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To John Scott   1 and 3 August [1863]

Summary

Thanks JS for orchid paper [Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 7 (1863): 543–50]. JS presents excellent new facts on sterility of orchids.

His argument that coloured primroses are not hybrids is good, as is idea of discovering primrose parentage by breeding for colours.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Scott
Date:  1 and 3 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 93: B24, B27–8, B70; DAR 147: 455
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4260

To L. E. Becker   2 August [1863]

Summary

Thanks LEB for the Lychnis seed [see 4258], which he will plant in the hope of fertilising the little ovaria.

Comments on the two forms of Linum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Lydia Ernestine Becker
Date:  2 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  Charterhouse Archives (ACC 013)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4260A

From Henrietta Emma Darwin    [1 August 1863]

Summary

A memorandum describing the expressive behaviour of a cat with added notes by CD.

Author:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1 Aug 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 189: 9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4260F

To J. D. Hooker   3 August [1863]

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Summary

Tendril plants received.

Has just completed large crossing experiment with Lythrum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  3 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 201
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4261

To Asa Gray   4 August [1863]

Summary

Anticipated AG’s attitude on design in orchids. Does he not think that the variations that gave rise to fancy pigeon varieties were accidental?

Has been working hard at Lythrum

and spontaneous movements of tendrils.

Defends Drosera as a "sagacious animal" but does not know whether he will ever publish on it.

Comments on political situation in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  4 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (83)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4262

To Alphonse de Candolle   4 August [1863]

Summary

Asks AdeC to observe two species of Lythrum to see whether they are dimorphic as stated by Vaucher. CD can find no trace of this in dried specimens he has examined; "if either species present any difference in length of pistil and stamens, it is most likely that three forms should be presented".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alphonse de Candolle
Date:  4 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  Archives de la famille de Candolle (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4263

From Julius von Haast   6 August 1863

Summary

Sends a map of the province of Canterbury, marking his own and other explorations.

Author:  John Francis Julius (Julius) von Haast
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 166: 5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4264

From Hermann Crüger   8 August 1863

Summary

Thanks for presentation copy of Linum paper [Collected papers 2: 93–105].

Ficus experiments confirm CD’s supposition that insects visit Melastoma for nectar, but HC thinks pollen-seekers fertilise the flowers.

Maranta fertilisation.

Author:  Hermann Crüger
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 161: 277, 277/1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4265

To J. D. Hooker   12–13 August [1863]

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Summary

Doubts Decaisne’s report of larkspur self-fertilisation.

Enthusiastically observes climbing plants. Needs to know how novel his observations are. Finds R. J. H. Dutrochet has made similar observations, so he has wasted some time. [See Climbing plants, p. 1 n.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  12–13 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 202
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4266

To Charles Lyell   14 August [1863]

Summary

Congratulates CL on finding Arctic shells.

Comments on paper by E. B. Hunt ["On the origin, growth, substructure and chronology of the Florida reef", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 35 (1863): 197–210].

Mentions J. D. Dana’s health.

George Bentham’s statement on species [Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (1863): xi–xxix].

Praises Bates’s book [Naturalist on the river Amazons (1863)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.296)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4267

From Robert Swinhoe   14 August 1863

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Summary

Sends two interesting cases: a flamingo with barnacles covering its legs

and castrated wild asses of Kutch.

Author:  Robert Swinhoe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 205.2 (Letters): 253
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4268

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 15 August 1863]

Summary

Reports on the appearance, in a gravel walk near his house, of an orchid, Epipactis latifolia, never seen in his neighbourhood before. Asks whether a seed could have been blown from a distance and germinated during a season when the walk was neglected.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 15 Aug 1863]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 15 August 1863, p. 773
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4269

To Thomas Rivers   17 August [1863]

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Summary

The almond-tree TR gave him produced no fruit, but the Chinese double peach has three. Asks for ripe almond fruits and any odd peaches, to compare the stones.

Asks about modification in fruit or foliage in any fruit-trees from being grafted,

and about seedlings of pears and wheat said to have been found in hedges and woods.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Rivers
Date:  17 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 85
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4270

From W. E. Darwin   21 August [1863]

Summary

Has signed and forwarded some orders.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Aug [1863?]
Classmark:  DAR 162: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4271

From John Goodsir   21 August [1863]

Summary

Agrees to examine a slide preparation of fluid [from CD’s vomit] to determine presence of Sarcina as a possible cause of his stomach ailment. Sends some authoritative references on it. Warns CD that Sarcina has been found in healthy stomachs.

Author:  John Goodsir
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 73
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4272

From Hugh Falconer   24 August [1863]

Summary

Sends information about Pliocene fauna of the "Forest Bed" of the Norfolk coast.

A genus described as extinct by Owen is found by E. A. I. H. Lartet to exist in Russia.

Edouard Suess attributes to Oswald Heer and HF the generalisation "That the time during which a new species is formed, is (as a rule) very short in comparison with the time during which it persistently presents the same peculiar specific characters". [Edouard Suess, "Über die Verschiedenheit und die Aufeinanderfolge der tertiären Landfaunen in der Niederung von Wien", Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (Math-naturw. Klasse) 47 (1863): 306–31.] [See 4277.]

Author:  Hugh Falconer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Aug [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4273A

To J. D. Hooker   25 [August 1863]

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Summary

CD’s illness: he is vomiting "vegetable" cells.

Dutrochet has published the best of CD’s observations on tendrils [see Climbing plants, p. 1 n.].

Lyell has found Joshua Trimmer’s Arctic shells on Moel Tryfan.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  25 [Aug 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 204
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4274

From J. D. Hooker   26 August 1863

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Summary

JDH working on the New Zealand flora.

Jules Planchon excited about CD’s Linum experiments.

T. F. Jamieson’s paper on glaciers gives great pleasure.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Aug 1863
Classmark:  DAR 101: 157–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4275

From J. D. Hooker   [27 August 1863]

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Summary

Suggests CD consult George Busk about his stomach.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [27 Aug 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 101: 156
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4276

To Hugh Falconer   [25–6 August 1863]

Summary

Thanks for information about Pliocene mammal. Interested in relating process of formation to duration of the species. Oswald Heer’s view that species suddenly formed surely false.

Bad summer with much sickness. Going to Malvern [for water-cure] for a month.

Muddled over phyllotaxy and made out nothing.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hugh Falconer
Date:  [25–6 Aug 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 144: 32
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4277
Document type
letter (30)
Date
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02 (1)
03 (1)
04 (2)
06 (1)
07 (1)
08 (1)
12 (1)
14 (2)
15 (1)
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21 (2)
24 (1)
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Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Gray. Re: Design toured Britain and America in 2007–8, shedding light on how Darwin developed …
  • … his Wedgwood nieces, Lucy ( [before 25 September 1866] ; 8 June [1867-72?] ) and Sophy ( 8
  • … a draft chapter of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences …
  • … one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. …
  • … much in Switzerland ( letter from Francis and Amy Darwin, 8 August [1874] ). Francis had …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had previously read …
  • … that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta disagreed: …
  • … as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). Darwin was also …
  • … he will not succeed’ ( letter to James Crichton-Browne, 8 June [1870] ). Darwin’s queries …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] ), and the tenor of his …
  • … are accustomed to novels for 1s’, he wrote to Murray on 8 January , but Murray complained that …
  • … felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwin’s …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • … Letter 5602 - Sutton, S. to Darwin, [8 August 1867] Sutton, the keeper of the …
  • … Letter 4235 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [8 July 1863] Lydia Becker sends Darwin a …
  • … Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedg wood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin asks his …
  • … . Letter 9485 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [8 June 1874] Mary Treat details her …
  • … . Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks …

Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … he remarked to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 September [1856] ). I mean to make my …
  • … my Book as perfect as ever I can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). Darwin also …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … 39. tom. 4. p. 273. Latreille Geographie des Insectes 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. …
  • … de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. forms …
  • … by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. read 1 st …
  • … Lacordaire Introduction Entomologique [Lacordaire 1834–8]: Reptiles [Duméril and Bibron 1834–54]: …
  • … Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris  good …
  • … 1838] Walter Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. …
  • … on Geology of France [Dufrénoy and Élie de Beaumont 1830–8] & C Prevost on l’Ile Julie [Prévost …
  • … 1839 Jan 10 All life of W. Scott [Lockhart 1837–8] except 5 th  vol. 19 Mungo …
  • … hermaphroditism—good letters of M r  Knight July 8 th  M.S. Voyage of Kolff to the …
  • … Works & several reviews [Carlyle 1838–9] Nov 8 th  Murchison Silurian System [Murchison …
  • … of the Bath and West of   England Society ]. 1 st  to 8 th  vol. inclusive 1 st . series …
  • …  Pallas Travels [Pallas 1802–3] (wretched) ——8 th  Brand’s dissert. [Linnaeus 1781c] …
  • … E. Ferrier] 1824 and 1818].— 18 th . 7 th  & 8 th . Vol of Hume’s England [Hume …
  • … Botanica [Linnaeus 1751] (references at end) June 8 th . Evelyn’s Sylva [Evelyn 1664]. …
  • … 1825] & Liebers remains of Niebuhr [Lieber 1835]. 8 Paley’s Evidence. of Christ. [Paley …
  • … Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement ] Vol 7 th . & 8 th . vol. April 8 th …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). Researching …
  • … cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April [1868] ). Such facts proved …
  • … omnipotent and omniscient Creator’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 8 May [1868] ). Others were concerned …

Darwin’s earthquakes

Summary

Darwin experienced his first earthquake in 1834, but it was a few months later that he was really confronted with their power. Travelling north along the coast of Chile, Darwin and Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, were confronted with a series of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … having happened Darwin to his sister Catherine, 8 November 1834 Darwin …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … what you have seen,’ he told Hooker in his letter of 8 [June 1858] , ‘yet I have been forced to …
  • … hurry in world about my M.S.’ In his letter to Hooker of 8 June [1858] , he indicates that this …
  • … the story was not deleted (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letters to Asa Gray, 28 January [1860] …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … Lubbock, E.F. [1867-8?] Lombard Street, London? …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … lines were built to the area (Darwin to J. D. Hooker,  8 April [1856] ). This meant that most of …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] Translator and author …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Towards the end of 1862, Darwin resolved to build a small hothouse at Down House, for ‘experimental purposes’ (see Correspondence vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862], and volume 10, letter to Thomas Rivers, 15 January 1863). The decision…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … greenhouse for experiments (see  Correspondence  vols. 8–10). Though his greenhouse was probably …
  • … ( Correspondence  vol. 3, letter to Charles Lyell, 8 October [1845] ). Having indulged …
  • … plants drawn up by Darwin; these lists are in DAR 255: 8 and DAR 255: 2–5. The first is a list that …
  • … Get Edwardsia tetraptera mentioned by Treviranus  Honey. 8 Acropera …
  • …   ——  pictus  . 13 8  s     …
  • … chæmæcistus 20 Provenance:  DAR 255: 8 Notes 1.  Hugh Low & …
  • … 7.  Melastoma trinerve or M. trinervium. 8.  This sentence added in pencil. The reference is …
  • … 5 s .’ deleted in ink. 13.  ‘—— pictus 8  s .’ deleted in ink. 14.  ‘Drosera’ …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwin’s excitement …
  • … very careful treatment’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 April 1864 ). Nevertheless, Hooker solicited …
  • … latest ‘outburst of bigotry’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 8 November [1864] ). Although …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 3 hits

  • … exhausting. And I am actually forced always to go to bed at 8 o’clock completely tired. …
  • … attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN:  8   April 25 th 1855. My dear [Dr Gray] …
  • … 7  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 11 JANUARY 1844 8  C DARWIN TO A GRAY, 25 APRIL 1855 …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … deliberating how to end the matter to his satisfaction. On 8 January , he told Hooker: ‘I will …
  • … between Whitney and Max Müller. In Descent 2d ed., pp. 86–8, Darwin had cited Whitney’s …
  • … of having made false statements,’ Darwin replied on 8 April . ‘This is conduct which a man does …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … extinct species such as the mammoth ( Correspondence vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 4 May [1860 …
  • … what he thought about ‘the derivation of Species’. 8 Darwin continued to feel aggrieved about …
  • … theory of transmutation, see Bartholomew 1973. 8. See Correspondence vol. 11, …
  • … Letters from Charles Lyell to T. H. Huxley, 7 June 1865, and 8 June 1865 (Imperial College, Huxley …

The evolution of honeycomb

Summary

Darwin recognised that explaining the evolution of the honey-bee’s comb-building abilities was essential if his theory of natural selection was to be taken seriously, and in the 1850s he carried out his own experiments at his home at Down House in Kent,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and buying a swarm (letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 8 [June 1858] ). (Articial wax is probably …
  • … might have a simple explanation. (Letter to Richard Hill, 8 August [1859] .) Much later, Jeffries …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … W. D. Fox, [6–27 September 1863], 29 September [1863], and 8 December [1863]). Emma sent a copy to …
  • … pamphlet', and letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]). There is no …
  • … 7 September 1863, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863], and Animal World , 1 …
  • …   or to Mrs C. Darwin | Downbar Bromley | Kent. 8 Christ’s College Library, …
  • … however, see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December [1863]. Only two resident gamekeepers …
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