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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To [W. W. Baxter?]   [after June 1857]

Summary

Requests a quart of distilled water for photography to be sent in a clean bottle via the postman on the following day.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Walmisley Baxter
Date:  [after June 1857]
Classmark:  Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation (Archives, Autograph Letters and Manuscripts Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13889F

To W. E. Darwin   21 [July 1857]

Summary

Writes of WED’s recent excursion to Manchester and his future educational plans.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  21 [July 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2097

To W. B. Tegetmeier   [19 July 1857]

Summary

Has acquired some runts. Thanks WBT for information. Lists pigeons he is sending.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  [19 July 1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Tegetmeier, W. B. ser.2: 44)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2115

CD memorandum   July 1857

Summary

Memorandum about £250 investment in Patent Siliceous Stone Company, owned by David Thomas Ansted and Frederick Ransome.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  unknown
Date:  July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 23
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2115F

To J. D. Hooker   1 July [1857]

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Summary

George Henslow’s curtness to JDH: "an attack of religion".

Embryonic leaves. Adaptive functions and taxonomic significance of cotyledons.

Asa Gray. Separation of sexes in U. S. trees.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 July [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 198
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2116

To J. D. Hooker   5 July [1857]

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Summary

Does JDH’s Wahlenbergia confirm CD’s law? Variations of one species assume the character of a distinct but allied species or genus.

Seed-salting: old ones float and germinate.

Owen’s "grand paper" [? J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 2 (1858): 1–37].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 July [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 203
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2117

To T. H. Huxley   5 July [1857]

Summary

Asks THH’s opinion on embryological views of G. A. Brullé [Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 13 (1844): 484–6] and F. M. Barnéoud [Ann. des Sci. Nat. ser. 3, Bot. 6 (1846): 268–96] and on Milne-Edwards’ classification.

Has been reading John Goodsir ["On the morphological constitution of the skeleton of the vertebrate head", Edinburgh New Philos. J. 2d ser. 5 (1857): 123–78].

Has embryology of bats ever been worked out?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  5 July [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 67)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2118

From T. H. Huxley   7 July 1857

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Summary

THH comments on G. A. Brullé’s paper ["Researches upon the transformations of the appendages of the Articulata", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 13 (1844): 484–6].

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 11.1: 41a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2119

From Asa Gray   7 July 1857

Summary

Believes, with CD, that extinction may be an important factor in explaining plant distributions, but sees no reason why the several species of a genus must ever have had a common or continuous area. "Convince me of that, or show me any good grounds for it … and I think you would carry me a good way with you". It is just such people as AG that CD has to satisfy and convince.

Feels that the crossing of individuals is important in repressing variation and perhaps in perpetuating the species, but instances some plants in which it cannot, apparently, take place.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 381; DAR 165: 98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2120

To Francis Galton   7 July [1857]

Summary

Encloses signed document.

"Much interested about all domestic animals of all savage nations."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Galton
Date:  7 July [1857]
Classmark:  UCL Library Services, Special Collections (GALTON/3/2/1/27)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2121

To T. H. Huxley   9 July [1857]

Summary

Thanks THH for his cautionary response on Brullé, but departs from THH in thinking that Barnéoud, if true, would shed light on Milne-Edwards’ proposition that the wider apart classes of animals are the earlier they depart from common embryonic plan.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  9 July [1857]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 50)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2122

To John Lubbock   14 [July 1857]

Summary

Thanks JL for saving him from "a disgraceful blunder". Following their conversation he has divided the New Zealand flora as JL suggested and finds genera with four or more species are more variable than those with three or less. It will take several weeks to go back over all his material.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  14 [July 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 18 (EH88206467)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2123

To J. D. Hooker   14 July [1857]

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Summary

Asks to borrow several Floras. Must redo calculations as John Lubbock has shown him an important error.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 July [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 204
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2124

To Asa Gray   20 July [1857]

Summary

Believes species have arisen, like domestic varieties, with much extinction, and that there are no such things as independently created species. Explains why he believes species of the same genus generally have a common or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants.

Discusses fertilisation in the bud and the insect pollination of papilionaceous flowers. His theory explains why, despite the risk of injury, cross-fertilisation is usual in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, even in hermaphrodites.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 July [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9b)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2125

To T. C. Eyton   22 [July 1857]

Summary

Sends TCE West African dog’s skin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Campbell Eyton
Date:  22 [July 1857]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.148)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2126

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 25 July 1857]

Summary

CD has saved an enormous amount of labour since he replaced the chain on his deep well with wire rope. He now asks readers whether they have had experience of saving on the weight of the bucket by using some material other than oak.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 25 July 1857]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 25 July 1857, p. 518
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2127

To W. B. Tegetmeier   27 July [1857]

Summary

Arrangements for delivery of pigeons and poultry to Down.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  27 July [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Tegetmeier, W. B. ser.2: 12)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2128
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7 Suffolk St, London

Summary

Recommending Darwin

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Henslow is asked to recommend a naturalist to accompany Fitzroy, and Darwin is invited on the …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin, W.E. [7? April 1868] Southampton, England …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Galton, Francis 7 Nov 1872 Rutland Gate, London, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 7 Sept 1872 11 St Mary Abbot' …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … in the shape of an arch ( Movement in plants , pp. 96–7). As usual, staff at the Royal Botanical …
  • … my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later he wrote: …
  • … Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats have only just …
  • … the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was …
  • … are here & all adoring Bernard’, he wrote to Francis on 7 July . ‘Bernard is very sweet & …
  • … to refuse,’ he wrote to William Spottiswoode on 7 July . Pinker later made a statue of Darwin for …
  • … generations’ ( enclosure to letter to T. H. Farrer, 7 March 1878 ). In the end, the attempt to …
  • … from a person unknown to him. The benefactor wrote on 7 December : ‘I consider that you, more …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to …
  • … folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He particularly …
  • … to his publisher, John Murray, ‘Of present book I have 7 chapters ready for press & all others …
  • … bear the expense of the woodcuts ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). After sending the …
  • … and Darwin summarised them in  Variation  2: 106–7, concluding, ‘it follows from Mr. Scott’s …
  • … of real improvement in health’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). All the children …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin and his correspondents. First note [after 7 April 1838][1] Work finished …
  • … near Regents Park—keep horse—take Summer tours Collect[7] specimens some line of Zoolog: …
  • … on the three blank pages of the letter from Leonard Horner, 7 April [1838]. [2] Presumably CD …

British Association meeting 1860

Summary

Several letters refer to events at the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Oxford, 26 June – 3 July 1860. Darwin had planned to attend the meeting but in the end was unable to. The most famous incident of the meeting was the verbal…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and Thomas Henry Huxley that occurred during the Saturday, 7 July, meeting of Section D (zoology and …
  • … preceded by their precise attribution. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, p. 19: Introduction to the …
  • … uncommonly lively during the week. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, pp. 25–6: Thursday session of …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in 1873, a discovery was made.  This letter 31 July–7 August 1873 also tackled the issue of hair …
  • … \quite white\ (Letter from Frank Chance, 31 July–7 August 1873 ) The pony hair …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, & if he …
  • … can make several parts clearer,’ Darwin reiterated on 7 November , ‘I believe (though I hope I am …
  • … ancestry. ‘You know better than anybody’, he wrote on 7 January , ‘how infinitely great is the …
  • … the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max Müller and …
  • … Down with Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the public in this way ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 May 1863] , and Appendix VII). He also …
  • … [1863] , and letter from Julius von Haast, 21 July [–7? August] 1863 ). Darwin was subsequently …
  • … paper with satisfaction ( see letter to John Scott, 7 November [1863] ). Scott had referred …
  • … he could send him to the war ( see letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1863 ). Darwin shared this letter …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … (1) Asher, G. M. (7) Ashley, Miss (1 …
  • … (4) Aubertin, J. J. (7) Aussant-Carà, Paul …
  • … (1) Aveling, E. B. (7) Axon, W. E. A. …
  • … (16) Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John …
  • … (36) Baxter, William (7) Baynes, H. M. …
  • … (1) Blair, R. A. (7) Blair, R. H. (4 …
  • … (3) Boott, Francis (7) Boott, Mary …
  • … (1) Chambers, Robert (7) Chance, Frank …
  • … (3) Clarke, R. T. (7) Clarke, T. W. …
  • … (6) Darwin, V. H. (7) Darwin, Violetta …
  • … (1) Dowie, Annie (7) Down Friendly Society …
  • … (2) Farr, William (7) Farrar, F. W. …
  • … (28) Fitzgerald, R. D. (7) Fitzmaurice, Edmond …
  • … (2) Forel, Auguste (7) Forster, L. M. …
  • … (3) Gordon, George (b) (7) Goschen, G. J. …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … nature and religion. Date of interview: 7 August 2008 Transcription …
  • … Randal Keynes: Yes. 7. How, and what, do we know of Darwin's opinions …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read Decandolle Philosophie …
  • … 1835] read Marcel de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] …
  • … de S t  Hilaire 1832 [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1832–7] contains all his fathers views Quoted by …
  • … 3 vols. 8vo. et atlas de 20 planches. ibid, 1832–36. £1 7 s . 25  [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire …
  • … of Agriculture by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. …
  • … Vestiges of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which …
  • … Birds of Himalaya [Gould 1834] (& of Europe?) [Gould 1832–7] & of Australia [Gould 1848]; …
  • … Campbells Lives of Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] last vol. Ludlows Memoirs …
  • … 1849] (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has …
  • … Gresly Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris …
  • … Vol. V of Campbells Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] Lives of the Lindsays [Lindsay 1849] …
  • … Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. Abercrombie on the …
  • … ] Oct 3 Lavater’s Phisiognomy [Lavater 1806–7] Malthus on Population [Malthus 1826] …
  • … added notes from 2 d  Edit [Holland 1840].— Feb 7 th . Lord Brougham Dissertation …
  • … 1687 to 1766 inclusive, and from beginning to 1674 7 th  Skimmed Burn’s Poems [Burns 1786]. …
  • … Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar ]. Vol 1— to 7. M.S. Translat.— from 1740. 2 d . vol …
  • … S. Romilly’s Memoirs [Romilly 1840]. moderate Feb. 7 th  Sartor Resartus [Carlyle 1834] …
  • … Essays [Bacon 1825–36]— dull, & crabbid style May 7 th  Skimmed a little of Tucker’s …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘almost indispensable’ ( letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 ). Darwin welcomed Krause’s …
  • … meet the local celebrity, John Ruskin. Marshall wrote on 7 September that Ruskin, the day after …
  • … dogma’, Mary Jung, a young Austrian woman, wrote on 7 January . ‘When my reason agrees with your …
  • … be an atheist, Darwin told the clergyman John Fordyce on 7 May , ‘It seems to me absurd to doubt …
  • … work in such an outstanding way’, Würtenberger wrote on 7 February , after receiving £100 from …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … as if confessing a murder. DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have been …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although Darwin did …
  • … to break through the trammels.’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  7 March [1852] ). A more modern and …
  • … for a game of Billiards’. (Darwin to his son William,  7 July [1859] ). Whole family outings were …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote him a lengthy letter …
  • … undergoing vaccination ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 April 1868] ). Francis was also drafted into …
  • … desire to penetrate Truth’ ( letter from Ernest Faivre, 7 April 1868 ). Armand de Quatrefages, who …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … taking a clear position on the transmutation of species. 7 Later, he wrote to Lyell himself, …
  • … 1863a are discussed in Bynum 1984, pp. 154–9. 7. See Correspondence vol. 11, letter …
  • … vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. See Correspondence …
  • … 14, doc. 183–4). 15. Letter from T. H. Huxley, 7 March 1865, in BL MSS ADD 49641. …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the upper regions of the atmosphere.  Blackley wrote on 7 July 1873 that his high altitude …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … privilege to offer” ( letter from E. F. Lubbock, [before 7 April 1873] ). Hooker added: “I have …
  • … but he is a deal too sharp” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 April 1873] ). A group of Huxley …
  • … than species are permanent” ( letter from John Farr, 7 July 1873 ). Further thoughts on the …
  • … past memories” ( letter to A. A. L. P. Cochrane, [after 7 June 1873] ). Darwin did accept …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … politics of women’s biology , (Rutgers, 1997),  chapter 7: Have only men evolved? , pp. 87 – 106. …
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