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To William Marshall   29 May 1875

Summary

Comments on WM’s paper about ostrich feathers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Adolf Ludwig (William) Marshall
Date:  29 May 1875
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.469)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10000

From R. F. Cooke   29 May 1875

Summary

Asks whether enclosure [missing] has the correct title of Insectivorous plants.

Author:  Robert Francis Cooke; John Murray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 May 1875
Classmark:  DAR 171: 454
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10001

To Asa Gray   30 May [1875]

Summary

Wants seeds of Nesaea verticillata for crossing experiments to see whether seedlings from "illegitimate unions" are sterile like true hybrids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  30 May [1875]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (121)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10002

To C. V. Riley   30 May 1875

Summary

Thanks for the seventh of CVR’s Annual reports on the noxious, beneficial and other insects in the state of Missouri (Riley 1869–77).

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Valentine Riley
Date:  30 May 1875
Classmark:  Kenneth W. Rendell (dealer) (August 2005)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10002F

From Anton Dohrn   31 May 1875

Summary

AD is aware of revolutionary character of his pamphlet [Ursprung der Wirbelthiere]. Authorities will not agree with him. Carl Gegenbaur and Ernst Haeckel are opposed. Younger biologists are disposed to accept his views. All he can expect is to put a stop to "the Amphioxus–Ascidian affair, and to open a road for speculation and for investigation on the side of the Annelid-homology".

Author:  Felix Anton (Anton) Dohrn
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 May 1875
Classmark:  DAR 162: 216
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10003

To Linnean Society   1 January [1875]

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Summary

Asks permission to republish his climbing plants paper [J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Bot.) 9 (1867): 1–118] in a corrected form [Climbing plants].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Linnean Society
Date:  1 Jan [1875]
Classmark:  DAR 97: C12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10004

From Francis Galton   2 June 1875

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Summary

Interested to hear about the peas.

Author:  Francis Galton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 June 1875
Classmark:  DAR 105: A79
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10005

From William Marshall   2 June 1875

Summary

Discusses feather as case of evolutionary atavism.

Will soon publish on siliceous sponges

and the skin of caterpillars.

Author:  William Adolf Ludwig (William) Marshall
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 June 1875
Classmark:  DAR 171: 48
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10006

From Lawson Tait   2 June [1875]

Summary

Paralysis of the nervous system of Dionaea. Uses of tails of mice.

Author:  Robert Lawson (Lawson) Tait
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 June [1875]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10007

From Francis Darwin   [after 3 June 1875]

Summary

Returns corrected proofs [of Insectivorous plants].

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 3 June 1875]
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 35
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10007F

To A. E. J. Modderman   3 June 1875

Summary

Thanks for the diploma conferring on him an honorary doctorate of medicine from Leiden University.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Antony Ewoud Jan Modderman
Date:  3 June 1875
Classmark:  Leiden University Libraries (shelfmark ASF inv.nr. 327 document 86)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10007G

From Otto Zacharias   3 June 1875

Summary

Intends to set up a biological periodical called “Darwinia” to spread and popularise Darwin’s theories; hopes CD may contribute a few words to the opening issue.

Author:  Otto Zacharias
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 June 1875
Classmark:  DAR 184: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10008

To Lawson Tait   4 June [1875]

Summary

CD’s observations on the power of movement and transmission of motor impulses in plants. If RLT succeeds with the tails of mice, it will be "a beautiful little discovery"; CD will enjoy it the more "because some German sneered at natural selection and instanced the tail of the mouse" [see 10013].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Lawson (Lawson) Tait
Date:  4 June [1875]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (General Special Collections DC AL 1/19)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10009

From T. H. Huxley   5 June 1875

Summary

Playfair "disgusted at our pronunciamentos against the Bill". Burdon Sanderson and William Sharpey agreed to it. THH feels he must serve on Vivisection Commission.

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 June 1875
Classmark:  DAR 166: 341
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10010

From Lawson Tait   5 June [1875]

Summary

May publish a lecture on insectivorous plants and would like to dedicate it to CD.

Wishes to become an F.R.S.

Author:  Robert Lawson (Lawson) Tait
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 June [1875]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10011

From Ernst Haeckel   6 June 1875

Summary

Comments on Fritz Schultze, Kant und Darwin [1875].

Describes recent activities.

Author:  Ernst Philipp August (Ernst) Haeckel
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 June 1875
Classmark:  DAR 166: 64
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10012

To Lydia Wendland   7 June [1875]

Summary

Is very grateful for the gift of a fender-stool. Will send her a copy of Insectivorous plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Lydia Wendland
Date:  7 June [1875]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (13 December 2007)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10012F

To Lawson Tait   11 June [1875]

Summary

Has found that H. G. Bronn in the chapter appended to his translation of Origin cited ears and tail of mice as facts opposed to natural selection. Suggests RLT examine hairs of tails of mice for possible nerves.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Lawson (Lawson) Tait
Date:  11 June [1875]
Classmark:  DAR 221.5: 24–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10013

To Otto Zacharias   [11 June 1875]

Summary

CD is convinced by the conclusions of Malthus.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Otto Zacharias
Date:  [11 June 1875]
Classmark:  Zacharias 1882, p. 80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10013F

From Fritz Schultze   12 June 1875

Summary

Comments on his book [Kant und Darwin: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Entwicklungslehre (1875)].

Author:  Fritz Schultze
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 June 1875
Classmark:  DAR 177: 67
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10014
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Origin is 160; Darwin's 1875 letters now online

Summary

To mark the 160th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species, the full transcripts and footnotes of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1875…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first …
  • … it behaved in similar ways to the Drosera secretion. In 1875, Klein was a very controversial …
  • … I liked the man .’   Other highlights from the 1875 letters include: I am very …
  • … of my books.  ( Letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 June [1875] ) Darwin wrote this to his …
  • … new Editions .  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 August [1875] ) Darwin also completed …
  • … this possible  ( Letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ) Agitation for a law …
  • … made false statements  ( Letter to John Lubbock, 8 April 1875 ) Relations between the …
  • … always succeeds  ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 October [1875] ) Darwin wrote …
  • … help his father and brothers with scientific instruments: in 1875, he designed a hygrometer. …
  • … his great works ( Letter to A. B. Buckley, 23 February 1875 ) The year was saddened …
  • … in my time  ( Letter to J. D. Hooker, [12 December 1875] ) In December, Darwin was …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … during his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close …
  • … mouthpiece of ‘Jesuitical Rome’ ( Academy , 2 January 1875, pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have …
  • … again & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered …
  • … learned of Klein’s testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : ‘I declare to you I did not believe …
  • … carried out on live animals in laboratories. In January 1875, he received details of experiments by …
  • … printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). In the event, the book …
  • … in a review of the book in the Academy , 24 July 1875, by Ellen Frances Lubbock: ‘in Utricularia …
  • … born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   Back over old ground …
  • … which I had long wished to see,’ he wrote on 21 April 1875 , ‘and now that I have seen it, I am …
  • … do a good deal of “hammering”,’ he wrote on 14 July 1875 . ‘I shall not let Pangenesis alone …
  • … his own theory of heredity in a series of articles in 1875 and 1876, based partly on his studies of …
  • … & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February 1875?] ). By May, having finished …
  • … proofmaniac’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, 1 and 2 May [1875] ). But Francis also found …
  • … on astronomy, or the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max …
  • … researches (Carus trans. 1875b; the series is Carus trans. 1875–87). More controversial was the …
  • … Darwin wrote: ‘An anonymous compliment | received Feb 16th 1875’.   The great and the good …
  • … Insectivorous plants ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 15 July [1875] ). Such visitors from the upper …
  • … I can talk to anyone’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 3 May [1875] ). Finally it was arranged for the …
  • … of twining plants (letters from Lawson Tait, 16 March [1875] and 27 March [1875] ). ‘As I am …
  • … Nepenthes & will soon publish’, Darwin warned on 17 July 1875 . But Tait was undaunted. He …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer who …
  • … was appropriate for so distinguished a nominee. Already in 1875, Lankester had been elected a fellow …
  • … of Lyell’s failing health from Hooker in 1874 and January 1875. On 22 February, he was notified of …
  • … ‘high type’ ( letter from Woodward Emery, 17 September 1875 ).  …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … the Trichinae’ (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). Darwin also worried that any bill …
  • … their own petition (letter to T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ). In the event, Darwin became …
  • … within Darwin’s family. In his letter of 14 January 1875 to Huxley, Darwin mentioned the effect …
  • … (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 January [1875] ). In the course of the public …
  • … to Huxley (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 12 February 1875 ). Darwin was in London from 31 …
  • … sketch for a petition (letter from T. H. Huxley, [4 April 1875] ). This was evidently passed back …
  • … on 7 April (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 7 April [1875] ), and circulating it to others in …
  • … were made (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 10 April 1875 ), and another version was prepared …
  • … of Lords (see letter to J. S. Burdon Sanderson, [11 April 1875] ). He was still unsure whether …
  • … Royal Society of London (letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 April [1875] ). The next day he wrote to …
  • … else you think best’ (letter to E. H. Stanley, 15 April 1875 ). After further consultations, a …
  • … are evident in Darwin’s correspondence in April and May 1875. The initial petition (DAR …
  • … order of the clauses. In the revised sketch, dated 24 April 1875, the penalty for unlawful …
  • … at this alteration (letter from T. H. Huxley, 19 May 1875 , letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, …
  • … corrections had been made (letter to Lyon Playfair, 26 May 1875 , and letter from Lyon Playfair, …
  • … ( Hansard Parliamentary Debates , 3d ser., vol. 224 (1875), col. 794). A Royal Commission was a …
  • … the RSPCA. The commission met between 5 June and 15 December 1875, examining fifty-three witnesses, …

Animals, ethics, and the progress of science

Summary

Darwin’s view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical implications. In Descent, he argued that some animals exhibited moral behaviour and had evolved mental powers analogous to conscience. He gave examples of cooperation, even…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … but inconclusive (see letter from G. J. Romanes, 14 July 1875 ). Eventually Romanes, who had …
  • … physiologists’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 18 July 1875 ). Darwin was concerned that the method be …
  • … let loose from hell’ ( letter to F. B. Cobbe, [14 January 1875] ). Darwin’s involvement in …
  • … position most frankly in a letter to Henrietta, 4 January [1875] . I have long thought …
  • … present agitation. ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ) Darwin worked closely …
  • … death in this country. ( letter To T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ) Legislation was passed …

Cross and self fertilisation

Summary

The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom, published on 10 November 1876, was the result of a decade-long project to provide evidence for Darwin’s belief that ‘‘Nature thus tells us, in the most emphatic manner, that she abhors…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … on this subject. ( To J. V. Carus   7 February 1875 ). In fact, Darwin had planned a new set of …
  • … fact seems to me all important.’ ( To Asa Gray, 30 May [1875] ). In earlier papers on plants with …
  • … any material aid to plants in fertilization?’ (Meehan 1875) prompted Darwin to inform him that he …
  • … to plants to intercross’ ( To Thomas Meehan, 3 October 1875 ). Hermann Müller had also read Meehan …
  • … obscure this matter’ ( From Hermann Müller, 23 October 1875 ). The Italian botanists were …
  • … plants that crossing was of little importance (Pedicino 1875; Comes 1875). Darwin was philosophical, …
  • … Kölreuter’s papers’ ( To Hermann Müller, 26 October 1875 ). Darwin’s copy of Johann Kölreuter’s …
  • … in the conditions’ ( To Ernst Haeckel, 13 November 1875 ). He added on a darker note, ‘What I …
  • … papers in the same book ( To J. V. Carus, 25 December 1875 ). As Darwin continued to write …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and animal …
  • … Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The relationship between language …

Thomas Burgess

Summary

As well as its complement of sailors, the Beagle also carried a Royal Marine sergeant and seven marines, one of whom was Thomas Burgess. When the Beagle set sail he was twenty one, having been born in October 1810 to Israel and Hannah Burgess of Lancashire…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … about him again until he opened a letter from him in March 1875 . It was written from Rainow, a …

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … preparing a second edition, which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a …
  • … in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). While  Climbing plants  focused …

Diagrams and drawings in letters

Summary

Over 850 illustrations from the printed volumes of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin have been added to the online transcripts of the letters. The contents include maps, diagrams, drawings, sketches and photographs, covering geological, botanical,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … sketch showing his system of selection,  21 May 1875 J. G. Joyce's report of …

4.34 'Punch', Sambourne cartoon 1

Summary

< Back to Introduction Linley Sambourne’s cartoon in Punch, a ‘Suggested Illustration’ for Darwin’s forthcoming book on The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants (1875) is another playful transformation of the author into an ape or monkey. However,…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … book on The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants (1875) is another playful transformation of …
  • … forms. A writer in the Gardeners’ Chronicle in March 1875 remarked that Darwin had ‘invested …
  • … Sambourne 
 date of creation December 1875 
 computer-readable date …
  • … references and bibliography Punch vol. 69 (11 December 1875), p. 242. Gardeners’ Chronicle …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20 September 1875 ). He began to compile an account …
  • … end of the previous year. He had been incensed in December 1875 when the zoologist Edwin Ray …
  • … The controversial issue had occupied Darwin for much of 1875. In January 1876, a Royal Commission …
  • … to Insectivorous plants , which was published in July 1875, with a US edition published later …
  • … in February 1876 (despite bearing a publication date of 1875), Darwin must have been gratified by …
  • … Darwin, who had communicated the paper to the society in 1875 at Tait’s request, with the ‘awful job …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … not retract his criticism in his own second edition (Dana 1875, p. 274). Descent …
  • … (Correspondence vol. 23, from J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1875] ), preferring to attack Mivart in …
  • … Anthropogenie  in the  Academy   (2 January 1875; see Appendix V, pp. 644–5) . The affair …
  • … wrote a polite, very formal letter to Mivart on 12 January 1875 , refusing to hold any future …
  • … and a second French edition was published in January 1875 ( letter from C.-F. Reinwald , 4 February …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Climbing Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment A monograph by which to work After the publication of On the Origin of Species, Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, The Descent of Man, and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … expressed. The paper was little noticed, but when in 1875 it was corrected and published as a …
  • … Letter 10214 - Darwin to T. H. Huxley, 23 October 1875 Darwin writes to his good …

Vivisection: Darwin's testimony to the Royal Commission

Summary

Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. 4661. (Chairman.) We are very sensible of your kindness in coming at some sacrifice to yourself to express your opinions to the Commission. We attribute it to the great…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … cited for all purposes as “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875.” SCHEDULE. …
  • … under the provisions of “The Experiments on Animals Act, 1875,” empowering me to make experiments on …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, that the above-named M.N. is enaged in …
  • … under the provisions of the Experiments on Animals Act, 1875, accompanied by Certificate, such as is …

1.6 Ouless oil portrait

Summary

< Back to Introduction The first commissioned oil portrait of Darwin was painted by Walter William Ouless, who was given sittings at Down House in March 1875. The idea for such a portrait came from Darwin’s son William, who as far back as 1872 had…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Ouless, who was given sittings at Down House in March 1875. The idea for such a portrait came from …
  • … the resulting picture was shown at the Royal Academy in May 1875, the Times reviewer noted …
  • … Walter William Ouless 
 date of creation March 1875 
 computer-readable date …
  • … and letter from Charles Darwin to Joseph Hooker, 30 March [1875], DCP-LETT-9905. ‘The Royal Academy’ …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … to an end. The dispute was not resolved until early 1875, and, even then, not to Darwin’s complete …
  • … from J. D. Hooker, 29 December 1874 ). By January 1875, Mivart had still not made any …
  • … book Anthropogenie , in the Academy , 2 January 1875. ‘Possessed by a blind animosity against …
  • … (Mivart was a Catholic convert.) On 12 January 1875 , Darwin finally wrote to Mivart, …
  • … article in a letter published in the Academy , 16 January 1875, p. 66, signed, ‘The Quarterly …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin …
  • … 1 The resulting volume, Insectivorous Plants (1875), was one in a series of works in which …
  • … SOURCES Books Darwin, Charles. 1875. Insectivorous Plants. London: John …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … had taken a strong interest in the vivisection debate in 1875, and had even testified before a Royal …
  • … for divorce’ ( letter to H. K. Rusden, [before 27 March 1875] ). In Descent of man , p. 103, …
  • …  vol. 23,  letter from Charlotte Papé, 16 July 1875 ). She now addressed Francis, who could best …
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