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Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 16 hits

  • The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the
  • by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). …
  • of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences
  • looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I
  • hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin
  • on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and
  • to believe in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18
  • and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it wasall
  • the publishers, he applied first to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker, and finally borrowed one from
  • for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did
  • … ‘Im a grown man now’, he reminded Darwin, ‘& sh d . stand on my own footing, & if it is
  • Mivart (see  Correspondence  vol. 20, letter to St G. J. Mivart, 11 January [1872] ). To Darwin
  • views. In December, he sought advice from Huxley and Hooker, sending them a draft letter that
  • Mivart had written the article ( enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 ). Huxley
  • to write to Mivart directly after he knew the full result of Hookers and Huxleys representations ( …
  • 15 th  he published that shabby rejoinder’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1874] ).  On

Darwin's 1874 letters go online

Summary

The full transcripts and footnotes of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1874 through his letters and see a full list of the letters. The 1874 letters…

Matches: 9 hits

  • of over 600 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1874 are published online for the first time. …
  • … ( Letter to GHDarwin, 1 August [1874] ) The Mivart affair highlights
  • are some other highlights from Darwin's correspondence in 1874: I feel as old as
  • quietly, as not signifying so much.  ( Letter to WDFox, 11 May [1874] ) At the
  • more quietly was severely tested by some of the events of 1874. He had a clear idea of the shape of
  • subject & that must be enough for me  ( Letter to WDFox, 11 May [1874] ) …
  • five times more time than the positive  ( Letter to JDHooker, 30 August [1874] ) …
  • day more in my life than this days work  ( Letter to DFNevill, 18 September [1874] ) …
  • the work which you have to do—  ( Letter to JDHooker, 30 November [1874] ) Darwin

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 18 hits

  • In 1874, the Catholic zoologist St George Jackson Mivart caused Darwin and his son
  • appeared to have created very little stir, until, in July 1874, Mivart published an anonymous review
  • of the Quarterly ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 29 July 1874 ). Darwin hastily advised against
  • to wish to circulate ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). Darwin provided a draft of the
  • to endorse them ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 5 August 1874 ). He sent a second draft, which Darwin
  • a fair copy of his letter with his letter of 6 [August] 1874 . George and Darwin were also
  • Georges letter to Murray with his letter of 11 August 1874 , and was no doubt relieved to
  • to all he asked ( letter from John Murray, 12 August 1874 ). In October, Georges letter
  • a Pickwickian sense’ ( letter to John Murray, 18 October 1874 ). In other words, Mivart had used
  • reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker and Huxley between them
  • admit his authorship of the attack on George ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December 1874 ). Huxley
  • attacked a friend of mine.’ ( Enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 .) A reply
  • still wrote to Mivart , in a letter that he circulated to Hooker and Darwin, that it was necessary
  • inferior Deities do battle with the infernal powers.’ What Hooker, Huxley, and Darwin were proposing
  • someone who was not willing to reply. However, for men in Hookers, Huxleys, and Darwins social
  • could look like both cliquishness and the abuse of power. (Hooker was president and Huxley secretary
  • was reluctant to have the matter stirred up even more. Hooker, on the other hand, was meditating
  • from John Tyndall, 28 December 1874 , and letter from J. D. Hooker, 29 December 1874 ). …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 24 hits

  • writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring Gray Louis Agassiz, Adam
  • this actor uses the words of Jane Loring Gray, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Hugh Falconer, Louis Agassiz, …
  • of natural selection to his friend, the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles
  • year 1839, and copied and communicated to Messrs Lyell and Hooker in 1844, being a part of
  • DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have beenengaged in a very presumptuous work
  • the opportunity I enjoyed of making your acquaintance at Hookers three years ago; and besides that
  • sheet of note-paper! DARWIN11   My dear HookerWhat a remarkably nice and kind
  • 22   Hurrah I got yesterday my 41st Grass! Hooker is younger than Darwin and Gray by
  • species beforeDARWIN24   My dear Hookeryou cannot imagine how pleased I am
  • on your bowels of immutability. Darwin passes to Hooker a brace of letters 25
  • there is a little rap for you. GRAY:   26   Hooker [is] dreadfully paradoxical to
  • as well as any man. I send itDarwin passes to Hooker an envelope of seeds. …
  • and Hawks have often been seen in mid Atlantic. HOOKER:   28   Thanks for your letter
  • pleased to have. DARWIN33   My dear Hooker. Thanks, also, for [your] Photograph, …
  • expression and so by no means does you justice. HOOKER:   34   I believe I have very
  • beguiled into shouldrileyou, as you say it doesHooker rightly tells me, I have no business to
  • make a very audacious remark in opposition to what I imagine Hooker has been writing and to your own
  • to tell you, that before I had ever corresponded with you, Hooker had shown me several of your
  • … – a Scottish paleobotanist and contemporary of Darwin and HookerspluttersFALCONER: …
  • I can see that you have already corrupted and half-spoiled Hooker!! DARWIN: Now when I see
  • out much fuller in my sketch copied in 1844, and read by Hooker some dozen years ago…. I should be
  • world to come. DARWIN:   56   My dearest Hooker, You will, and so will Mrs Hooker, be
  • C DARWIN, 1819 AUGUST 1862 149 C DARWIN TO J. D. HOOKER 26 JULY 1863 150
  • A GRAY 3 AUGUST 1871 201  TO A GRAY 3 JUNE [1874] 202  FROM A GRAY 16

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … work of preparing new Editions’, he complained again to Hooker on 18 August. Finally, by …
  • … much more than insectivorous plants. As he confessed to Hooker on 12 December , ‘I have not felt …
  • … attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous review in 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, …
  • … during the affair by the loyalty of his close friends, Hooker and Thomas Henry Huxley. …
  • … honoured George. You have indeed been a true friend.’ Hooker was hampered by his position as …
  • … & if he speaks to me should let him feel it .’ Hooker also directed some of his anger …
  • … thirst for vengeance is now quite Satisfied’, he told Hooker on 17 January , ‘I feel now like a …
  • … laid to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a …
  • … botanical research and had visited Down House in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters …
  • … A scientific friendship had developed between the men in 1874, and this was enhanced by Romanes’s …
  • … red half has become wholly white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 November 1874] ).   …
  • … firm. Darwin was impressed by the device, remarking to Hooker on 13 October : ‘Horace has made a …
  • … to the Royal Society on his behalf. Darwin complained to Hooker on 13 October , ‘It is not at all …
  • … had reservations about the paper’s merit. He confessed to Hooker two days later, ‘after agonies of …
  • … had learned of Lyell’s failing health from Hooker in 1874 and January 1875. On 22 February, he was …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 19 hits

  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza Story-Maskelyne
  • Letter 9616 - Marshall, T. to Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall sends
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • in a marble tablet”. Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John
  • 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwins niece, Lucy, sends a
  • Letter 9616  - Marshall, Tto Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall details
  • Men: Letter 385  - Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] …
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • …  - Henslow, G. to Darwin, [11 November 1865] J. S. Henslows son, George, passes on the
  • Letter 9485 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [8 June 1874] Mary Treat details her experiments
  • Men: Letter 1836  - Berkeley, M. J. to Darwin, [7 March 1856] Clergyman and
  • The experiments were carried outat the suggestion of Dr Hookerand what little he has ascertained
  • Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin
  • of style. Letter 2461  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin
  • Letter 2475  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [2 July 1859] Darwin returns the manuscript of

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)

Summary

George Eliot was the pen name of celebrated Victorian novelist Mary Ann Evans (1819-1880). She was born on the outskirts of Nuneaton in Warwickshire and was educated at boarding schools from the age of five until she was 16. Her education ended when she…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … hot and left before the manifestations started ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … is to lessen injury to leaves from radiation’, he wrote to Hooker on 25 March ; ‘this has …
  • … and an earlier effort to promote his scheme at the 1874 meeting of the British Association in …
  • … oddest thing that ever happened to me’, Darwin wrote to Hooker on 14 December. Mindful of the lack …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 9580 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H. D., [1 August 1874] Darwin gives feedback on work …
  • … to the publisher. Letter 9613 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [30 August 1874] …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Mivart made a slanderous attack on George Darwin in late 1874 in an anonymous article, which …
  • … for 3 February, Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the …
  • … researcher, and sympathised with his close friends Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray, whose situations …
  • … Darwin wrote to Gray on 28 January . On 14 November, Hooker himself acknowledged he was ‘ over …
  • … he will do I cannot conceive’, Darwin wrote anxiously to Hooker on 11 September. By the time …

Clémence Auguste Royer

Summary

Getting Origin translated into French was harder than Darwin had expected. The first translator he approached, Madame Belloc, turned him down on the grounds that the content was ‘too scientific‘, and then in 1860 the French political exile  Pierre…

Matches: 5 hits

  • everywhere in Origin,” he told Joseph Hooker , “when I express great doubt, she [Royer] appends a
  • wasas a caricature of Royer published in  Les hommes daujourdhui in 1881 demonstratedto
  • This point was not lost on RoyerIn 1874 in front of the  Société dAnthropologie de Paris , she
  • … “is not made like this.”  [2] [1] See J. Harvey, Almost a Man of Genius: Clemence
  • … ‘Sur la natalité which was read before the Societe dAnthropologie de Paris in 1874. …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 10 hits

  • Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] Darwin sends a manuscript copy of
  • of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin
  • tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to
  • to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslows daughter, Anne, responds to
  • with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] …
  • be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • patience and care. Letter 6110 - Samuelson, J. to Darwin, [10 April 1868] …
  • is a revelation. Letter 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 21 hits

  • Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12
  • as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September 1872 ). He
  • anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11 January [1872] ). A
  • am made to appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5 January 1872 ). Piqued, …
  • … `fundamental intellectual errors’ ( letter from St GJMivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin
  • to think he felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite
  • if only `in another world’ ( letter from St GJMivart,  10 January 1872 ).  Darwin, determined
  • …  but asked Mivart not to acknowledge it ( letter to St GJMivart, 11 January [1872] ). 'I
  • selection is somewhat under a cloud’, he wrote to JETaylor on 13 January , and he complained
  • rather than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and
  • dispute involving his close friend Joseph Dalton Hooker came to a headHooker, director of the
  • system in the glasshouses had escalated to the point where Hooker applied over Ayrtons head direct
  • your enemies be cursed, is my pious frame of mind Hookers cause was taken up by his
  • the independence of science from bureaucratic interference. Hooker had kept Darwin well informed: …
  • was Darwins wholeheartedly partisan reply ( letter to JDHooker, 14 May 1872 ). On 13 June, a
  • to make one turn into an old honest Tory’ ( letter to JDHooker, 12 July [1872] ). …
  • own muscles when attending women in labour ( letter from JTRothrock, 25 November 1872 ); …
  • Ruck, the sister of an old schoolfriend; he married Amy in 1874Francis, still a medical student
  • of the microscope led his head to `fail’ ( letter to WDFox, 29 October [1872] ) he had begun
  • by hearing about Panagæus!’ Darwin wrote ( letter to WDFox,  16 July [1872] ).  I
  • my life which surprised & gratified me more’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ).  …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the …
  • … experiments on live animals in Britain. In December 1874, Darwin was asked to sign a memorial …
  • … scientific men’. Darwin sent a copy to Joseph Dalton Hooker requesting his approval as president of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to be good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v. …
  • … [A. von Humboldt 1811] Richardsons Fauna Borealis [J. Richardson 182937] …
  • Brown 1814] & at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read
  • on Annals of Nat. Hist. [Jenyns 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. …
  • Teneriffe. in Pers. Narr. [A. von Humboldt 181429] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle
  • reference to authors about E. Indian Islands 8 consult D r  Horsfield [Horsfield 1824] …
  • sheep [Youatt 1831, 1834, 1837]. Verey Philosophie dHist. Nat. [Virey 1835] read
  • Paper on consciousness in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on
  • Crawford Eastern Archipelago [Crawfurd 1820] Raffeles d[itt]o [T. S. B. Raffles 1817] …
  • … [Temminck 181315] read Temminck has written Coup d’œil sur la Fauna des iles de la Sonde et
  • to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie] ed. 1833] read 19  : …
  • on generation. 1828 [Girou de Buzareingues 1828a]. quoted by D r  Ryan on marriage [Ryan 1831] …
  • what have they written.? “Hunt” [J. Hunt 1806] p. 290
  • He is Horticulturist in France. Michaux, according to Hooker has written on topography of N. …
  • chiefly on distribution of forms said to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith
  • Butler. 3. first sermons [Butler 1834] recommended by Sir. J. Mackintosh J. Long Moral Nature
  • Playfair 1824] Humes Essay [?Hume 17412] J. Taylor Art of Dying [J. Taylor 1651] …
  • … ]. many very useful papers for me:— not in Hort. Soc. Hooker? Rogets Bridgewater Treatise
  • … —— Mauritius & C. of Good Hope Hooker recommends order [Backhouse
  • Decandolles Veg: Organ: } recommended by  Hooker . [A. P. de
  • C. Watson 1845]— gives up permanent species (alluded to by Hooker) Foreign & British Med. …
  • 43 Lindleys Vegetable Kingdom [Lindley 1846]. Hooker says very good for my purpose
  • Phytologist [ Phytologistmust be read . Hooker. read Fortunes Travels in China
  • Indian Journal [Griffith 1847], strongly recommended by HookerAnalysis & theory of the
  • Reproduzione [Gallesio 1816]. abstracted 18 th  Hookers Bot. Misc. [ Botanical Miscellany
  • design . (Bridgewater Treatise no. 4.) London. [9th ed. (1874) in Darwin Library.]  119: 5a

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 19 hits

  • combining the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). While  …
  • the phenomenon. A few days later, Darwin wrote to Joseph Hooker, ‘ Why are the leaves & fruit
  • injure the leaves? if indeed this is at all the case ’. Hooker, who had also speculated on the
  • on  Mimosa albida from Kew Gardens, he explained to Hooker, ‘ I have never syringed (with tepid
  • between 45 o  & 90 o  to the horizon ’. By May 1874, Thiselton-Dyer had observed some
  • whether they are coated with a waxy secretion ’. He told Hooker, ‘ I have been looking over my old
  • 28 July 1877] ). ‘ I do not believe I sh d . have ever have noticed the movement had it not been
  • night & we have made out a good deal ’, but confiding to Hooker, ‘ We have been working like
  • …  movements of leaves ’. He confirmed this view to Hooker, ‘ From what Frank & I have seen, I
  • he reported some progress in understanding movement, telling Hooker, ‘ I think we have  proved
  • was asked to send any spare seeds he might have. ‘ I sh dlike to see how the embryo breaks
  • using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December 1878 ). The
  • that the method wasall that I can desire, but as I sh d   like to give a very large number of
  • … ‘ I am very sorry that Sachs is so sceptical, for I w drather convert him than any other half
  • do  not  when cauterised bend geotropically & why sh d  we say this is owing to injury, when
  • of his annual family holiday telling his close friend Hooker, ‘ I have been working pretty hard of
  • … ( letter to WTThiselton-Dyer20 November 1879 ). Hooker offered to write to Egypt for the
  • without any nervous system! I think that such facts sh dbe kept in mind, when speculating on
  • Eduard Koch had already agreed to publish it ( letter from JVCarus18 September 1880 ). The

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 1 February 1872, p. 66, 1 April 1872, pp. 99–100, 1 April 1874, p. 56). Charles and Emma …