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To John Wickham Flower   23 March [1851]

Summary

Thanks JWF for [cirripede] fossils; one species seems from a new formation.

Regrets that his health makes it necessary to decline an invitation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Wickham Flower
Date:  23 Mar [1851]
Classmark:  Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1075

To Josiah Wedgwood III   [after 12 July 1851]

Summary

Inquires about the nature of some money recently paid to him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Josiah Wedgwood, III
Date:  [after 12 July 1851]
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1213

To Edward Forbes   [1 May – 5 June 1851]

Summary

Comments on MS by C. S. Bate. Bate not aware of other work on Cirripedia; cites Bate’s errors. Would Bate allow CD to use his drawings in Living Cirripedia? [See Living Cirripedia 1: 9–16.]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Forbes
Date:  [1 May – 5 June 1851]
Classmark:  DAR 144: 131
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1214

To John Richardson   4 November [1851]

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Richardson
Date:  4 Nov [1851]
Classmark:  J. A. Stargardt (dealer) (26–7 June 2007)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1267F

To Charles Spence Bate   13 June [1851]

Summary

Thanks CSB for drawings of [cirripede] larva and for permission to cite unpublished paper ["On the development of the cirripedes", Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. 8 (1851): 324–32]. Describes method of preserving specimens. Mentions Balanus common on tidal rocks at Tenby.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Spence Bate
Date:  13 June [1851]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 44
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1340

To C. S. Bate   18 August [1851]

Summary

Thanks CSB for cirripede larvae.

Has been unwell.

Cannot see transverse articulation referred to and does not believe in it.

Sends species synonyms.

Discussion of Chthamalinae.

Suggests using asphalt to seal specimen containers.

Comments on mouth of larva.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Spence Bate
Date:  18 Aug [1851]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 45
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1345

From Joseph Dalton Hooker   [c. April 1851]

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Summary

Wants catalogue of small islands that contain peculiar plants. Thinks complete floras of islands in various stages of depression [subsidence] would provide good data.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. Apr 1851]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 164
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1382

To John Edward Gray   [January 1851]

Summary

Is coming tomorrow to see Lorenz Spengler on cirripedes [Auserlesne Schnecken, Muscheln und andre Schaalthiere (1758)] and the remaining sessile cirripedes in the collection. Has finished Balanus.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Edward Gray
Date:  [Jan 1851]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum (Zoology letters 2: 57)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1383

To Charles Lyell   [November–December 1851]

Summary

Detailed critique of CL’s A manual of elementary geology [3d ed. (1851), used in editing 4th ed. (1852)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [Nov–Dec 1851]
Classmark:  Kinnordy MS (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1384

To John Mumford   1 January 1851

Summary

Receipt for £3 5s, proceeds of a lecture, for the Down Coal and Clothing Club.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Mumford
Date:  1 Jan 1851
Classmark:  The Royal Society (LUB: D17)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1385

To Rowland Hill   6 January 1851

Summary

Drawings of the apteryx in three positions.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Rowland Hill, 2d Viscount Hill
Date:  6 Jan 1851
Classmark:  Sotheby’s, New York (dealers) (2006)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1385F

To James de Carle Sowerby   21 January [1851]

Summary

CD is pleased with plates [for Fossil Cirripedia (Lepadidae)]; most corrections need only a touch. Requests revises soon and asks how much he owes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James de Carle Sowerby
Date:  21 Jan [1851]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1386

To Robert Fitch   24 January [1851]

Summary

Collection of fossil cirripedes to be returned. Would RF be willing to donate duplicates to the British Museum?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Fitch
Date:  24 Jan [1851]
Classmark:  Norwich Castle
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1387

To J. de C. Sowerby   10 February [1851]

Summary

CD likes the plates [for Fossil Cirripedia (Lepadidae)] except pl. I [Scalpellum], which calls for several revisions; he sees that not all corrections were made, but assumes they called for too extensive changes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James de Carle Sowerby
Date:  10 Feb [1851]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1388

To J. de C. Sowerby   13 February [1851]

Summary

CD appreciates JdeCS’s care. Sends specimens, noting points to be observed. He adds that the figures which have been most troublesome are those of which drawings were made [for Fossil Cirripedia (Lepadidae)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James de Carle Sowerby
Date:  13 Feb [1851]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1389

To William Jackson Hooker   17 February [1851]

Summary

Encloses letter from J. D. Hooker. Glad he will soon be home.

Everyone will be astonished at oaks and birches of tropics.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Jackson Hooker
Date:  17 Feb [1851]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Robert M. Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1390

To J. de C. Sowerby   19 February [1851]

Summary

Comments on JdeCS’s plates [for Fossil Cirripedia (Lepadidae)]. Asks if JdeCS can lend him specimens of fossil Balanidae.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James de Carle Sowerby
Date:  19 Feb [1851]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1391

To Samuel Pickworth Woodward   3 March [1851]

Summary

Cirripede fossil specimens returned.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  3 Mar [1851]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1392

To William Harris   4 March [1851]

Summary

Has finished the last proof of his monograph [Fossil Lepadidae] and returns WH’s specimens. Has named two new species from the collection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Harris
Date:  4 Mar [1851]
Classmark:  British Library (Add 42579: 233–4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1393

To Edwin Lankester, Ray Society   4 March [1851]

Summary

Asks EL to request the Council [of the Ray Society] to permit him to have nine plates [for vol. 1 of Living Cirripedia] instead of eight (of which two were to be in colour) and a tenth plate if he pays for it himself.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edwin Lankester; Ray Society
Date:  4 Mar [1851]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1395
Document type
letter (100)
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1851
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02 (4)
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04 (31)
05 (7)
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The death of Anne Elizabeth Darwin

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851.   Emma was heavily pregnant with their fifth son, Horace, at the time and could not go with Charles when he took Annie to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully.…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851.   Emma was heavily pregnant with …
  • … expired at Malvern at 1  Midday on the 23 d . of April 1851.— I write these few pages, as I …
  • … her dear joyous face. Blessings on her.— April 30. 1851. Notes: 1 …
  • … Darwin’s reaction to her sister’s death Aug. 1851. Etty nearly 8 years old. She appeared for …
  • … Annie's illness and death To W. D. Fox, [ 27 March 1851 ] To Emma Darwin,  [17 …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the second (DAR 128) continues the …
  • … from Parent to offspring of some Forms of Disease. 1851 [Whitehead 1851]. Packard. A Guide to …
  • … [Malcolm 1836] H. Dixon Life of Pen [W. H. Dixon 1851].— Southeys Life of Wesley [R. …
  • … Humboldt 1849]. Liebigs Lectures on Chemistry [Liebig 1851]. Sir John Davies. China …
  • … Steenstrup on Hermaphroditismus [Steenstrup 1846]. 1851. Jan. 6 th . Pickering Races …
  • … 1850].— April 5 Manual of Geology Lyell [Lyell 1851] —— 30 Annales des Sc. Phys. de  …
  • … nothing July 16 th  Dixon. Pigeons [E. S. Dixon 1851].— Dec. 26. Count Odart’s …
  • … Wilkie [Cunningham 1843] [DAR 119: 23b] 1851 Jan 27. M. Martineau. …
  • … 1844]. good London Labour & London Poor [Mayhew 1851].— Missionary Life in Canada …
  • … July 1 st . Edwardes Year in Punjaub [Edwardes 1851] good 16 Gleig’s Life of Clive [Gleig …
  • … 15. Liebig Familiar letters on Chemistry [Liebig 1851]. Nov. 15 th  Wilson Voyage. Scotland …
  • … [DAR *128: 182] 83 Jury Report. Exhibition of 1851 on silk-worms & sheep, selection …
  • … et de ses ràces ou varietes 8 o . 12. p. 1 Pl. Poitiers 1851. Chez H. Oudin [Mauduyt 1851] Read …
  • … of Madeira with list of Birds ( some migratory ) [Harcourt 1851]. Yarrell has (read) Rev d …
  • … Horticulture, Floriculture and Natural Science ] (1850? 1851?) must positively  be read 96 …
  • … 1852] grand illustrated work on Legumes [?Vilmorin-Andrieux 1851–7] 110 [DAR *128: 154] …
  • … March 26. Gosse’s Sojourn in Jamaica [Gosse 1851] April 30 Journal of Horticultural Soc of …
  • … 1852 . Feb. 1. Emigrants Manual [Burton 1851] March 10 th  Hind’s Solar System …
  • … Man’s Nature & Development [Atkinson and Martineau 1851] —— 25 Head. Home Tour …
  • …   of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia ] Vol I to V 1851 M. Edwards. Introduction …
  • … —— 13 th  Neale’s Residences in Siam [Neale 1851] 22 Sir J. Davis China during War and …
  • … 1853] (excellent) —— 23 Howitts Victoria [Howitt 1851] part of (poor) Oct 7 th  Sir …
  • … 28 th . Delineations of the Ox Tribe &c by George Vasey. 1851 [Vasey 1851]. May 28. …
  • … June 8 th  Sketch of Madeira by E. Vernon Harcourt p. 1851 [Harcourt 1851] —— 11 Busk …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … he explained in the preface to Living Cirripedia (1851): vii, ‘to have described only a single …
  • …   In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an …
  • … parts of the mature animal.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1851): 25). As a basis for his homologies, …
  • … in the various genera of Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1851): 286–7), which he later …
  • … the highest classificatory value’ ( Living Cirripedia (1851): 285).^12^    For delineating …
  • … the cement glands of the organism ( Living Cirripedia (1851): 20). This association suggested to …
  • … feel no hesitation in advancing it. ( Living Cirripedia (1851): 37–8)    In Living …
  • … belonging to the same species!’ ( Living Cirripedia (1851): 293)—this discovery was unique in the …
  • … devoted the first sixty-five pages of Living Cirripedia (1851), and a lengthy section in …
  • … by a letter he wrote to Charles Spence Bate, 13 June [1851] ( Correspondence vol. 5), in …
  • … mentioned both Coral reefs and Living Cirripedia (1851), but it was the latter work that …
  • … to the analogy with plants in Living Cirripedia (1851): 214: ‘Although the existence of …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. These were systematic monographs, written for a specialist audience, and as such are probably among the most…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … four volumes on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and …
  • … made to the plates, but even close to publication in early 1851, Darwin told Sowerby, ‘ I like the …
  • … books. ’ When the first fossil monograph appeared in June 1851, it was the third part of volume 5 …
  • … of the living species; having finished writing in July 1851 , he corrected proof-sheets from …
  • … the first volume of Living Cirripedia bears the date 1851, it did not appear until January …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … confusing sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851
  • … dioecious plants from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at …
  • … he justified in a lengthy footnote (Living Cirripedia (1851): 293 n.). The problem that bothered …

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to Darwin and to his contemporaries. Throughout 1851, Darwin concentrated on the pedunculated …
  • … details with the Ray Society for  Living Cirripedia  (1851) and with the Palaeontographical …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1842 he returned to surveying around the British coast. In 1851 his sister was living in Plymstock, …
  • … National Archives: Public Record Office HO107/276/2/21/36), 1851 (HO107/1877/160/2), 1861 (RG 9/1428 …

George Robert Waterhouse

Summary

George Waterhouse was born on 6 March 1810 in Somers Town, North London. His father was a solicitor’s clerk and an amateur lepidopterist. George was educated from 1821-24 at Koekelberg near Brussels. On his return he worked for a time as an apprentice to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … branch. Waterhouse became keeper of mineralogy in 1851 and keeper of geology in 1856, where he added …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … when they had four children aged less than six years old in 1851, they employed eight servants …
  • … following the  death of his oldest daughter, Annie , in 1851. Seven years later he was again …

Bartholomew James Sulivan

Summary

On Christmas Day 1866, Bartholomew Sulivan sat down to write a typically long and chatty letter to his old friend, Charles Darwin, commiserating on shared ill-health, glorying in the achievements of their children, offering to collect plant specimens, and…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … with his wife in the Falklands where they remained until 1851 – their eldest son, James Young …
  • … never suited him, and following his return to England in 1851 Sulivan was frequently ill, but never …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … publications, his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia   …

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)

Summary

George Eliot was the pen name of celebrated Victorian novelist Mary Ann Evans (1819-1880). She was born on the outskirts of Nuneaton in Warwickshire and was educated at boarding schools from the age of five until she was 16. Her education ended when she…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … responsible for the magazine's success at that time. In 1851 she met the philosopher, writer …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … on H.M.S. Rattlesnake in the South Pacific (1846–1851).  He pursued natural history alongside …
  • … marine invertebrates. Shortly after his return to England in 1851, he was elected a fellow of the …

Death of Annie Darwin

Summary

The Darwins' 10-year old daughter, Anne Elizabeth, dies in Malvern.  Charles is with her, but Emma, heavily pregnant, has to stay behind at Down.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Darwins' 10-year old daughter, Anne Elizabeth, dies in Malvern.  Charles is with her, but Emma …

Horace Darwin born

Summary

Darwin's son, and ninth child, Horace is born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin's son, and ninth child, Horace is born …

About Darwin

Summary

To many of us, Darwin’s name is synonymous with his theory of evolution by natural selection.  But even before the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, he was publicly known through his popular book about the voyage of the Beagle, and he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … in his sense of loss when his daughter Annie died in 1851. Darwin was educated at the …

About Darwin

Summary

To many of us, Darwin’s name is synonymous with his theory of evolution by natural selection.  But even before the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, he was publicly known through his popular book about the voyage of the Beagle, and he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … in his sense of loss when his daughter Annie died in 1851. Darwin was educated at the …

Thomas Burgess

Summary

As well as its complement of sailors, the Beagle also carried a Royal Marine sergeant and seven marines, one of whom was Thomas Burgess. When the Beagle set sail he was twenty one, having been born in October 1810 to Israel and Hannah Burgess of Lancashire…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … couple of miles north of Wilmslow (TNA HO107/99/20/8/11). In 1851, when they were living in Wilmslow …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1848; Leonard, born 15 January 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It appears to have been Emma who …
  • … E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [71] Horace Darwin, born 1851. [72] Leonard Darwin’s …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … third, his beloved daughter Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851. The letters are an intimate …
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