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From S. P. Woodward   [after 4 June 1856]

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Summary

Note on cases of representative shells that are not clearly either varieties or species.

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 4 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 403
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1807

To John William Lubbock   28 [June 1856 – January 1865?]

Summary

Regrets he cannot accept dinner invitation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John William Lubbock, 3d baronet
Date:  28 [June 1856 - Jan 1865]
Classmark:  The Royal Society (LUB: D26)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1880

To J. D. Hooker   1 June [1856]

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Summary

CD (and Emma) had a good laugh over JDH’s mortified response to a misinterpretation (in print) concerning his position on multiple creation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 June [1856]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 164
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1885

To E. W. V. Harcourt   1 June [1856]

Summary

Thanks for the very detailed information sent by EWVH.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward William Vernon Harcourt
Date:  1 June [1856]
Classmark:  Bodleian Libraries, Oxford (MS. Harcourt dep. adds. 346, fols. 250–1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1885F

To S. P. Woodward   3 June [1856]

Summary

Comments on SPW’s book [Manual of Mollusca (1851–6)].

Mentions questions he has for SPW [see 1890].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  3 June [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.129)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1886

To W. D. Fox   4 June [1856]

Summary

Thanks WDF for specimen of Dorking cock.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  4 June [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.130)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1887

To W. B. Tegetmeier   4 June [1856]

Summary

Reports safe arrival of rabbit sent by WBT.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bernhard Tegetmeier
Date:  4 June [1856]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1888

From S. P. Woodward   4 June 1856

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Summary

SPW and Waterhouse agree on island faunas; gives Australia and Tasmania as examples. The "stream of migration" from Asia to Tasmania.

Looks forward eagerly to the publication of CD’s "specific" researches.

Invites CD to send his memoranda [on Manual of Mollusca].

Author:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 303
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1889

To S. P. Woodward   [after 4 June 1856]

Summary

Queries from CD on the distribution of molluscan genera referring to SPW’s Manual of the Mollusca [pt 3 (1856)], with SPW’s answers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  [after 4 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 72: 59–61
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1890

From Hewett Cottrell Watson   5 June 1856

Summary

Answers CD’s questions about plants common to U. S. and Britain and their distribution in Europe.

Variability of agrarian weeds.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 181: 32
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1891

To W. B. D. Mantell   5 June [1856–9]

Summary

Thanks WBDM for the particulars on the iceberg.

Will look up the barnacle specimen to which he refers at British Museum.

WBDM should remember when he returns to New Zealand that aboriginal rat and frog are "great desiderata in Natural History".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Walter Baldock Durrant Mantell
Date:  5 June [1856-9]
Classmark:  Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand (MS-Papers-0083-268)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1892

To T. V. Wollaston   6 June [1856]

Summary

Comments on TVW’s book [On the variation of species with special reference to the Insecta (1856)].

On TVW’s Unitarianism. Predicts TVW will fall further away from Christianity.

[Letter sent by TVW to Charles Lyell.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Vernon Wollaston
Date:  6 June [1856]
Classmark:  Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen. 1999/1/30)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1893

To Edgar Leopold Layard   8 June [1856]

Summary

Admires ELL’s plan to visit Madagascar.

Asks about fertility of hybrid cats, crosses among dogs in Africa, and appearance of feral pigeons at Ascension. Doubts existence of N. African greyhound.

Asks for specimens of pigeons and ducks from the Cape of Good Hope.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edgar Leopold Layard
Date:  8 June [1856]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.143)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1894

To W. D. Fox   8 [June 1856]

Summary

The responses to his queries on domestic variations are coming in from all over; believes he will make an interesting collection. At present concerned with rabbits and ducks.

Has told Lyell of his views on species and CL urges CD to publish a preliminary essay. Has begun to work on it, with fear and trembling at its inadequacies.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  8 [June 1856]
Classmark:  University of British Columbia Library, Rare Books and Special Collections (Pearce/Darwin Fox collection RBSC-ARC-1721-1-10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1895

To John Lubbock   [8 June 1856]

Summary

Wishes to borrow fly pincers for his son George.

Discusses T. V. Wollaston’s book on insect variation [On the variation of species (1856)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  [8 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 4 (EH 88206452)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1896

From H. C. Watson   10 June 1856

Summary

Evidence relevant to E. Forbes’s land-bridge theory.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 June 1856
Classmark:  DAR 181: 33
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1898

To H. C. Watson   [after 10 June 1856]

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Summary

Do the plants that are common to Europe and North America nearly all live north of the Arctic Circle? CD bases his question on HCW’s "capital" comparison between relations of Europe to North America and Europe to E. Asia if the intervening land had been submerged. CD has been led to speculate that in the mid-Pliocene the organisms now living in middle Europe and northern U. S. lived within the Arctic Circle. Subsequent movements of this flora with advance and retreat of glaciers would explain present distribution better than Forbes’s vast submergences.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Date:  [after 10 June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 52
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1899

To John Lubbock   12 [June 1856]

Summary

Smallpox in the village. Death of Joseph Parslow’s son.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  12 [June 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 3 (EH 88206450)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1900

To E. W. V. Harcourt   12 June [1856]

Summary

Would like to compare the length of the wings of non-migratory and migratory swallows.

Wonders if EWVH could show him skins of Columba livia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward William Vernon Harcourt
Date:  12 June [1856]
Classmark:  Bodleian Libraries, Oxford (MS. Harcourt dep. adds. 346, fols. 252–4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1900F

To W. D. Fox   14 June [1856]

Summary

Does not intend to work systematically on cats. Their origin is in doubt and they have been crossed too many ways.

It would be valuable to know whether half-bred ducks are fertile inter se or with a third breed. Is investigating this with pigeons.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  14 June [1856]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 98)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1901
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Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … animals made him ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later …
  • … old honoured guide & master’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwin …
  • … a fitting opportunity’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). …
  • … in the fossil record ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). Only until March did …
  • … Dana, 20 February [1863] , and letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). In March, after …
  • … 29 May [1863] , and letter to Hugh Falconer, [25–6 August 1863] ). Sterility and …
  • … [1863] that he had been ‘ordered to do nothing for 6 months’ by his doctors, mentioning that even …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned …
  • … on the outcome ( enclosure to letter from G. H. Darwin, 6 [August] 1874 ): I think you …
  • … & it had been refused’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, [6 or 7 August 1874] ). When the letter was …
  • … to the vomit and ate it ( letter from W. G. Walker, 6 December 1874 ). The Zoological …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage

Summary

Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 7 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, …
  • … Index-maker’, Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 6 January . Darwin had sent the manuscript …
  • … but never fulfilled. He was sent a news clipping on 6 July from the  Maryport Weekly Advertiser …
  • … House of Commons than any assembly in the world’ (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin …
  • … The Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle described on 6 July the inheritance over eight …
  • … is too short for so long a discussion’, he wrote on 6 April . Yet Wallace continued to press him, …
  • … you as their leader’ ( letter from Gaston de Saporta, 6 September 1868 ). The support …

Natural Selection: the trouble with terminology Part I

Summary

Darwin encountered problems with the term ‘natural selection’ even before Origin appeared.  Everyone from the Harvard botanist Asa Gray to his own publisher came up with objections. Broadly these divided into concerns either that its meaning simply wasn’t…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … confounded ( Charles Darwin to Charles Lyell   6 June [1860 ]) Darwin …
  • … explainer. ( Charles Darwin to Charles Lyell, 6 June [1860]) To Lyell, Darwin …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … (2) Appleton, T. G. (6) Arnold, F. S. …
  • … (15) Bartlett, Edward (6) Bartlett, R. S. …
  • … (1) Boardman, A. F. (6) Boccardo, Gerolamo …
  • … (2) Bonham-Carter, E. M. (6) Bonham-Carter, …
  • … (1) Browne, Walter (6) Brownen, George …
  • … (17) Buckland, William (6) Buckler, William …
  • … (2) Child, G. W. (6) Children, J. G. …
  • … (1) Clarke, W. B. (b) (6) Claus, C. F. …
  • … P. (2) Coe, Henry (6) Coghlan, John …
  • … (2) Crüger, Hermann (6) Cuming, Hugh …
  • … (1) Darwin, Amy (6) Darwin, Anne Eliza …
  • … (47) Darwin, Sara (6) Darwin, V. H. …
  • … (2) Davidson, Thomas (6) Davis, J. E. …
  • … (1) Dear Friend (6) Delage, Yves (1) …
  • … (13) Denny, John (6) Desmarest, Eugène …
  • … (3) Elliot, Walter (6) Elliott & Fry …
  • … (39) Fabre, Jean-Henri (6) Fairfax, Mary …
  • … (9) Galton, E. S. (6) Galton, Erasmus …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and [of] all the scientist's colleagues. 6. Darwin's poetic sensibility …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … below, ‘Textual changes made to C. Lyell 1863c’). On 6 February 1863, Antiquity of man (C. Lyell …
  • … over the comparative anatomy of human and ape brains. 6 Many of Lyell’s supporters were …
  • … Lyell, see Bynum 1984 and L. G. Wilson 1996. 6. Owen’s complaints about C. Lyell 1863a …
  • … See Correspondence vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. …
  • … T. H. Huxley, 7 June 1865, Imperial College, Huxley papers 6: 110). For more on the X-club, see …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin’s best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 …
  • … intellectual errors’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin likened the …
  • … effect on my mind’ ( letter to Chauncey Wright, 6 April 1872 ).  A competing theory on the …
  • … in his `Literary Banquet’ (letters from John Murray, 6 November [1872] and 9 November 1872 ). …

Darwin's life in letters

Summary

For all his working life, Darwin used letters as a way both of discussing ideas and gathering the ‘great quantities of facts’ that he used in developing and supporting his theories. They form a fascinating collection from many hundreds of correspondents,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … with letters. ( Darwin to John Jenner Weir, [6 March 1868] ) For all his working …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also greatly honoured …
  • … book had to go along on the excursion,’ he reported on 6 July , ‘and it did us excellent service. …
  • … laurel in the wreath of your fame ’, Haeckel wrote on 6 June , ‘to have a predecessor in the …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … which Darwin approved ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [5 or 6 August 1874] ), while reiterating his …
  • … and sent a fair copy of his letter with his letter of 6 [August] 1874 . George and Darwin were …
  • … Huxley’s reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker and Huxley …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … a paper for the Linnean Society ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 October [1862] ). However, it was not …
  • … different translator ( see letter from Edouard Claparède, 6 September 1862 ). In Germany, …
  • … of the human species ( see letter from John Lubbock, 6 January 1862 ). Ramsay’s was not the …
  • … of the pot of life’? ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 6 May 1862 ). In his address, Huxley also …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Jamieson, 3 September 1861 To Thomas Jamieson, 6 September [1861] To Charles …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v.] 6 Books to be Read …
  • … [Le Couteur 1836] Bechstein on Caged Birds. 10 s  6 d . translated by Rennie [Bechstein …
  • … de la Geographie des trois Regnes de la nature. Paris. 6: folio par Céran de Lemonier. Bailliere …
  • … Organique dans l’echelle animale, par A. Dugés, 4to. avec 6 planches, ibid, 1832. 6 s . [Dugés …
  • … p. 195) “Boltons Harmonia Ruralis” [Bolton 1794–6]— Yarrell probably has it. account of …
  • … of Carnation. Auricula. Polyanth tulip. Rose. Hyacinth. 6 s . a catalogue of vars. [T. Hogg 1820] …
  • … Edition, with Plates and Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 9 s . 6 d . [Knapp] 1838] Read Gleanings in …
  • … Pœppig Travels in S. America. German [Pöppig 1835–6].— Zoologie Generale. Iside. St Hilaire …
  • … 1809]. Communicat to Board of Agriculture. vol 6 quoted by Youatt on migration of Sheep [Anon …
  • … [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6]// on Horses [C. H. Smith 1841]// Exotic …
  • … Nacht. von einigen Berlin 1763? [Kölreuter 1761–6] Godwins answer to Malthus [Godwin 1820] …
  • … [Etherington 1841–3]. Whittaker 1844. in Parts. cheap. 1.6 a part. 38 Schlegel Essay on …
  • … Darluc. Hist Nat. de la Provence [Darluc 1782–6] 8vo. 1782. Tom I p. 303 to 329 gives account of …
  • … of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which species are …
  • … Jussieus introduct to Bot. price 6 s  [Jussieu 1842] [DAR *119: 20v.] …
  • …  40 vols. 12mo. coloured plates, cloth lettered, (pub. at 6 s  per vol.) reduced to 5 s  1834–43 …
  • … 5. Peacocks, Pheasants, &c. [Jardine 1834a] 6. Birds of the Game kind [Jardine 1834b]. …
  • … Ruminating Animals (Deer, Antelopes, &c.) [Jardine 1835–6] 12. Ruminating Animals (Goats, …
  • … of  Vertebrate  animals 54 folio Plates. Maclise 2”12.6. [Maclise 1847] good for woodcuts. (Roy. …
  • … Analysis & theory of the Emotions by G. Ramsay B.M. 6. 6. Black Edin. Longman [Ramsay 1848] …
  • … (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has & …
  • … when out Lisianky’s Voyage round world 1803–6 [Lisyansky 1814]— nothing Lyell’s …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From the 3 rd edition on, each English edition up to the 6 th (the final one published in …
  • … 1866 5 th English edition published, 1869 6 th English edition published, 1872 …
  • … significant correspondents.   5 th to 6 th edition Proposed …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] ). Sic transit …
  • … modification of structure’ (G. D. Campbell 1864, pp. 275–6). Campbell argued further that natural …
  • … observations to high scientific account’ (A. Gray 1865–6, pp. 273-4). Darwin had also written to …
  • … to the Anthropologicals?’ ( letter from F. H. Hooker, 6 September [1865] ). Before he returned …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ( Letter from A. A. van Bemmelen and H. J.  Veth, 6 February 1877 ) Dutch …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 2 hits

  • … for demonstration or illustration. “ 6. —Licensed persons to use anasthetics in all …
  • … in all painful experiments when possible. 6.—It shall not be lawful for any person …
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