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To Frances Mosley Wedgwood   5 March [1860 or later]

Summary

Thanks for a shell of an edible mollusc and also specimens of blind cave animals, which he will present in FW’s name to the British Museum.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Frances Mosley (Fanny Frank) Wedgwood
Date:  
Classmark:  Alan Wedgwood (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11310F

To ?   19 March [1860–1?]

Summary

Recommends papers on Styrian Cave insects and American cave animals.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  19 Mar [1860–1]
Classmark:  King’s College London Archives (GB 0100 TH/PP MISC)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13770G

To T. H. Huxley   [1860–3?]

Summary

Thanks THH for the delightful evening he gave Frank [Darwin].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  [1860–3?]
Classmark:  Janet Huxley (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13817

To P. L. Sclater   22 May [1860–81]

Summary

CD has signed the enclosed with great pleasure.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Philip Lutley Sclater
Date:  22 May [1860-81]
Classmark:  John Wilson (dealer) (1987)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13839A

From Aleksander Jelski   [1860 or later]

Summary

AJ, a collector, would like a few lines from CD and an autographed photograph.

Author:  Aleksander Jelski
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1860 or later]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 86
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13848

To ?   [1860 or later]

Summary

Is "almost certain" plant is Menispermum canadense.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  [1860 or later]
Classmark:  Glenbow Museum
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13875

To ?   [1860 or later?]

Summary

CD’s health remains bad and as he grows older he becomes weaker.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  [1860 or later]
Classmark:  Wellcome Library (MS.7781/34)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13876

To J. D. Hooker   17 June [1860]

Summary

Has reread JDH’s paper ["On the functions of the rostellum of Listera ovata", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 144 (1854): 259–64].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 68 (EH 88206051)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1571

From Robert Scot Skirving   [1860?]

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Summary

Tells of shooting wood-pigeons that had in their crops acorns that did not grow locally.

[Fragment of letter glued to 2197.]

Author:  Robert Scot Skirving
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1860?]
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 250a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2196

From R. S. Skirving   [1860?]

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Summary

Pigeons in Egypt alight on trees rather than on the mud hovels of the natives [see Variation 1: 181].

[Two fragments glued to 2196.]

Author:  Robert Scot Skirving
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1860?]
Classmark:  DAR 205.2: 250b
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2197

From Hensleigh Wedgwood   [January? 1860]

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Summary

Prepared to think world infinitely old, but not that life originated with a single cell. Questions whether geological evidence supports gradual progress in organisation. HW thought scientific opinion during Vestiges debate was against this hypothesis. Argues that presence of same senses in lower animals and vertebrates does not imply descent; assumes resemblance is due to living in same world and thus having organs for the same purposes. Wants CD to know how others may see these questions.

Author:  Hensleigh Wedgwood
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Jan? 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 48: 83–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2389

To W. H. Miller   [after 5 June 1860]

Summary

Discusses measurements of bees’ cells. Describes modification in structure of Melipona hive. Notes importance of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  [after 5 June 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2391

From John Lubbock   [after 28 April 1860?]

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Summary

Gives CD references to papers on eyes of lower animals.

Author:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 28 Apr 1860?]
Classmark:  DAR 48: 68
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2394

To Miss Holland   [April 1860]

Summary

Asks for information about birds eating berries of a mountain-ash.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Miss Holland
Date:  [Apr 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2395

To William Hallowes Miller   5 June [1860]

Summary

Discusses measurements of bees’ cells.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  5 June [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2468

From Asa Gray   [17 January 1860]

Summary

Discusses arrangements for American edition of Origin.

Observations on apparently inherited instinct in a dog.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [17 Jan 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 102
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2563

To W. H. Miller   1 December [1860]

Summary

Must prepare new edition of Origin.

Discusses structure of beehives. Mentions writings of Chauncey Wright on bees’ cells ["Remarks on the architecture of bees", Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sci. 4 (1857–60): 432–3].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  1 Dec [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2564

To W. H. Miller   27 December [1860]

Summary

Discusses measurements of bees’ cells.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  27 Dec [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2609

To John Murray   30 [January 1860]

Summary

Suggests it would be easier and cheaper if he were given one or two pages in preface [to Journal of researches] for two or three important errors. Would like to take out one sentence if present preface is not stereotyped. Table of contents is shabby.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  30 [Jan 1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.92–93)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2616

To W. H. Miller   31 December [1860]

Summary

Thanks WHM for information about honeycombs. Discusses his own measurements of combs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Hallowes Miller
Date:  31 Dec [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.189)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2617
Document type
letter (487)
Correspondent
Date
1860
01 (57)
02 (49)
03 (27)
04 (44)
05 (47)
06 (40)
07 (37)
08 (19)
09 (43)
10 (45)
11 (38)
12 (41)
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Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s  Origin of …
  • … in railway stations ( letter to Charles Lyell, 14 January [1860] ). By May, with the work …
  • … be nice easy reading.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 May [1860] ). Origin : reactions and …
  • … his main argument ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] ). Darwin’s magnanimous …
  • … utterly  smashed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). (A chronological list of all the …
  • … the only track that leads to physical truth’ (Sedgwick 1860) that most wounded Darwin. Having spent …
  • … investigation.—’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). Above all else Darwin prided …
  • … ample lot of facts.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 18 February [1860] ). To those who objected that his …
  • … as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This helps to explain why Darwin was …
  • … progression ( letter to Charles Lyell, 18 [and 19 February 1860] ). To this and Lyell’s many other …
  • … than a success ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 February [1860] ). I think geologists …
  • … to reasoning.’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 18 May 1860 ). Darwin began to tabulate (and …
  • … and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like François Jules …
  • … at it, makes me sick!’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 3 April [1860] ). By the end of 1860, Darwin …
  • … those of embryology ( letter to Asa Gray, 10 September [1860] ). Only his theory, he believed, …
  • … of species ( see letter from T. H. Huxley, 6 August 1860 ). But Baer in fact eventually opposed …
  • … other animals’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] )— he and others were well aware that …
  • … after 4 hours battle’ (letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 July 1860). Other correspondents informed Darwin …
  • … thing for subject.—’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). Further details of the meeting, …
  • … theological reform tract  Essays and reviews  in January 1860 as to that of  Origin  itself. …
  • … ( letter from J. S. Henslow to J. D. Hooker, 10 May 1860 ). What worried Darwin most about such …
  • … support altogether (letters to Charles Lyell, 1 June [1860] and 11 August [1860] ). As …
  • … view the subject’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 15 February [1860] ); later he became ‘fairly sick’ …
  • … of his geological argument, he wrote to Lyell on 6 June [1860] : 'I am beginning to despair …
  • … Darwin was not, however, entirely preoccupied in 1860 with his critics and the reception of  Origin …
  • … two days after the second edition was issued, on 9 January 1860, he turned to preparing the first …
  • … compressed arguments of  Origin . Many of the letters of 1860 pertain to his collection of further …
  • … in the fertilisation of plants. In the spring and summer of 1860, he began to investigate the …
  • … changed structure.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 27 April [1860] ). Tracing the complicated …

British Association meeting 1860

Summary

Several letters refer to events at the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Oxford, 26 June – 3 July 1860. Darwin had planned to attend the meeting but in the end was unable to. The most famous incident of the meeting was the verbal…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … the Advancement of Science meeting in Oxford, June–July 1860 Several letters in the year 1860
  • … Advancement of Science held in Oxford, 26 June – 3 July 1860. Darwin had planned to attend the …
  • … broken down” (letter to Charles Lyell, 25 [June 1860] ). Undoubtedly the most famous …
  • … are less well known. The following account of the 1860 meeting of the British Association in …
  • … by their precise attribution. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, p. 19: Introduction to the reports …
  • … lively during the week. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, pp. 25–6: Thursday session of Section D. …
  • … monkey was the gift of speech. Athenæum , 14 July 1860, pp. 64–5: Saturday session, …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 4 hits

  • … should not be in conflict. A TREMENDOUS FURORE: 1859-1860 In which Darwin distributes …
  • … in the long run prevail. CERTAIN BENEFICIAL LINES: 1860 Asa Gray presents his argument …
  • … 1859 70  A GRAY TO JD HOOKER, 5 JANUARY 1860 71L AGASSIZ, JULY 1860
  • … 100 A GRAY, ATLANTIC MONTHLY FOR JULY, AUGUST AND OCTOBER, 1860 101 GRAY’S ARTICLE IN THE …

Essay: Design versus necessity

Summary

—by Asa Gray DESIGN VERSUS NECESSITY.—DISCUSSION BETWEEN TWO READERS OF DARWIN’S TREATISE ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, UPON ITS NATURAL THEOLOGY. (American Journal of Science and Arts, September, 1860) D.T.—Is Darwin’s theory atheistic or pantheistic…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … (American Journal of Science and Arts, September , 1860) D.T.—Is Darwin’s theory atheistic …

Essay: Natural selection & natural theology

Summary

—by Asa Gray NATURAL SELECTION NOT INCONSISTENT WITH NATURAL THEOLOGY. Atlantic Monthly for July, August, and October, 1860, reprinted in 1861. I Novelties are enticing to most people; to us they are simply annoying. We cling to a long-accepted…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Monthly for  July ,  August , and  October , 1860, reprinted in 1861. I …

Review: The Origin of Species

Summary

- by Asa Gray THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION (American Journal of Science and Arts, March, 1860) This book is already exciting much attention. Two American editions are announced, through which it will become familiar to many…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … (American Journal of Science and Arts, March, 1860) This book is already exciting much …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … plant sensitivity: To Charles Lyell,  24 November [1860] : describing experiments on …
  • … On co-adaptation: To J. D. Hooker,  12 July [1860] : on adaptation in Orchis pyramidalis …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … them to spread. It takes up the story of Darwin’s life in 1860, in the immediate aftermath of the …
  • … out to me. No doubt many will be. Darwin to Huxley, 1860. I cannot tell …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … a new ear-trumpet for him from London, and again in 1860 . Covington still assisted CD in his …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • …  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). In the same letter he reminded Lyell of …
  • … who was already ill-disposed towards Owen following his 1860 review of  Origin , wrote to Falconer …
  • … exercise Darwin was Huxley’s assertion, first made in his 1860 review of  Origin , that in order …
  • …  and  Viola species, had interested Darwin since 1860; it continued to capture his attention ( …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … any of his children were ill, Darwin was unable to work. In 1860 his seventeen-year-old daughter …
  • … on account of Etty.’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  18 October [1860] ) Seven of the Darwin children lived …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … to the copy he had sent five years previously in his 1860 letter to Hooker , Darwin exclaimed …
  • … matter, and he was far more satisfied with the results. In 1860-61 and again in 1864 Charles Darwin …
  • … most transformative photographs of Darwin.The years between 1860 and 1864 took a physical and …
  • … his ‘venerable beard’! Images: Charles Darwin, 1860-61, William Darwin, Courtesy of Harvard …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860] Darwin writes to Gray about the …
  • … Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] Darwin writes to Gray and tells him …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Bridges, Thomas (b) [Oct 1860 or after] [Keppel …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May 1860] Doubleday describes his experiments …
  • … Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [12 July 1860] Darwin describes his absorption in …

Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies

Summary

The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … of notes on variation at Down House. During the summer of 1860, he had become interested in  …
  • … . Having learned from his publisher John Murray in November 1860 that a new edition of  Origin …
  • … fourth child, remained desolate over the death in September 1860 of their first-born, Noel, he and …
  • … in the voyage of the  Beagle  is well known. As late as 1860, Henslow had defended Darwin against …
  • … form of typhus fever’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 11 May 1860 ). This hope was realised. By the end …
  • … America that threatened peace in Britain in 1861. The end of 1860 and the beginning of 1861 saw …

Insectivorous Plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Plants that consume insects Darwin began his work with insectivorous plants in the mid 1860s, though his findings would not be published until 1875. In his autobiography Darwin reflected on the delay that…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 2951 - Charles Darwin to Daniel Oliver, 17 Oct [1860] Darwin thanks Daniel Oliver …
  • … Letter 2932 - Charles Darwin to J.S. Henslow, 28 September 1860 Darwin writes to his …

Sexual selection

Summary

Although natural selection could explain the differences between species, Darwin realised that (other than in the reproductive organs themselves) it could not explain the often marked differences between the males and females of the same species.  So what…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … I gaze on it, makes me sick! ( To Asa Gray, 3 April [1860] ) Bernard Peirce Brent, a …

Joseph Dalton Hooker

Summary

The 1400 letters exchanged between Darwin and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) account for around 10% of Darwin’s surviving correspondence and provide a structure within which all the other letters can be explored.  They are a connecting thread that spans…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Read  Hooker’s description of the famous 1860 Oxford meeting of the British Association for the …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Correspondence  vol. 8, letters to Asa Gray, 28 January [1860] and [8 or 9 February 1860] ). …
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