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From Asa Gray   22 May 1855

Summary

Has filled up CD’s paper [see 1674].

Distribution and relationships of alpine flora in U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 May 1855
Classmark:  DAR 106: D1–D2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1685

From Asa Gray   30 June 1855

Summary

Sends a list of "close" species from his Manual of botany.

Hopes Hooker or CD will write an essay on species. Discusses some of the difficulties of defining botanical species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 June 1855
Classmark:  DAR 165: 92a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1707

From Asa Gray   [early August 1856]

Summary

Believes intermediate varieties are generally less numerous in individuals than the two states that they connect.

Discusses the difficulties of deciding what is the typical form of a species

and gives some opinions on the variability of introduced species compared with indigenous species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [early Aug 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 93
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1934

From Asa Gray   23 September 1856

Summary

Plants that are social in the U. S. but are not so in the Old World.

Distribution of U. S. species common to Europe.

Gives Theodor Engelmann’s opinion on the relative variability of indigenous and introduced plants and notes the effects of man’s settlement on the numbers and distribution of indigenous plants.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Sept 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1959

From Asa Gray   4 November 1856

Summary

Outlines the ranges of northern U. S. species common to Europe. Hopes to investigate the resemblances between the floras of the north-eastern U. S. and western Europe. Discusses routes by which alpine plants appear to have reached U. S.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1856
Classmark:  DAR 165: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1982

From Asa Gray   16 February 1857

Summary

Discusses the ranges of alpine species in U. S. and considers the possible migration routes of such species from Europe.

Lists those U. S. genera which he considers protean and describes the U. S. character of some genera which are protean in Europe.

Describes how he distinguishes introduced and aboriginal stocks of the same species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Feb 1857
Classmark:  DAR 165: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2053

From Asa Gray   [c. 24 May 1857]

Summary

Discusses difficulties involved in deciding which genera are protean in the light of some comments by H. C. Watson.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 24 May 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 97
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2104

From Asa Gray   1 June 1857

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Summary

Comments on species with disjoined ranges; does not feel, despite CD’s expectations, that they tend to belong to small families.

Gives the proportion of U. S. trees in which the sexes are separate [see Natural selection, p. 62].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 June 1857
Classmark:  DAR 8: 47bA
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2098

From Asa Gray   7 July 1857

Summary

Believes, with CD, that extinction may be an important factor in explaining plant distributions, but sees no reason why the several species of a genus must ever have had a common or continuous area. "Convince me of that, or show me any good grounds for it … and I think you would carry me a good way with you". It is just such people as AG that CD has to satisfy and convince.

Feels that the crossing of individuals is important in repressing variation and perhaps in perpetuating the species, but instances some plants in which it cannot, apparently, take place.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 381; DAR 165: 98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2120

From Asa Gray   [August 1857]

Summary

States he has "misgivings about the definiteness of species". Believes there is some inherent tendency for plants to originate varieties. Cross-fertilisation is likely in most cases but sees difficulties with plants like Adlumia.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Aug 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 100, 101
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2129

From Asa Gray   [before 3 April 1858]

Summary

List of close species taken from AG’s Manual of botany [1848].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 3 Apr 1858]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2249

From Asa Gray   21 June 1858

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Summary

Self-fertilisation in Fumariaceae.

[CD note on bees’ visiting some members of Fumariaceae.]

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 June 1858
Classmark:  DAR 76: B15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2288

From Asa Gray to J. D. Hooker   5 January 1860

Summary

Opinions on the Origin: AG thinks it masterly; Agassiz considers it very poor.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  5 Jan 1860
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 20–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2638

From Asa Gray   [10 January 1860]

Summary

Agassiz denounces Origin as "atheistical";

AG is currently reviewing it [in Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 153–84].

Jeffries Wyman praises it, though not a convert.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [10 Jan 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 26a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2631

DCP-LETT-2653A

Summary

Origin reached AG at Christmas. Louis Agassiz cannot abide the book and has publicly denounced it as atheism. AG feels bound to defend the book and counter the "demagogue" Agassiz. Has written a long article to this end [Am. J. Sci. and Arts 2d ser. 29 (1860): 153–84].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Francis Boott
Date:  16 Jan 1860
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2653A

From Asa Gray   23 January 1860

Summary

American edition of Origin. AG’s assessment of the book’s weak and strong points. Suggests Jeffries Wyman would be a useful source of facts and hints for CD.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 Jan 1860
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 22–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2663

From Asa Gray   20 February 1860

Summary

Arrangements for the American edition of Origin.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  20 Feb 1860
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (37)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2706

From Asa Gray   [10 July 1860]

Summary

Cases of "dioecio-dimorphism" as in primroses are widespread. AG always considered them the first step toward bisexuality.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [10 July 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 110 (ser. 2): 77
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2819

From Asa Gray   [27 and 29 August] and 2 September [1861]

Summary

Gives some observations on the sensitivity of Drosera species and comments on cases of "dioecio-dimorphism".

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 and 29 Aug 1861 and 2 Sept 1861
Classmark:  DAR 110 (ser. 2): 76
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3242

From Asa Gray   11 October 1861

Summary

Notes several cases of "dioecio-dimorphism" in different genera; feels the discovery of pollen that will act only on the pistil of another flower is most important. Believes CD should next turn his attention to investigating cases of "precocious fertilisation".

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Oct 1861
Classmark:  DAR 109: 82–3, DAR 110 (ser. 2): 117, DAR 111: 83
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3282
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Gray, J. L. (1)
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