsacus protruding beyond cell-wall, as Frank’s paper claims, by citing white "blood cells passing through vessels".

Has received Moseley’s collection of photographs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  3 Mar [1877]
Classmark:  DAR 95: 435–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10874

To Albert Günther   3 March 1877

Summary

Discusses spider specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf (Albert) Günther
Date:  3 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (Archives DF ZOO/200/11/115)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10875

To G. B. Ercolani   3 March 1877

Summary

Thanks GBE for his essay on the placenta [Sull’unità del tipo anatomico della placenta nei mammiferi e nell’umana specie (1877)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Giovanni Battista Ercolani
Date:  3 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Biblioteca Comunale dell’Archiginnasio, Bologna (Collezione degli autografi, XXIII, 6542)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10876

To J. V. Carus   4 March 1877

Summary

Apologises for sending wrong Cross and self-fertilisation erratum. The error is on p. 191 (where "cross-seeds" appears, it should read "self-fertilised"). There is no error on p. 275.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Julius Victor Carus
Date:  4 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Slg. Darmstaedter Lc 1859: Darwin, Charles, Bl. 162–163)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10877

To Édouard Heckel   4 March 1877

Summary

Asks EH to make a small correction in his translation [of Cross and self-fertilisation].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Édouard Marie (Édouard) Heckel
Date:  4 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Barbara and Robert Pincus (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10878

From C. F. Claus   5 March 1877

Summary

Has read in the newspapers about the album of photographs of German scientists sent in tribute to CD. His name and photograph are missing only because he was not asked to participate. CC assures CD he is one of his ardent supporters.

Author:  Carl Friedrich Claus
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Mar 1877
Classmark:  DAR 161: 179
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10879

From Asa Gray   6 March 1877

Summary

Thanks for Orchids [2d ed.].

Does not feel his abstract of Cross and self-fertilisation [Am. J. Sci. 3d ser. 13 (1877): 125–41] was thorough enough.

Has heard of their sad bereavement last autumn [death of Amy, wife of Francis Darwin].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Mar 1877
Classmark:  DAR 165: 194
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10880

From James Torbitt to the House of Commons   6 March 1877

Summary

Exposes means whereby considerable amounts of whisky are being produced duty-free.

Author:  James Torbitt
Addressee:  House of Commons
Date:  6 Mar 1877
Classmark:  DAR 178: 136
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10881

To Smith, Elder & Co.   7 March 1877

Summary

Baillière wishes to bring out a French translation of Coral reefs; CD requests their co-operation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Smith, Elder & Co
Date:  7 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Lehigh University Libraries Special Collections (Honeyman Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10882

To Asa Gray   8 March 1877

Summary

Leucosmia burnettiana is in all probability dimorphic. Thinks Gilia is truly heterostyled and Phlox subulata was, perhaps, once heterostyled. Has good evidence of heterostyly in 39 genera from 14 families.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  8 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (117)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10883

To Melchior Neumayr   9 March 1877

Summary

Thanks MN for essay ["Die Congerien", Abh. Geol. Bundesanst. Wien 7 (1875)]. It is the best case CD has met, showing "direct influence of conditions of life on the organization". A. Hyatt has come to same conclusion: that closely similar forms may be derived from distinct lines of descent. CD did not emphasise in Origin the direct action of environment on modification of species; most of the best evidence has been observed since its publication.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Melchior Neumayr
Date:  9 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Wellcome Collection (MS.7781/1–32 item 16)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10884

To C. F. Claus   9 March 1877

Summary

Warm thanks for CC’s letter. CD needed no word from CC to be convinced of his high opinion.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Carl Friedrich Claus
Date:  9 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Slg. Darmstaedter Lc 1859: Darwin, Charles, Bl. 210–211)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10885

To C. H. Blackley   9 March 1877

Summary

Thanks for CHB’s essay [New observations on hay-fever (1877?)]. The calculation of the weight of pollen-grains is wonderful. Suggests he consult Cross and self-fertilisation, pp. 376, 405 for information on this subject.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Harrison Blackley
Date:  9 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Yale University Medical Historical Library, Harvey Cushing / John Hay Whitney Medical Library (MMS)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10886

From J. G. F. Riedel   10 March 1877

Summary

Asks CD to publish in Nature JGFR’s observation that natives of Hainan have movable tail bones up to 4 cm long.

Author:  Johan Gerard Friedrich Riedel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Mar 1877
Classmark:  DAR 176: 156
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10887

To Daniel Oliver   10 March [1877]

Summary

Enquiring about cleistogamic flowers of Oxalis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  10 Mar 1877
Classmark:  Newcastle University Special Collections (Spence Watson/Weiss Archive GB186 SW/6/6)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10887F

From Ernst Krause   11 March 1877

Summary

As editor of the new journal, Kosmos, thanks CD for the permission he has granted Ernst Haeckel to publish with CD’s approval.

Cites his long support for evolution as exemplified by his book [Die botanische Systematik in ihrem Verhältniss zur Morphologie (1866)].

CD has many German supporters.

Author:  Ernst Ludwig (Ernst) Krause
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Mar 1877
Classmark:  DAR 169: 105
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10888

From Leonard Blomefield   12 March 1877

Summary

Congratulates CD on testimonials from the savants of Germany and the Netherlands [Nature 15 (1877): 356, 410–12] and generally on his contributions to biology.

Asks if and when CD’s "Variability of organic beings in a state of nature", as projected in 1868 [see Variation 1: 4] is to appear.

Author:  Leonard Jenyns; Leonard Blomefield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Mar 1877
Classmark:  DAR 168: 59
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10889
Document type
letter (53)
Date
1877
03
02 (2)
03 (3)
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05 (1)
06 (2)
07 (1)
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09 (3)
10 (2)
11 (1)
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13 (2)
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16 (3)
19 (8)
20 (3)
21 (1)
22 (2)
25 (3)
26 (3)
27 (1)
28 (1)
30 (2)
31 (1)
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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … (1) Abney, W. de W. (3) Accademia dei Lincei …
  • … (1) Ainslie, O. A. (3) Airy, Hubert …
  • … (4) Alberts, Maurice (3) Albrecht, R. F. …
  • … (1) Ambrose, J. L. (3) American Academy of …
  • … (1) Anderson, James (c) (3) Anderson-Henry, …
  • … (1) Badger, E. W. (3) Baer, K. E. von …
  • … (1) Balch, C. L. (3) Baldwin, J. D. …
  • … (5) Ball, Robert (3) Ball, Valentine …
  • … (1) Beal, W. J. (3) Beale, L. S. (2) …
  • … (1) Beddoe, John (3) Beger, Karl (2) …
  • … (66) Bergson, Edouard (3) Bergstedt, C. F. …
  • … (4) Blake, C. C. (3) Blanche (2) …
  • … (1) Blewitt, Octavian (3) Blomefield, Leonard …
  • … (5) Boole, M. E. (3) Boott, Francis …
  • … (1) Bornet, Édouard (3) Bosquet, J. A. H. de …
  • … (1) Bouton, Louis (3) Bowerbank, J. S. …
  • … (1) Bridgman, W. K. (3) Brigg, John …
  • … (1) Brown-Séquard, C. É. (3) Browne, H. G. C. …
  • … (2) Burgess, Thomas (3) Burn, Robert …
  • … (1) Bush, John (3) Busk, George (18) …
  • … (2) Butler, Mary (3) Butler, Samuel (b) …
  • … (1) Campbell, G. D. (3) Canby, W. M. …
  • … (9) Cattell, John (3) Cecil, Henry …
  • … (7) Chance, Frank (3) Chancellor of the …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … at all concern his main argument ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] ). Darwin’s …
  • … been ‘ utterly  smashed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). (A chronological list of all …
  • … and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like François Jules …
  • … I gaze at it, makes me sick!’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 3 April [1860] ). By the end of 1860, …
  • … is best thing for subject.—’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). Further details of the …

Teaching Evolution at Key Stage 3? Join our December workshop

Summary

This free, exciting training and consultation event takes place on Tuesday 12th December at Cambridge University Library, 9.00-4.30. The workshop aims to support KS3 science teachers in delivering informed, dynamic Darwin-based sessions.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … This exciting training and consultation event takes place on Tuesday 12th December at Cambridge …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … of a ‘short essay’ on man ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 3 July 1868 ). But this work would eventually …
  • … pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). But such worries were …
  • … kind almost heroic, in you to sacrifice your hair and pay 3 d  in the cause of science …
  • … canary (letters from J. J. Weir, [26] March 1868 and 3 June 1868 ). ‘It was very kind’, …
  • … on 9 September . Darwin annotated a letter sent on 3 April by Henry Doubleday that contained a …
  • … you have communicated to me’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, 3 June 1868 ). it is a fatal …
  • … of species through the study of monstrosities, remarked on 3 April , ‘your works are destined to …
  • … admirer of your genius’, wrote Frederick Behrens on 3 December , ‘I presume you are much plagued …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Surgeons [DAR *119: 1] Books to be Read 3 “Traité de la Folie des …
  • … on Annals of Nat. Hist. [Jenyns 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 1836–47] Lawrence [W. …
  • … ou Traité de Tératologie, par I. Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire, 3 vols. 8vo. et atlas de 20 planches. ibid, …
  • … of Human wishes. 28 Bacon’s Essays [Bacon 1825–36].— Butler. 3. first sermons …
  • … 1826]— (read) Pallas’ Travels [Pallas 1802–3]— Hookker (623 no) read Darby’s Louisiana …
  • … Drinkwater] 1833]— Prof. Smyth. French Revolution 3 vols [Smyth 1840] Baber’s …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … ( to Charles Layton, 24 November [1869] ). From the 3 rd edition on, each English …
  • … ( Origin 2d ed, p. 481).   2 nd to 3 rd editions; US edition …
  • … changes, was doomed to disappointment.   3 rd to 4 th editions …
  • … to include at least one change only previously made in the 3 rd German edition . I …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick

Summary

Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … topic for Darwin? And if so, why? 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …
  • … Darwinian account of the origin of language. 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … to the subject of cross and self-fertilisation. On 3 October , he wrote with fresh enthusiasm to …
  • … other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It caused him much anxiety, …
  • … for printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). In the event, the …
  • … weekly publications of Natural History’, he explained on 3 June , ‘are not sufficiently …
  • … time I can talk to anyone’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 3 May [1875] ). Finally it was arranged for …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species

Summary

Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … selection , pp. 534--66) 3 16 December 1856 …
  • … 5 3 March 1857 The struggle for existence as bearing on …

Darwin And Evolution

Summary

What is evolution? What did Darwin discover and how did he come to his conclusions?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Activities give an introduction to Charles Darwin and his theories of evolution. Specimens brought …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage

Summary

Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Detecting Darwin

Summary

Who was Charles Darwin? What is he famous for? Why is he still important?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Pupils act as Darwin detectives, exploring clues about Darwin’s life and work. No prior knowledge …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 8367: Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June [1872] In this letter to the …
  • … Letter 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 July 1873 In the 1870s, Darwin …

Home learning: 7-11 years

Summary

Do try this at home! Support your children’s learning by downloading our free and fun activities for those aged between 7-11 and 11-14 years, using Darwin’s letters.  

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and the Beagle  Voyage activities 3 Learn about Darwin the collector: …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 4 hits

  • … – Asa Gray Actor 2 – Charles Darwin Actor 3 – In the dress of a modern day archivist, …
  • … friend, the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwin… made his home on …
  • … quite kindly, and told me… Hugh Falconer (Actor 3) – a Scottish paleobotanist and …
  • … and in a lesser degree ‘Blood’s One Penny Envelope, 1, 3, and 10 cents’. If you will make him this …

Teachers notes: Offer of a lifetime

Summary

The Offer of a Lifetime?  Activities for: English Key Stage 3 and 4 When Darwin was 22 he received an exciting and unique opportunity to join HMS Beagle. The voyage changed his life but the letters show how close he came to not going at all! …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … a Lifetime?  Activities for: English Key Stage 3 and 4 When Darwin was 22 he …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus Alvey Darwin, 3 January 1865 ). Erasmus forwarded his …
  • … these alone are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865 ). Darwin, now …
  • … than anything else. I am able most days to work for 2 or 3 hours & this makes all the difference …
  • … the serenity of the Christian world’ (Brewster 1862, p. 3). John Hutton Balfour, though he had sent …
  • … of reform and reorganisation ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [3 November 1865] ). The death of …

Satire of FitzRoy's Narrative of the Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, by John Clunies Ross. Transcription by Katharine Anderson

Summary

[f.146r Title page] Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle Supplement / to the 2nd 3rd and Appendix Volumes of the First / Edition Written / for and in the name of the Author of those / Volumes By J.C. Ross. / Sometime Master of a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Adventure and Beagle Supplement / to the 2 nd 3 rd and Appendix Volumes of the First / …
  • … on the Cocos – &c &c – above mentioned. [ f.148r p.3 ] Seeing as I could not help …
  • … that I have said, or shewn to the contrary. In the 3 rd It is generally understood – that …
  • … get the few deep soundings which are given in the plan *[3] V. Until the 12 th …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of inheritance!” ( letter to F. S. B. F. de Chaumont, 3 February [1873] ). Some readers …
  • … civilisation and good breeding ( letter from Henry Reeks, 3 March 1873 ). Robert Swinhoe …
  • … some with his finger ( letter to  Nature , [before 3 April 1873] ). Moggridge suggested the …
  • … offend his father ( enclosure to letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 December 1873 ).  In April, …
  • … the passage of purgatory” ( letter from Andrew Clark, 3 September 1873 ). Revising …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 3 March 1872 ). I consider that you …
  • … because I do it badly’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 3 August [1872] ).  Darwin's …
  • … , and he complained to the German zoologist Anton Dohrn on 3 February that Mivart’s book had ' …
  • … Nature  in Wallace’s defence ( letter to  Nature  , 3 August [1872] ).  Although the two …
  • … more ‘ she observed ( letter from S. H. Haliburton, 3 November [1872] ). They reminisced about …
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