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Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 21 hits

  • The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a
  • and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to
  • much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I feel very old &amp
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor
  • on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and
  • Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] ). Later in the month, …
  • and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it wasall
  • perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874] ). This did not stop word getting
  • at his home ( letter from T. G. Appleton, 2 April 1874 ). Back over old ground New
  • Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. Hooker, 8
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza Story-Maskelyne
  • Letter 9616 - Marshall, T. to Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall sends
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Letter 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwins niece, Lucy, …
  • Letter 9616  - Marshall, Tto Darwin, [September 1874] Theodosia Marshall details
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Letter 9485 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [8 June 1874] Mary Treat details her experiments
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • the future. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] Darwin
  • Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 22 hits

  • Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring
  • Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress of a modern day
  • Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwinand acts as a sort
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • friends in England, copies of hisReview of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it
  • Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwinmade his home on the border of the little
  • are kept in check by a constitutional weakness. DARWIN: A plain but comfortable brick
  • by every blessing except that of vigorous healthDARWIN4   My confounded stomach
  • pursuits and the simplicity of his character. DARWIN:   5   I am allowed to work now
  • own house, where he was the most charming of hosts. DARWIN:   6   My life goes on
  • being a part of [an unpublished] manuscript. Darwin settles down to write. His tone is
  • THE CONCURRENCE OF BOTANISTS: 1855 In which Darwin initiates a long-running correspondence
  • gossip about difficult colleagues (Agassiz). Gray realizes Darwin is not revealing all of his
  • man, more formally attired and lighter on his feet than Darwin. He has many more demands on his time
  • catches his attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN8   April 25 th 1855. My
  • filled up the paper you sent me as well as I could. DARWIN10   My dear Dr Gray. I
  • paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r178   doctrine that each variation has been
  • ARTS AND SCIENCES, PROCEEDINGS XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848
  • A GRAY 3 AUGUST 1871 201  TO A GRAY 3 JUNE [1874] 202  FROM A GRAY 16

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] Dorothy Nevill tells Darwin …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 24 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February 1876 ). When
  • single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at
  • volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was neverthelessfirmly resolved not
  • meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the
  • to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second
  • concentrated on themeans of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self
  • return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in hislittle Autobiography’ ( …
  • holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a
  • for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August
  • dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 41819). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to
  • ever return to the consideration of man.’ In particular, Darwin seemed eager to avoid issues that
  • effected by his forthcoming pamphlet, Darwin confounded (C. OShaughnessy 1876), which, he
  • and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although
  • Mivart made a slanderous attack on George Darwin in late 1874 in an anonymous article, which
  • years experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less welcome reaction
  • because of along and terrible illness’ ( letter to C. S. Wedgwood, 20 April 1876 ). By the time
  • in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). A more typical

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 30 hits

  • lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to
  • in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to
  • plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as
  • from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish
  • would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his
  • birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it wasmore
  • Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to
  • Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and
  • were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [187880] ). While Darwin was studying the function of
  • on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves
  • after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the
  • precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the
  • that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). Having
  • moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained
  • instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had
  • ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my
  • 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular reports about their
  • to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later
  • not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). It is
  • had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats
  • we must have’, Francis wrote ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 17 July 1878] ), ‘a strong
  • me to jump to conclusions rather’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 3 August 1878] ). One day
  • Record”’ ( letter from Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvár, 28 April 1878 ). ‘What a wonderful change
  • opponent’ ( Correspondence vol. 24, letter to T. C. Eyton, 22 April 1876 ). ‘When I first read
  • and an earlier effort to promote his scheme at the 1874 meeting of the British Association in
  • secretary, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( letter to R. A. T. Gascoyne-Cecil, 18 May 1878 ). …
  • to natural science & aids me in my work; a 4th son is in the R. Engineers & is getting on

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … | Selected Readings In Descent of Man , Darwin argued that human morality had …
  • … (Barrett et al. eds. 1987, p. 619) Darwin gathered observations over many decades on …
  • … Though rooted in instinctive sympathy, moral behavior for Darwin was not purely automatic or …
  • … the social instincts that humans shared with animals. Darwin's moral theory was the most …
  • … obligation, compassion, guilt, and the pangs of conscience. Darwin's theory was condemned by …
  • … female members of their hive in order to protect the queen. Darwin engaged with his critics in …
  • … of ideas, rather than as evolving from animal instinct. Darwin got clarification on this point from …
  • … Descent of Man in the Pall Mall Gazette (Morley 1871). Darwin admired the review, and …
  • … from generation to generation." Letter 7685 : Darwin to Morley, John, 14 April …
  • … at a time when Paris is aflame". Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. P. 23 March …
  • … that he read Immanuel Kant's Metaphysics of ethics . Darwin thanked her for the book, which …
  • … 2007. Darwin (London: Routledge), ch. 6 Richards, R. J. 1987. Darwin the development of …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July [1872] ). …
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • worms , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new
  • begun many years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, …
  • The last word on Origin The year opened with Darwin, helped by his eldest son William, …
  • on 30 January , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of
  • and sixth editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final
  • remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). …
  • to bring out the new edition in the United States, Darwin arranged with Murray to have it
  • had to be resetThe investment in stereotype reinforced Darwins intention to make no further
  • A worsening breach The criticisms against which Darwin had taken the greatest trouble to
  • objections to the theory of natural selection’, Darwin refuted point by point assertions published
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • Although Mivart was among those who wrote in January to wish Darwin a happy new year, before the
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • … & new views which are daily turning up’ ( letter to ARWallace, 28 August [1872] ).  …
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • you agreed to let them have it for love!!!’ ( letter from RFCooke, 1 August 1872 ). It
  • …  & have not taken care of ourselves’ ( letter from RFCooke, 20 November 1872 ). A
  • gift, although he doubted he would ever use it ( letter to CLDodgson, 10 December 1872 ). …
  • try `with straight blunt knitting needle’ ( letter to LCWedgwood, 5 January [1872] ) to
  • Ruck, the sister of an old schoolfriend; he married Amy in 1874Francis, still a medical student
  • to which any scientific man can look’ ( letter to FCDonders, 29 April [1872] ). …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwins scientific reading, therefore, …
  • editorsidentification of the book or article to which Darwin refers. A full list of these works is
  • page number (or numbers, as the case may be) on which Darwins entry is to be found. The
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • … [DAR *119: 2v.] Whites regular gradation in man [C. White 1799] Lindleys
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on Geog. distrib: of Brit: …
  • Wiegman has pub. German pamphlet on crossing oats &c [Wiegmann 1828] Horticultural
  • in Library of Hort. Soc. [DAR *119:5v.] M c .Neil 16  has written good article
  • on the Dog with illustrations of about 100 varieties [?C. H. Smith 183940] 24 Flourens
  • … [Lindley 1840]— Chapter on Races improvement of &c &c important I should think
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • design . (Bridgewater Treatise no. 4.) London. [9th ed. (1874) in Darwin Library.]  119: 5a
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …
  • Peacock, George. 1855Life of Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S.  London.  *128: 172; 128: 21

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 26 hits

  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • the advantages of both while Francis was working abroad. Darwin was privy to the inner workings of
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. Darwin described his experimental practice
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • about the nature of movement, so much so, that at one point Darwin had considered combining the
  • digestive processes. With his final great botanical work, Darwin would attemptto bring all the
  • emotions had their origins in non-human animal expression. Darwin had not done experimental work in
  • viewed the division between animals and plants as absolute, Darwin was interested in similarities. …
  • become adapted to perform new functions, like climbing? For Darwin, physiology was a way of seeing
  • attracting students from all over Europe and beyond. When Darwins son Francis worked in this
  • …   ‘Mad about drops of waterDarwins interest in the diversified movements of
  • connection is revealed only though correspondence because Darwin never published on bloom. In August
  • focusing light rays, and burn sections of the leaf blade. Darwin asked whether Farrers gardener had
  • between 45 o  & 90 o  to the horizon ’. By May 1874, Thiselton-Dyer had observed some
  • … ‘ Frank & I are working very hard on bloom & sleep &c.; but I am horribly afraid all
  • that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July 1877] ). ‘ …
  • to learn about cutting thin sections of soft leaves &c.— Lastly the instrument for making marks
  • the curious mode of germinationand concluded, ‘ M r  Rattan seems to be a real good observer, …
  • orThe Nature of the Movements of Plants’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke23 April [1880] ). Cooke
  • was willing to publish on the usual terms ( letter from R. F. Cooke15 July 1880 ). This was also
  • pay more for at the usual rate of charging per inch &c they w dbe over £40’; he suggested

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications

Summary

This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 12 hits

  • This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the
  • topicsAuthor-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Projects cumulative
  • given to reprints available in John van Wyhe ed.,  Charles Darwins shorter publications, 1829-1883
  • numbers refer to R. B. Freemans standard bibliography of Darwins works. —Extracts from
  • of His Majestys Ship Beagle, commanded by Capt. FitzRoy, R.NProceedings of the Geological
  • FitzRoy RN, during the years 1832 to 1836 . By Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1842. …
  • … —Remarks on the preceding paper, in a letter from Charles Darwin, Esq., to Mr. Maclaren. Edinburgh
  • FitzRoy RN, during the years 1832 to 1836.  By Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1844. …
  • FitzRoy RN, during the years 1832 to 1836By Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1846. …
  • The structure and distribution of coral reefs . By Charles Darwin. Revised edition. London: Smith, …
  • History of Science  24: 13357. Stoddart, David R. 1976. Darwin, Lyell, and the geological
  • On the history of geology: Greene, Mott C. 1982Geology in the nineteenth century . …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Darwin begansorting notes for Species Theoryon 9 September 1854, the
  • day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles ( Darwin's Journal ). He had long
  • to paper in a more substantial essay. By this point, Darwin had also admitted to his close friend
  • he acknowledged, ‘ like confessing a murder ’. While Darwin recognised he had far more work to do
  • reaction to the transmutation theory it contained convinced Darwin that further evidence for the
  • of Vestiges to him. It took another ten years before Darwin felt ready to start collating his
  • six months before he started sorting his species notes, Darwin had worried that the process would
  • I shall feel, if I when I get my notes together on species &c &c, the whole thing explodes
  • immutability of species ’, he told his cousin William Darwin Fox. Experimental work
  • set up to provide crucial evidence for his arguments. Fox, Darwin assumed, would have bred pigeons
  • intensely bred to exaggerate particular characters, would, Darwin believed, clearly exhibit the
  • amusementand be ahorrid bore ’. Contrary to Darwins expectations, however, the pigeon
  • Henrietta . In April 1855, at the same time as Darwin began his pigeon breeding programme, …
  • Hoping to benefit from Hookers botanical expertise, Darwin inquired: ‘ will you tell me at a
  • land bridges suggested by the naturalist Edward Forbes. Darwin declared to Hooker in July 1856y
  • to me, & yet I cannot honestly admit the doctrine ’. Darwin thought Forbeshypothesisan
  • of untying it. ’ Persuading men of science Darwins patient untying of the knot of
  • geograph. distribution, geological historyaffinities &c &c &c.. And it seems to me, …
  • about the permanence of species.— By 1857, Darwin had found the confidence to describe his
  • of fellow naturalists. Grays response was everything Darwin must have hoped for. Stating that his
  • definiteness of species’, Gray expressed his interest in Darwins work because it began withgood
  • and a half chapters were edited and published in 1975 by R. C. Stauffer under the title Charles