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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Francis Darwin   [after 23 July 1874]

Summary

Asks for a specimen of Pinguicula.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [after 23 July 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13796

From John Price   [27 July 1874]

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Summary

Has some Utricularia minor for CD. Has found the bladders on U. vulgaris are not floats.

Thanks CD for book [Descent, 2d ed.].

Author:  John Price
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [27 July 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 143
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9522

To J. D. Hooker   [before 15 July 1874]

Summary

Suggests experiments to try [with Nepenthes]. Asks JDH to test whether cabbage seeds and peas exposed to the ferment germinate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [before 15 July 1874]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (JDH/3/6 Insectivorous plants 1873–8: 38–9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9523

To Francis Darwin   [July 1874 – September 1876]

Summary

Has had a nice stay with William, who is charming but rather languid and cannot read to himself.

Love to Amy [Darwin] and Mrs Ruck.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [July 1874–Sept 1876]
Classmark:  DAR 271.4: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9523A

From L. C. Harrison to Emma Darwin   [before 1 July 1874]

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Summary

Sends reference on Pinguicula [for CD].

Author:  Lucy Caroline Wedgwood; Lucy Caroline Harrison
Addressee:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Date:  [before 1 July 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 138
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9525

To W. E. Darwin   1 July [1874]

Summary

Asks WED to visit Winchester soon and collect Utricularia for him

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  1 July [1874]
Classmark:  Heritage Auctions (dealers) (11 May 2017)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9525F

From J. D. Hooker   1 July 1874

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Summary

Has "given the slip" to Nepenthes, but is setting a plant up in an enclosure for special observation.

Has some splendid Sarracenia and will perform any miracle regarding them CD puts him up to.

Charmed with CD’s account of Pinguicula. Would like to try whether Lychnis has the same use of viscid fluid.

Has written for English Utricularia for CD.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 103: 200–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9526

To W. T. Thiselton-Dyer   1 July 1874

Summary

Describes leaf movements of Pinguicula and Drosera in capturing prey. Notes effects of ammonium carbonate on leaves.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Turner Thiselton-Dyer
Date:  1 July 1874
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Carnivorous Plants)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9527

To Joseph Fayrer   [1–3 July 1874]

Summary

Cobra poison is a stimulant to protoplasm. Poison acts very differently on cilia and protoplasm of Drosera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Fayrer, 1st baronet
Date:  [1–3 July 1874]
Classmark:  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 23 (1874–5): 274
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9527F

From L. C. Harrison   [1 July 1874]

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Summary

Sends further details on Pinguicula reference.

Author:  Lucy Caroline Wedgwood; Lucy Caroline Harrison
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1 July 1874]
Classmark:  DAR 58.1: 138v
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9528

To J. D. Hooker   2 July 1874

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Summary

Thinks Frank and he have worked out Pinguicula well and they long to attack Utricularia. Tried several plants with sticky glandular hairs; some few absorb ammonia, but the greater number do not. If JDH sends plant or seed of Lychnis CD will examine it to see whether it catches many flies. Asa Gray has written him much about Sarracenia, with a specimen showing the splendid dodge by which ground insects are enticed up and then drowned. Describes how it may be investigated, to see whether it absorbs decayed matter from flies, or ammonia thus generated.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  2 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 95: 322–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9529

From J. D. Hooker   3 July 1874

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Summary

Sends results of his observations on Nepenthes. Would be grateful for any hints for further observations.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 103: 202–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9530

To T. H. Farrer   4 July [1874]

Summary

Has read THF’s article on Coronilla [see 9400] – "a very curious case"; is troubled by C. emerus.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Farrer, 1st Baron Farrer
Date:  4 July [1874]
Classmark:  Linnean Society of London (LS Ms 299/23)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9531

To J. D. Hooker   4 July 1874

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Summary

It would be interesting to prove that some plants feed on decayed animal matter whilst others like Drosera can digest fresh animal matter. Suggests the method for observing this.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  4 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 95: 324–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9532

To Joseph Fayrer   4 July [1874]

Summary

Suggests experiment involving cobra poison on white corpuscles. Thanks for offer of Crotalus poison.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Fayrer, 1st baronet
Date:  4 July [1874]
Classmark:  DAR 144: 104
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9533

From Joseph Fayrer   6 July 1874

Summary

Will do experiments CD suggests.

Is sending his book on the poisonous snakes of India [The Thanatophidia of India (1872)].

Author:  Joseph Fayrer, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 164: 110
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9534

To John Ralfs   8 July 1874

Summary

Thanks for the Pinguicula plants, which have recovered, and asks if he could also send Utricularia, since his other supplies have failed.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Ralfs
Date:  8 July 1874
Classmark:  The Huntington Library (HM 76527)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9534F

To F. C. Donders   7 July 1874

Summary

Asks about the effect of atropine on the eye. Is interested in parallel case: influence of phosphate of ammonia on glands of Drosera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frans Cornelis (Franciscus Cornelius) Donders
Date:  7 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 143: 417
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9535

From J. V. Carus   7 July 1874

Summary

Thanks for proofs [of Descent, 2d English ed.].

Publisher would like better photographs for Expression [2d German ed.].

Author:  Julius Victor Carus
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 161: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9536

From J. D. Hooker   8 July 1874

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Summary

The appetite of Nepenthes for hard-boiled egg is prodigious.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 July 1874
Classmark:  DAR 103: 204–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-9537
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Date
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7 Suffolk St, London

Summary

Recommending Darwin

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Henslow is asked to recommend a naturalist to accompany Fitzroy, and Darwin is invited on the …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin, W.E. [7? April 1868] Southampton, England …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Galton, Francis 7 Nov 1872 Rutland Gate, London, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 7 Sept 1872 11 St Mary Abbot' …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … in the shape of an arch ( Movement in plants , pp. 96–7). As usual, staff at the Royal Botanical …
  • … my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later he wrote: …
  • … Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats have only just …
  • … the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was …
  • … are here & all adoring Bernard’, he wrote to Francis on 7 July . ‘Bernard is very sweet & …
  • … to refuse,’ he wrote to William Spottiswoode on 7 July . Pinker later made a statue of Darwin for …
  • … generations’ ( enclosure to letter to T. H. Farrer, 7 March 1878 ). In the end, the attempt to …
  • … from a person unknown to him. The benefactor wrote on 7 December : ‘I consider that you, more …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to …
  • … folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He particularly …
  • … to his publisher, John Murray, ‘Of present book I have 7 chapters ready for press & all others …
  • … bear the expense of the woodcuts ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). After sending the …
  • … and Darwin summarised them in  Variation  2: 106–7, concluding, ‘it follows from Mr. Scott’s …
  • … of real improvement in health’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). All the children …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin and his correspondents. First note [after 7 April 1838][1] Work finished …
  • … near Regents Park—keep horse—take Summer tours Collect[7] specimens some line of Zoolog: …
  • … on the three blank pages of the letter from Leonard Horner, 7 April [1838]. [2] Presumably CD …

British Association meeting 1860

Summary

Several letters refer to events at the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Oxford, 26 June – 3 July 1860. Darwin had planned to attend the meeting but in the end was unable to. The most famous incident of the meeting was the verbal…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and Thomas Henry Huxley that occurred during the Saturday, 7 July, meeting of Section D (zoology and …
  • … preceded by their precise attribution. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, p. 19: Introduction to the …
  • … uncommonly lively during the week. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, pp. 25–6: Thursday session of …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in 1873, a discovery was made.  This letter 31 July–7 August 1873 also tackled the issue of hair …
  • … \quite white\ (Letter from Frank Chance, 31 July–7 August 1873 ) The pony hair …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, & if he …
  • … can make several parts clearer,’ Darwin reiterated on 7 November , ‘I believe (though I hope I am …
  • … ancestry. ‘You know better than anybody’, he wrote on 7 January , ‘how infinitely great is the …
  • … the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max Müller and …
  • … Down with Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the public in this way ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 May 1863] , and Appendix VII). He also …
  • … [1863] , and letter from Julius von Haast, 21 July [–7? August] 1863 ). Darwin was subsequently …
  • … paper with satisfaction ( see letter to John Scott, 7 November [1863] ). Scott had referred …
  • … he could send him to the war ( see letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1863 ). Darwin shared this letter …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … (1) Asher, G. M. (7) Ashley, Miss (1 …
  • … (4) Aubertin, J. J. (7) Aussant-Carà, Paul …
  • … (1) Aveling, E. B. (7) Axon, W. E. A. …
  • … (16) Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John …
  • … (36) Baxter, William (7) Baynes, H. M. …
  • … (1) Blair, R. A. (7) Blair, R. H. (4 …
  • … (3) Boott, Francis (7) Boott, Mary …
  • … (1) Chambers, Robert (7) Chance, Frank …
  • … (3) Clarke, R. T. (7) Clarke, T. W. …
  • … (6) Darwin, V. H. (7) Darwin, Violetta …
  • … (1) Dowie, Annie (7) Down Friendly Society …
  • … (2) Farr, William (7) Farrar, F. W. …
  • … (28) Fitzgerald, R. D. (7) Fitzmaurice, Edmond …
  • … (2) Forel, Auguste (7) Forster, L. M. …
  • … (3) Gordon, George (b) (7) Goschen, G. J. …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … nature and religion. Date of interview: 7 August 2008 Transcription …
  • … Randal Keynes: Yes. 7. How, and what, do we know of Darwin's opinions …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read Decandolle Philosophie …
  • … 1835] read Marcel de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] …
  • … de S t  Hilaire 1832 [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1832–7] contains all his fathers views Quoted by …
  • … 3 vols. 8vo. et atlas de 20 planches. ibid, 1832–36. £1 7 s . 25  [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire …
  • … of Agriculture by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. …
  • … Vestiges of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which …
  • … Birds of Himalaya [Gould 1834] (& of Europe?) [Gould 1832–7] & of Australia [Gould 1848]; …
  • … Campbells Lives of Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] last vol. Ludlows Memoirs …
  • … 1849] (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has …
  • … Gresly Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris …
  • … Vol. V of Campbells Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] Lives of the Lindsays [Lindsay 1849] …
  • … Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. Abercrombie on the …
  • … ] Oct 3 Lavater’s Phisiognomy [Lavater 1806–7] Malthus on Population [Malthus 1826] …
  • … added notes from 2 d  Edit [Holland 1840].— Feb 7 th . Lord Brougham Dissertation …
  • … 1687 to 1766 inclusive, and from beginning to 1674 7 th  Skimmed Burn’s Poems [Burns 1786]. …
  • … Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar ]. Vol 1— to 7. M.S. Translat.— from 1740. 2 d . vol …
  • … S. Romilly’s Memoirs [Romilly 1840]. moderate Feb. 7 th  Sartor Resartus [Carlyle 1834] …
  • … Essays [Bacon 1825–36]— dull, & crabbid style May 7 th  Skimmed a little of Tucker’s …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘almost indispensable’ ( letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 ). Darwin welcomed Krause’s …
  • … meet the local celebrity, John Ruskin. Marshall wrote on 7 September that Ruskin, the day after …
  • … dogma’, Mary Jung, a young Austrian woman, wrote on 7 January . ‘When my reason agrees with your …
  • … be an atheist, Darwin told the clergyman John Fordyce on 7 May , ‘It seems to me absurd to doubt …
  • … work in such an outstanding way’, Würtenberger wrote on 7 February , after receiving £100 from …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … as if confessing a murder. DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have been …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although Darwin did …
  • … to break through the trammels.’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  7 March [1852] ). A more modern and …
  • … for a game of Billiards’. (Darwin to his son William,  7 July [1859] ). Whole family outings were …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote him a lengthy letter …
  • … undergoing vaccination ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 April 1868] ). Francis was also drafted into …
  • … desire to penetrate Truth’ ( letter from Ernest Faivre, 7 April 1868 ). Armand de Quatrefages, who …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … taking a clear position on the transmutation of species. 7 Later, he wrote to Lyell himself, …
  • … 1863a are discussed in Bynum 1984, pp. 154–9. 7. See Correspondence vol. 11, letter …
  • … vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. See Correspondence …
  • … 14, doc. 183–4). 15. Letter from T. H. Huxley, 7 March 1865, in BL MSS ADD 49641. …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the upper regions of the atmosphere.  Blackley wrote on 7 July 1873 that his high altitude …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … privilege to offer” ( letter from E. F. Lubbock, [before 7 April 1873] ). Hooker added: “I have …
  • … but he is a deal too sharp” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 April 1873] ). A group of Huxley …
  • … than species are permanent” ( letter from John Farr, 7 July 1873 ). Further thoughts on the …
  • … past memories” ( letter to A. A. L. P. Cochrane, [after 7 June 1873] ). Darwin did accept …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … politics of women’s biology , (Rutgers, 1997),  chapter 7: Have only men evolved? , pp. 87 – 106. …
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