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From W. J. L. Wharton   [15 September 1874 or later]

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Summary

Describes the coral formations of the island of Rodriguez [Indian Ocean].

Author:  William James Lloyd Wharton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [15 Sept 1874 or later]
Classmark:  DAR 69: A67–70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9205

To Francis Darwin   [17 September 1874]

Summary

Asks FD to come early to write from dictation.

Thanks Amy for her drawing of Utricularia montana.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [17 Sept 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 271.3: 12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9218

From J. D. Hooker   [after 4 September 1874]

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Summary

Forwards a letter reporting on a blow-fly trapped by a leaf of Dionaea; decomposition of fly has also decomposed the leaf. JDH has written asking for a strong plant, and explaining the case [of surfeit].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 4 Sept 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 103: 222–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9615

From Theodosia Marshall   [September 1874]

Summary

Sends count of remains on Pinguicula leaves.

Author:  Theodosia Louisa Marshall
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Sept 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 124
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9616

From James Ross   September 1874

Summary

Sends his book [On protoplasm (1874)], which defends CD’s theory.

Suggests why the lips are closed and the teeth clenched in the expression of determination: it originated as a means of protecting jaw-bone and teeth against a strong blow.

Author:  James Ross
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  Sept 1874
Classmark:  DAR 176: 217
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9617

To A. W. Howitt    [September 1874]

Summary

Thanks Howitt for his offer of information from Australia and suggests that Howitt keep detailed notes for a future publication.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred William Howitt
Date:  [Sept 1874]
Classmark:  M. H. Walker 1971, pp. 221 and 338 n. 25
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9617F

To John Lubbock   [before 17 September 1874]

Summary

Sends MS intended some day for the Viola tricolor section of Cross and self-fertilisation [pp. 123–8] to be used by JL in his British wild flowers (1875).

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [before 17 Sept 1874]
Classmark:  British Library (Add MS 49645:107)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9618

From Charles Lyell   1 September 1874

Summary

Comments on Tyndall’s [Presidential] Address at Belfast meeting [of BAAS] and praise of CD’s work there. Mentions criticism of Belfast clergy.

CL saw some crustacean footprints while in Ireland.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Sept 1874
Classmark:  K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 445–6; Kinnordy MS (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9619

From D F. Nevill   2 September [1874]

Summary

Hooker has told her of CD’s work on insectivorous plants. Offers plants, but her Dionaea plants are too small now.

Author:  Dorothy Fanny Nevill
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Sept [1874]
Classmark:  DAR 172: 24
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9620

To Charles Lyell   3 September [1874]

Summary

Discusses belief in immortality and a personal God.

Describes his holiday in Southampton.

Comments on papers of John Wesley Judd.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 Sept [1874]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.448)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9621

From J. S. Burdon Sanderson   3 September [1874]

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Summary

Will prepare experiments with the fatty acids on digestion of gluten. Has found it is digested slowly, but entirely, with pepsin and hydrochloric acid.

Author:  John Scott Burdon Sanderson, baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Sept [1874]
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9623

From Chauncey Wright   3 September 1874

Summary

Writes at length on the origins and meanings of particular head movements as used to express assent or disagreement, especially the sideways movements of the head as an expression of consideration or contemplation.

Also discusses space and colour perception.

Author:  Chauncey Wright
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Sept 1874
Classmark:  DAR 181: 172, 173 f. 6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9624

To D. F. Nevill   3 September 1874

Summary

Thanks DFN for her letter [see 9620].

Has nearly finished work on Dionaea.

Asks her to send a specimen of Drosera dichotoma.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Dorothy Fanny Nevill
Date:  3 Sept 1874
Classmark:  Nevill 1910, pp. 107–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9624F

From T. L. Brunton   4 September 1874

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Summary

Observations of effect of pepsin and hydrochloric acid on urea indicate that it is not digested [by Drosera].

Author:  Thomas Lauder Brunton, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Sept 1874
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 86–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9625

From W. C. Marshall   5 September [1874]

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Summary

Sends Pinguicula vulgaris leaves with seeds on them, together with his observations on proportion of leaves with insects on them.

Author:  William Cecil (Bill) Marshall
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Sept [1874]
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 128–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9626

To D. F. Nevill   7 September 1874

Summary

Thanks her for specimen of Drosera. Asks for an epiphytic Utricularia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Dorothy Fanny Nevill
Date:  7 Sept 1874
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.449)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9627

To W. C. Marshall   7 September [1874]

Summary

Thanks for the Pinguicula leaves, from which he has picked off sixteen seeds.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Cecil (Bill) Marshall
Date:  7 Sept [1874]
Classmark:  Stockholms Auktionsverk (dealers) (15 December 2015)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9627F

From D. F. Nevill   8 [September 1874]

Summary

Offers Utricularia montana and gives instructions for growing Drosera.

Wishes to visit CD at Down when she comes to London.

Author:  Dorothy Fanny Nevill
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 [Sept 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 172: 20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9628

To J. D. Hooker   8 September [1874]

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Summary

Lady Dorothy Nevill has no Dionaea.

CD anxious to talk with JDH about Utricularia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  8 Sept [1874]
Classmark:  DAR 95: 334–335
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9629

From H. C. Sorby   9 September 1874

Summary

Reports on his spectroscopic examination of the colouring matter in the hairs (tentacles) of Drosera.

Author:  Henry Clifton Sorby
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Sept 1874
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 88–9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9630
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Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … that it was ‘dry as dust’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 9 September 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied …
  • … which is crowned with glory’ ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 9 February 1879 ). The botanist and …
  • … ). Darwin welcomed Krause’s suggestion, but warned him on 9 June not to ‘expend much powder & …
  • … (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR 219.9: 201)). Celebrity and honours …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Darwin asked Murray to intervene, complaining on 9 January , ‘M r . Dallas’ delay … is …
  • … on the auditory organs of Orthoptera and Coleoptera on 9 September . Darwin annotated a letter …
  • … from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing sphinx moths that …
  • … direct result of natural selection ( Variation  2: 185–9). Wallace seized upon this point in a …
  • … Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February [1868] ). Darwin’s eldest son, …
  • … from Fritz Müller, 22 April 1868 , 17 June 1868 , 9 September 1868 , and 31 October 1868 …
  • … A different order of pride was expressed on 9 November by Ernst Haeckel on the birth of his son …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … excited Darwin, who exclaimed to Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 9 August [1862] ), ‘I am almost stark …
  • … , whether the Book will sell’ ( letter to John Murray, 9 [February 1862] ). To his son, William, …
  • … better fun’ than species ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 February [1862] ), he responded to the …
  • … active young wolves’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 9 October 1862 ). Darwin had managed to …
  • … to read any paper or speak’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 [April 1862] ). A visit in October from …
  • … me go away for an hour after dinner & retire to my room at 9 o clock I do not think it would …
  • … as true as gospel, so it must be true’ ( to J. D. Hooker, 9 May [1862] ). the real …

Books on the Beagle

Summary

The Beagle was a sort of floating library.  Find out what Darwin and his shipmates read here.

Matches: 2 hits

  • … the  Narrative  (2: 18). CD, in his letter to Henslow, 9 [September 1831] , discussing the …
  • … Desaulses de.  Voyage autour du monde . . . 1817–20.  9 vols., 4 vols. plates, Paris, 1824–44. …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … into an entirely new province of knowledge’ ( 9 December 1859 ). He soon became interested in …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] Darwin’s nephew, …
  • … 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin’s …
  • … Letter 7433  - Wedgwood,  F. to Darwin, [9 January 1871] Darwin’s brother-in-law, …
  • … Letter 8153  - Darwin to  Darwin, W. E., [9 January 1872] Darwin thanks his son …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … field guide to Glen Roy: To Charles Lyell, 9 August [1838] To Charles Lyell, …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … by his perfectibility principle (Nägeli 1865, pp. 28–9). In further letters, Hooker tried to provide …
  • … hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James Crichton-Browne and …
  • … of the soil ( letter to  Gardeners’ Chronicle , 9 May [1869] ). In March, Darwin received …
  • … I do not care to follow him’ ( letter from T. H. Farrer, 9 October 1869 ). Farrer ventured to …
  • … on summit of a mountain.—’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 9 July [1869] ).  Earlier in the year, …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Beagle voyage, to a letter to C. A. Kennard written on 9 January 1882 , only shortly before …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May 1869 ) Darwin cited Gray’s …
  • … book shows that they spent 14s on a backgammon board on 9 November 1868, a few days after leaving …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … my teeth at my own folly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [9 May 1863] ). After his venture into the …
  • … … who dare speak out’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [9 May 1863] ). The others listed were himself, …
  • … to Asa Gray, 20 April [1863] , letter to J. D. Hooker, [9 May 1863] , and memorandum from G. H …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … ‘is the bane of existence!’ ( letter to William Ogle, 9 November 1870 ). Researching …
  • … demons and spirits were white ( letter from W. W. Reade, 9 November 1870 ). Keen for more …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Lyell telling him about the letter to the Athenæum . 9  In the same letter, Darwin …
  • … about C. Lyell 1863a are discussed in Bynum 1984, pp. 154–9. 7. See Correspondence …
  • … letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. See Correspondence vol. 11, …
  • … 11, letter from J. D. Hooker, [24 March 1863] and n. 9. In his published review, Lubbock wrote …
  • … Emma Darwin to Henrietta Emma Darwin, [1 June 1865] (DAR 219.9: 28). 24. See the …

Photograph album of German and Austrian scientists

Summary

The album was sent to Darwin to mark his birthday on 12 February 1877 by the civil servant Emil Rade, and contained 165 portraits of German and Austrian scientists. The work was lavishly produced and bound in blue velvet with metal embossing. Its ornate…

Matches: 0 hits

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Cactus’, he wrote to William Turner Thiselton-Dyer on 9 May. He later noted that in many Cacteae the …
  • … about the radicles’, he wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 9 May . ‘The apex is sensitive, & instead …
  • … ‘I am what may be called a rich man’, he replied on 9 December, ‘on the other hand I have 5 sons …

Six things Darwin never said – and one he did

Summary

Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly attributed to Darwin that never flowed from his pen.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Spot the fakes! Darwin is often quoted – and as often misquoted. Here are some sayings regularly …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 3 hits

  • … to be killed after painful experiments. “ 9. —Unlicensed persons making painful …
  • … liable to penalties of Cruelty to Animals Act. 9.—Any person not holding a licence under …
  • … and restrictions contained in sections numbered 8, 9, 10, 11, of the said act. (Signed) …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … (read) Smellie Philosophy of Zoology [Smellie 1790–9]. Fleming Ditto [Fleming 1822] …
  • … Read Aristotle to see whether any of my views are ancient 9 Study with profound care …
  • … read Audubons Ornithol: Biography [Audubon 1831–9]— 4 Vols. well worth reading [DAR …
  • … de leurs genres, par M. Latreille, 1 vol. 8vo. 9 s . [Latreille 1825] Mémoire sur la …
  • … [Fabricius 1603]. referred to by Hallam [Hallam 1837–9] D r . Lord has written some new …
  • … 1842] Coleridge. Literary Remains [Coleridge 1836–9] Inconsistency of Human wishes. …
  • … and cheaper Edition, with Plates and Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 9 s . 6 d . [Knapp] 1838] Read …
  • … Duke of Wellington’s Dispatches [Wellesley 1834–9] Carlyles Oliver Cromwell [Carlyle 1845] …
  • … Knight’s facts on dogs instincts Veterinary. vol: 9. p. 229. “A comparative view of the form …
  • … 6. Birds of the Game kind [Jardine 1834b]. 9. Columbidæ (Pigeons.) [Selby 1835] 11. …
  • … vol. Ludlows Memoirs [Ludlow 1698–9] Memoirs of Plumer Ward by Hon …
  • … to the Study of Insects 1868. U. States [Packard 1868–9] (an excellent large Book) [DAR …
  • … of W. S. Landors Imaginary Conversations [Landor 1824–9]— very poor Sir J 57  Browne’s …
  • … 1831] 4 vols 25 Phillips Geology [J. Phillips 1837–9] Lardners 2 nd  vol March 16 …
  • … Miscellaneous Works & several reviews [Carlyle 1838–9] Nov 8 th  Murchison Silurian …
  • … Decemb. Several more of Carlyles Essays [Carlyle 1838–9]— —— Skimmed Ordinaire on Volcanos …
  • … are some few references at end of Hallam [Hallam 1837–9]) Feb. 12 th  Charlsworths Journal …
  • … 4 th . Hallam’s Hist. Lit. 4 vols. [Hallam 1837–9]— good 15 th  Failed in reading Dryden …
  • … Shelley says is victorious & decisive 72 Octob. 9 th  Lindley’s Theory of Hort. …
  • … of Botany ]. 2. vols. 1801 to 1806. extracted. 9 th  Müllers Physiology [Müller 1837–42] 2 …
  • … 24 th . Smellie’s Philos. of Nat. Hist. [Smellie 1790–9] (one vol) d[itt]o— May 20 th . …

Darwin & coral reefs

Summary

The central idea of Darwin's theory of coral reef formation, as it was later formulated, was that the islands were formed by the upward growth of coral as the Pacific Ocean floor gradually subsided. It overturned previous ideas and would in itself…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … he arrived at his coral reef theory. Autobiography , pp. 98-9 No statement of Darwin' …
  • … the channels and lagoons of the islands ( Narrative  2: 38-9), so it may be presumed that he was …
  • … wants to be sure they will visit the South Sea Islands:  [9 September 1831] . The first …
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