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To Francis Galton   28 May [1854]

Summary

Discusses how Fuegians and other primitive peoples light fires.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Galton
Date:  28 May [1854]
Classmark:  UCL Library Services, Special Collections (GALTON/1/1/9/5/7/2)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1881

Matches: 1 hit

  • … DCP-LETT-1881

To Francis Darwin   22–3 May 1881

Summary

Is sending chapter [of Earthworms] for FD to look over.

Comments on FD’s work on movements of mould.

Is glad to hear about Julius von Sachs and the circumnutation theory.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  22–3 May 1881
Classmark:  DAR 211: 75
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13170

Matches: 28 hits

  • … To Francis Darwin   22–3 May 1881
  • … DAR 211: 75 Charles Robert Darwin Down 22–3 May 1881 Francis Darwin …
  • … Die Gartenlaube 27: 228–30, 285–7. Wortmann, Julius. 1881. Ein Beitrag zur Biologie der …
  • … Mucorineen. Botanische Zeitung , 10 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 368–74, 17 June 1881, pp. 383–7. …
  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 18 (1881): 420–55. Darwin, Francis. 1880c. The theory of …
  • … Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 18 (1881): 406–19. Darwin, Francis. 1881b. …
  • … Orpington. S.E.R. ) Sunday 22 d . May— 1881 My dear Frank A parcel of M.S & proofs with …
  • … and Oskar Schmidt at the meeting. See letter from Francis Darwin, 19 [May 1881] . See …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, 19 [May 1881] ; Francis had described the long hours kept by …
  • … in the Lake District from 2 June to 5 July 1881 ( Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). See …
  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ), June 1881. CD also sent proof-sheets of Earthworms and …
  • … No letter from CD to Francis dated 21 May 1881 has been found, but CD had mentioned a …
  • … a klinostat in his letter to Francis of 20 May 1881 . The list has not been found; CD had …
  • … Organe. Botanische Zeitung , 29 July 1881, pp. 473–80. Earthworms : The formation of …
  • … with observations on their habits. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1881. Elfving, …
  • … Fredrik. 1881. En obeaktad känslighet …
  • … hos Phycomyces. Botaniska Notiser (1881): 105–7. Movement in plants : The power of …
  • … of the Linnean Society ( Botany ), April 1881. Ernst Krause ’s summary of Movement in …
  • … Carus Sterne, appeared in Die Gartenlaube in April 1881 ( Sterne 1881a ; see letter …
  • … from Ernst Krause, 15 May 1881 and n. 4). The paper was a popular German illustrated …
  • … See letter from Francis Darwin, 19 [May 1881] and nn. 3 and 4. Francis had mentioned …
  • … on the topic as soon as possible. Wortmann 1881 was published in Botanische Zeitung , …
  • … 10 June and 17 June 1881; F. Darwin …
  • … 1881b appeared in Botanische Zeitung , 29 July 1881. …
  • … Elfving 1881 was published in …
  • … Botaniska Notiser , September 1881. See …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, 19 [May 1881] and n. 7. Wortmann reported that Julius Sachs …

From G. J. Romanes   4 September [1881]

Summary

Not intended to call vivisection article a symposium [Nineteenth Century 10 (1881): 920–48].

Sympathy on death of Erasmus Darwin.

Trying some experiments with bees to test their direction-finding methods.

Author:  George John Romanes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Sept [1881]
Classmark:  E. D. Romanes 1896, p. 125
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13317

Matches: 23 hits

  • … From G.  J.  Romanes   4 September [1881] …
  • … E. D. Romanes 1896, p. 125 George John Romanes Garvock 4 Sept [1881] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … article a symposium [ Nineteenth Century 10 (1881): 920–48]. Sympathy on death of Erasmus …
  • … chemistry of the sun’, which had been published in Nature in July and August 1881 ( …
  • … Lockyer 1881 ). In his last lecture, Lockyer …
  • … discussed the new theory of chemical evolution ( Nature , 25 August 1881, pp. 394–9). …
  • … Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. Roux, Wilhelm. 1881. Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus. Ein …
  • … with observations on their habits. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1881. Lockyer, …
  • … Joseph Norman. 1881. Solar physics: chemistry of …
  • … the sun. Nature , 21 July 1881, pp. …
  • … 267–74; 28 July 1881, pp. …
  • … 296–301; 4 August 1881, pp. …
  • … 315–24; 18 August 1881, 365–70; …
  • … 25 August 1881, pp. 391–9. Lockyer, Joseph Norman. 1887. The chemistry of the sun . London …
  • … the letter to G.  J.  Romanes, 2 September 1881 . CD had declined Romanes’s invitation to …
  • … letter to G.  J.  Romanes, 2 September 1881 ). CD had sent Romanes a copy of the letter he …
  • … see letter to G.  J.   Romanes, 2 September 1881 and n. 2). CD had thought the term ‘ …
  • … a drinking party (see letter to G.  J.  Romanes, 2 September 1881 and n. 3). See letter …
  • … to G.  J.  Romanes, 2 September 1881 and n. 8. CD had told Romanes about a review of …
  • … latest issue of Kosmos (see letter to G.  J.  Romanes, 2 September 1881 and nn. 6 and 7). …
  • … Romanes’s review of Roux 1881 appeared in …
  • … Nature , 29 September 1881, pp. 505–6. Romanes was working on animal intelligence; he …
  • … see letter to G.  J.  Romanes, 2 September 1881 ). Norman Lockyer , who believed that …

Hoffmann, Hermann. 1881. Rückblick auf meine Variations-Versuche von 1855–1880. Botanische Zeitung, 3 June 1881, pp. 345–51; 10 June 1881, pp. 361–8; 17 June 1881, pp. 377–83; 24 June 1881, pp. 393–9; 1 July 1881, pp. 409–15; 8 July 1881, pp. 425–32.

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Hoffmann, Hermann. 1881. Rückblick auf meine Variations-Versuche von …
  • … 1855–1880. Botanische Zeitung , 3 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 345–51; 10 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 361–8; 17 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 377–83; 24 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 393–9; 1 July 1881, pp. …
  • … 409–15; 8 July 1881, pp. 425–32. https://archive.org/ …

To C. G. Semper   19 July 1881

Summary

Thinks CGS right not to reply to critical article by Lankester.

Discusses direct action of environment as cause of variability; the finding of Hermann Hoffmann that direct action of environment affects plants very little.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Carl Gottfried Semper
Date:  19 July 1881
Classmark:  Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf (slg 60/Dok/63)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13251

Matches: 18 hits

  • … To C.  G.  Semper   19 July 1881
  • … Düsseldorf (slg 60/Dok/63) Charles Robert Darwin Down 19 July 1881 Carl Gottfried Semper …
  • … von 1855–1880’ (Review of my research on variation, 1855–1880; Hoffmann 1881 ) appeared on …
  • … 8 July 1881. For CD’s most recent public comment on the direct action of external …
  • … Nature , 5 November [1880] . Hoffmann 1881 , p. 427. CD had been criticised by St George …
  • … Bibliography Hoffmann, Hermann. 1881. Rückblick auf meine Variations-Versuche von …
  • … 1855–1880. Botanische Zeitung , 3 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 345–51; 10 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 361–8; 17 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 377–83; 24 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 393–9; 1 July 1881, pp. …
  • … 409–15; 8 July 1881, pp. 425–32. …
  • … Semper, Karl. 1881. The natural conditions of existence as they affect animal life . …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) July 19 th . 1881 My dear Professor Semper I have been much …
  • … See letter to C. G. Semper, 6 February 1881 , and letter from C. …
  • … G. Semper, 16 July 1881 . Edwin Ray Lankester had written a partially negative review …
  • … The natural conditions of existence as they affect animal life ( Semper 1881 ) in Nature , …
  • … 3 March 1881, pp. 405–9, criticising in particular Semper’s focus on the direct effect of …

To Francis Darwin   8 July 1881

Summary

Comments on the response to Movement in plants, which seems to have been successful.

Is going over revises of Earthworms.

Is investigating further his notion that leaves align themselves in the rain so as to shoot off drops of water.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  8 July 1881
Classmark:  DAR 211: 85
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13237

Matches: 21 hits

  • … To Francis Darwin   8 July 1881
  • … DAR 211: 85 Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 July 1881 Francis Darwin …
  • … was later King Edward VII . Graham 1881 . See …
  • … also letter to William Graham, 3 July 1881 . …
  • … Bibliography Carus, Julius Victor, trans. 1881. Das Bewegungsvermögen der Pflanzen. By …
  • … Railway Station | Orpington. S.E.R. July 8 th 1881 My dear Frank I have had 2 of the most …
  • … District after five weeks’ holiday on 5 July 1881 ( Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). Great …
  • … letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . 8 July 1881? ] . Wilhelm Pfeffer , Pflanzenphysiologie. …
  • … and energy exchange in plants; Pfeffer 1881 ). There are two papers by Cornu in the Darwin …
  • … the telegraph or semaphore plant) in April and May 1881 are in DAR 209.12: 126–31. …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 31 May 1881 . See Correspondence vol. 25, letter to Fritz …
  • … returned from Straßburg (Strasbourg) on 1 August 1881 ( Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). …
  • … The Darwins were in London from 3 to 5 August 1881 (CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). …
  • … See letter from James Paget, 1 June 1881 . Albert Edward, prince of Wales, …
  • … Books, Shoe String Press. Graham, William. 1881. The creed of science: religious, moral, …
  • … London: C. Kegan Paul & Co. Pfeffer, Wilhelm. 1881. Pflanzenphysiologie. Ein Handbuch des …
  • … in plants was reviewed anonymously in Botanische Zeitung , 24 June 1881, pp. 400–3, and …
  • … the German translation ( Carus trans. 1881 ) was reviewed by Gottlieb Haberlandt …
  • … in Botanische Zeitung , 1 July 1881, pp. 415–19. …
  • … See also letter to Francis Darwin, 26 June [1881] . …
  • … Earthworms was published on 10 October 1881 ( Freeman 1977 ). CD’s notes about wetting …

To G. J. Romanes   2 September 1881

Summary

Unable to contribute an essay to a symposium on the subject of vivisection. Objects to use of term "symposium".

Mentions articles of Hermann Müller.

Death of his brother Erasmus [26 Aug 1881].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  2 Sept 1881
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.597)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13312

Matches: 23 hits

  • … To G.  J.  Romanes   2 September 1881
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.597) Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 Sept 1881 George John Romanes …
  • … Mentions articles of Hermann Müller. Death of his brother Erasmus [26 Aug 1881]. …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1881. Müller, Hermann. 1881b. Die Entwickelung der …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) Sept 2 d . 1881. My dear Romanes. Your letter has perplexed …
  • … to the completion of the mechanistic theory of fitness; Roux 1881 ) was reviewed …
  • … in Kosmos 9 (1881): 398–401. …
  • … Erasmus Alvey Darwin died on 26 August 1881 (CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). …
  • … In his letter of 31 August 1881 , Romanes had given an open invitation to CD’s sons to …
  • … Nineteenth Century ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 31 August 1881 ). CD had published …
  • … on vivisection in The Times , 18 April 1881, p. 10; he published a second letter (in reply …
  • … to a response to his first by Frances Power Cobbe ) in The Times , 22 April 1881, p. 11 ( …
  • … see letter to Frithiof Holmgren, [14] April 1881 , and letter to …
  • … The Times , 21 April [1881] ). The editor of the Nineteenth Century , James Thomas …
  • … Longmans, Green, and Co. Roux, Wilhelm. 1881. Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus. Ein …
  • … and brute: an address delivered on August 3rd, 1881, at the opening of the State Medicine …
  • … intellectual entertainment ( OED ). On 3 August 1881, John Simon had spoken in defence of …
  • … the congress on 3 August (see letter to W. E. Darwin, 4 August [1881] ). CD had sent the …
  • … of Earthworms to his publisher on 10 April 1881, requesting speedy publication (see letter …
  • … to R. F. Cooke, 10 April 1881 ); this request was strongly opposed and the book was not …
  • … published until 10 October (see letter from R. F. Cooke, 28 July 1881 and n. 1). …
  • … Romanes had read a draft of the second chapter in March 1881 (see letter from G. …
  • … J. Romanes, 7 March 1881 ). CD refers to the separate parts of H. Müller 1881b . Wilhelm …

From Francis Darwin   19 [May 1881]

Summary

Is sorry to have involved himself in a priority dispute between Wortmann and Elfving. Intends to publish on circumnutation; will CD send him his notes? Apologises for taking CD’s protractor, will send it back. Has met Oscar Schmidt.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 [May 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 72
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13166F

Matches: 24 hits

  • … From Francis Darwin   19 [May 1881] …
  • … DAR 274.1: 72 Francis Darwin Strasbourg 19 [May 1881] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … bei einem einzelligen Organe. Botanische Zeitung , 29 July 1881, pp. 473–80. …
  • … Elfving, Fredrik. 1881. En obeaktad känslighet …
  • … hos Phycomyces. Botaniska Notiser (1881): 105–7. …
  • … Goltz, Friedrich Leopold. 1881. Discussion on the localization of function in the cortex …
  • … session, held in London, August 2d to 9th, 1881 . Prepared under the direction of William …
  • … between this letter and the letter to Francis Darwin, 16 and 17 May 1881 . See letter …
  • … to Francis Darwin, 16 and 17 May 1881 . No correspondence between Francis and Elizabeth …
  • … see letter from Francis Darwin, 14 May 1881 and n. 7). Francis had met Fredrik Elfving in …
  • … Oskar Schmidt in his letter of 14 May 1881 . Kneipe : pub, bar (German). Bernard Darwin …
  • … see letter to Francis Darwin, 16 and 17 May 1881 and n. 11). Francis was sending paper …
  • … Philadelphia: Pen & Sword Military. Wortmann, Julius. 1881. Ein Beitrag zur Biologie der …
  • … Mucorineen. Botanische Zeitung , 10 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 368–74, 17 June 1881, pp. 383–7. …
  • … hos Phycomyces’ (An unobserved sensitivity in Phycomyces; Elfving 1881 ) appeared …
  • … in September 1881. Wortmann’s paper, ‘Ein Beitrag zur …
  • … contribution on the biology of Mucorales; Wortmann 1881 ) appeared in parts in Botanische …
  • … Zeitung , 10 and 17 June 1881. In the first section, he described experiments with …
  • … appeared in Botanische Zeitung , 29 July 1881; it included three diagrams tracing the …
  • … sporangium. In his letter of 16 and 17 May 1881 , CD had mentioned being unable to find …
  • … stolonifer as sensitive to touch ( Wortmann 1881 , pp. 385–6). Julius Sachs had supervised …
  • … Medical Congress, held in London from 2 to 9 August 1881. Goltz’s paper ‘Discussion …
  • … of function in the cortex cerebri’ ( Goltz 1881 ) was published in the transactions of the …

Lockyer, Joseph Norman. 1881. Solar physics: chemistry of the sun. Nature, 21 July 1881, pp. 267–74; 28 July 1881, pp. 296–301; 4 August 1881, pp. 315–24; 18 August 1881, 365–70; 25 August 1881, pp. 391–9.

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Lockyer, Joseph Norman. 1881. Solar physics: chemistry of …
  • … the sun. Nature , 21 July 1881, pp. …
  • … 267–74; 28 July 1881, pp. …
  • … 296–301; 4 August 1881, pp. …
  • … 315–24; 18 August 1881, 365–70; …
  • … 25 August 1881, pp. 391–9. 29 …

To Francis Darwin   17 October 1881

Summary

Has been reading Julius von Wiesner’s book [Das Bewegungsvermögen der Pflanzen (1881)]. Comments that it is "an excellent book, but he vivisects me in the most grievous terms, but most effectively".

Has been experimenting on aggregation of chlorophyll but with little success.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  17 Oct 1881
Classmark:  DAR 211: 86
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13411

Matches: 21 hits

  • … To Francis Darwin   17 October 1881
  • … DAR 211: 86 Charles Robert Darwin Down 17 Oct 1881 Francis Darwin …
  • … book [ Das Bewegungsvermögen der Pflanzen (1881)]. Comments that it is "an excellent book, …
  • … Kosmos 10: 212–14. Wiesner, Julius.  1881. Das Bewegungsvermögen der Pflanzen. Eine …
  • … village (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [9 October 1881] (DAR 219.9: 275)). …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) Oct 17 th 1881 My dear Frank I have not written before, …
  • … Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [9 October 1881] (DAR 219.9: 275)). CD was reading Julius …
  • … s Das Bewegungsvermögen der Pflanzen (The power of movement in plants; Wiesner 1881 ). …
  • … See Wiesner 1881 , pp. 70– …
  • … 1. See Wiesner 1881 , pp. 66–70; in his experiment, he used a rotating apparatus so that …
  • … a misspelling of C. cajanifolia ) appeared in Kosmos , December 1881 ( F. Müller 1881c ). …
  • … The Darwins visited Cambridge from 20 to 27 October 1881 (CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). …
  • … letter from Leonard Darwin, 12 October [1881] and n. 3; Isaac Withers Laslett was a local …
  • … visited the Darwins from 6 to 17 October 1881 ( Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). Bernard …
  • … see Kendall 1971 , p. 86). See Wiesner 1881 , p. 72. Wiesner argued that heliotropic …
  • … but rather a stress phenomenon caused by uneven growth. See Wiesner 1881 , pp. 47– …
  • … 50. See Wiesner 1881 , pp. 157–202. Francis’s ‘dodge’ probably involved one of the new …
  • … see, for example, letter from Francis Darwin, 17 June 1881 ). CD’s notes on aggregation of …
  • … Venus fly trap), dated between 8 and 12 October 1881, are in DAR 52: F73–83. CD’s notes on …
  • … peplus (petty spurge), dated between 12 August and 5 November 1881, are in DAR 62: 6–11. …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 6, 7, and 9 September 1881 and n. 2. Crotalaria is the genus of …

To G. J. Romanes   25 April 1881

Summary

Comments on GJR’s letter in the Times [25 Apr 1881] concerning vivisection. Mentions activity of anti-vivisectionists, G. R. Jesse and F. P. Cobbe.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  25 Apr 1881
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.589)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13138

Matches: 17 hits

  • … To G.  J.  Romanes   25 April 1881
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.589) Charles Robert Darwin Down 25 Apr 1881 George John Romanes …
  • … p. cxci, and 21 April 1881, p. cxcix. …
  • … A paid advertisement by Jesse appeared in Nature , 28 April 1881, p. ccvii. …
  • … on GJR’s letter in the Times [25 Apr 1881] concerning vivisection. Mentions activity of …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) April 25. 1881 My dear Romanes I was very glad to read your …
  • … See letter from G.  J.  Romanes, 22 April [1881] . Romanes’s letter …
  • … was published in The Times , 25 April 1881, p. 10. In it, he defended John Scott Burdon …
  • … were inhumane ( The Times , 23 April 1881, p. 8). Romanes stated that having worked in …
  • … she had cited ( The Times , 23 April 1881, p. 8). Anti-vivisectionists, when barred from …
  • … earlier, to CD with his letter of 19 April 1881 . More recent anti-vivisection letters in …
  • … Kirkman , ‘The Endowment of Research’, Nature , 7 April 1881, p. clxxxii, 14 April 1882, …
  • … to The Times , see the letter to Frithiof Holmgren, [14] April 1881 , and the letter to …
  • … The Times , 21 April [1881] . See letter from G. …
  • … R. Jesse, 22 April 1881 and n. 5; George Richard Jesse was founder of the Society for …
  • … In his letter to the Lancet , 26 March 1881, p. 525, Jesse wrote that the society he …
  • … In her letter in The Times , 19 April 1881, p. 8, Cobbe had quoted passages from the …

To Francis Darwin   28 [October 1881]

Summary

Earthworms is selling well.

Discussed how to repeat some of their plant experiments while in Cambridge.

Comments on Julius Wiesner’s views on plant movement.

S. H. Vines was very much surprised at the action of carbonate of ammonia on the roots of Euphorbia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  28 [Oct 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 88
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13440

Matches: 25 hits

  • … To Francis Darwin   28 [October 1881] …
  • … DAR 211: 88 Charles Robert Darwin Down 28 [Oct 1881] Francis Darwin …
  • … in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. See letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 27 October 1881 . …
  • … the letter from J.  D.  Hooker, 27 October 1881 . De rebus scientificibus : ‘on scientific …
  • … Latin). See letter from Fritz Müller, 9 and 10 August 1881 and n. 2. Müller had sent …
  • … had already sown some seeds by mid September 1881 (DAR 67: 93). It is unclear whether CD …
  • … from Fritz Müller, 6, 7, and 9 September 1881 , which is the most recent extant letter but …
  • … Agraria in Trieste 17. Wiesner, Julius.  1881. Das Bewegungsvermögen der Pflanzen. Eine …
  • … 1846 , p. 388 (see letter from J. D. Hooker, 27 October 1881 and n. 3). See letter …
  • … to J. D. Hooker, 22 October 1881 , and letter from J. …
  • … D. Hooker, 27 October 1881 . Francis had sent home a salmon he …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, [21 October 1881] ). There is a copy of Ruggero Felice Solla ’ …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1881. Griffith, William. 1846. On the structure of …
  • … sent the letter from J. D. Hooker, [23 October 1881] , in which Hooker mentions reading …
  • … 2). See letter from R. F. Cooke, 25 October 1881 . The Darwins and Francis’s son Bernard …
  • … his wife, Ida , in Cambridge from 20 to 27 October 1881 (CD’s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). …
  • … letter from Wilhelm Pfeffer, 24 October 1881 . Camilla Pattrick , a former governess with …
  • … Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [9 October 1881] (DAR 219.9: 275)). Sydney Howard Vines was a …
  • … s critique of Movement in plants ( Wiesner 1881 ). John William Strutt , third Baron …
  • … an artefact of the errors in CD’s methodology (see, for example, Wiesner 1881 , pp. 158– …
  • … 62). See Wiesner 1881 , pp. 57–9. CD had begun experimenting on the action of carbonate of …
  • … dated from 28 July to 14 November 1881, are in DAR 62: 2–5, 36–41. One observation that CD …
  • … in his letter to J. D. Hooker, 22 October 1881 , was that alternate rows of cells in the …
  • … of ammonia on roots’ , p. 245). See letter to Julius Wiesner, 25 October 1881 . See …
  • … letter from George King, 13 September 1881 and n. 1. Dischidia rafflesiana (a synonym of …

From W. E. Darwin   30 January [1881]

Summary

Discusses his election to the Geological Society, worm researches, GHD’s travels, investments,G J Romanes on Samuel Butler, the snow, politics.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 Jan [1881]
Classmark:  Cornford Family Papers (DAR 275: 87)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13033F

Matches: 17 hits

  • … From W. E. Darwin   30 January [1881] …
  • … DAR 275: 87) William Erasmus Darwin Southampton 30 Jan [1881] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … during the third week of January, see, for example, The Times , 17 January 1881, p. …
  • … 12, and 24 January 1881, p. 10. …
  • … committee in Southampton ( Southampton Herald , 22 January 1881, p. 4). Elizabeth Darwin . …
  • … campaign and the Irish American impetus for dynamite terror, 1881–1885. Inquiries 3: 1. …
  • … letter to W. E. Darwin, 25 January 1881 . CD had collected signatures for a certificate …
  • … of the Geological Society of London (see letter to W. E. Darwin, 25 January 1881 ). …
  • … William was elected on 9 March 1881 ( Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 37 ( …
  • … 1880–1): 236). See letter to W. E. Darwin, 25 January 1881 and n. 2. See letter …
  • … to W. E. Darwin, 25 January 1881 and n. 3. George Howard Darwin . …
  • … See letter to W. E. Darwin, 25 January 1881 and n. 4. William had suggested buying shares …
  • … Dock Company (see letter from W. E. Darwin, 1 January [1881] , and letter to W. …
  • … were published in The Times , 29 January 1881, p. 9. Henrietta Emma and Richard Buckley …
  • … E. Darwin, 3 January [1881] ). George John Romanes ’s review of Samuel …
  • … was published in Nature , 27 January 1881, pp. 285–7; Ernst Krause ’s reply to Butler was …
  • … letter to W. E. Darwin, 25 January 1881 ). Sara Darwin . John Bright was a member of the …

From Francis Darwin   [after 14 November 1881]

Summary

Thanks for two letters from Pfeffer. Will return translation of Pfeffer and send a letter from Elfring. Looking forward to working on "antiWiesner" experiments. Will return on 26th or 27th.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 14 Nov 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 68
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13485F

Matches: 17 hits

  • … From Francis Darwin   [after 14 November 1881] …
  • … DAR 274.1: 68 Francis Darwin [after 14 Nov 1881] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … family in early October (see letter to Francis Darwin, 17 October 1881 and nn. 1 and 14). …
  • … Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 18 (1881): 420–55. Darwin, Francis. 1881b. …
  • … bei einem einzelligen Organe. Botanische Zeitung , 29 July 1881, pp. 473–80. …
  • … Wiesner, Julius.  1881. Das Bewegungsvermögen der Pflanzen. Eine kritische Studie über das …
  • … between this letter and the letter to Francis Darwin, 14 November [1881] . CD had …
  • … sent the letters from Wilhelm Pfeffer , 24 October 1881 and …
  • … 6 November 1881 . Pfeffer had criticised …
  • … Julius Wiesner ’s recent work on plant movement ( Wiesner 1881 ; see letter from …
  • … Wilhelm Pfeffer, 6 November 1881 and nn. 3 and 4). Francis had met Fredrik …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, 19 [May 1881] and n. 3). Ein Esel : a donkey or, figuratively, …
  • … letter from Wilhelm Pfeffer, 6 November 1881 , translated by Camilla Pattrick (see letter …
  • … to Camilla Pattrick, [after 6 November 1881] ). The letter from Elfving to Francis has not …
  • … see letter to Francis Darwin, 28 [October 1881] ). Botanischer Jahresbericht was a review …
  • … of F. Darwin 1880a and F. Darwin 1881b appeared in the 1881 volume of the journal ( …
  • … see Botanischer Jahresbericht 9 (1881): 14–15, 24– 5). Williams & Norgate was a London …

To Fritz Müller   10 September 1881

Summary

Has sent FM’s account of Pandanus and Oxalis to Nature ["Leaves injured at night by free radiation", Nature 24 (1881): 459].

Is crossing heterostyled plants.

Hopes to get his notes on bloom together.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Date:  10 Sept 1881
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan MS 10 no : 54)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13326

Matches: 18 hits

  • … To Fritz Müller   10 September 1881
  • … no : 54) Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Sept 1881 Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller …
  • … at night by free radiation", Nature 24 (1881): 459]. Is crossing heterostyled plants. …
  • … aggregation, dated between August and December 1881, are in DAR 52: F13–98, and DAR 62: 3– …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) Sept.  10 th 1881 My dear Sir Your account of the Pandanus & …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 9 August 1881 and n. 6; part …
  • … of the letter was published in Nature , 15 September 1881, p. 459 ( …
  • … see letter to Nature , [before 15 September 1881] ). See …
  • … letter from Fritz Müller, 9 August 1881 and n. 3. Müller had sent seeds of an unnamed …
  • … See letter from Fritz Müller, 9 August 1881 and nn. 8 and 9. Müller had sent …
  • … on movement in the leaflets, dated 12 and 13 September 1881, are in DAR 209.12: 174. CD …
  • … Heteranthera reniformis (kidneyleaf mudplantain) from Müller in April 1881 ( see letter to …
  • … Fritz Müller, 12 April 1881 ). …
  • … The summer of 1881 was cold and wet, interfering with CD’s experiments; his notes …
  • … fertilised between 18 July and 1 August 1881, with additional notes made on 20 and 31 …
  • … waxy coating on leaves and other plant parts), dated from 1873 to 1881, are in DAR 66– …
  • … 8; notes made in 1881 are in DAR 67: 66–110. …
  • … Most of CD’s experiments in 1881 focused on the protective function of bloom and leaf …

To W. E. Darwin   8 February [1881]

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Summary

Thanks WED for sending leaves and making observations on how earthworms drag them into their burrows.

Doubts justice of fierce review against J. Geikie’s book [Prehistoric Europe (1881)] in Nature [by W. B. Dawkins, 23 (1881): 309–10], but if reindeer and hippopotamus have really been found in close contact in same bed – "it tells horribly against interglacial periods".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  8 Feb [1881]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 176
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13042

Matches: 11 hits

  • … To W.  E.  Darwin   8 February [1881] …
  • … DAR 210.6: 176 Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 Feb [1881] William Erasmus Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Geikie, James. 1881. Prehistoric Europe: a geological sketch. London: Edward …
  • … Geikie ’s Prehistoric Europe: a geological sketch ( J. Geikie 1881 ) was published in …
  • … Nature , 3 February 1881, pp. 309–10. …
  • … A reply from Geikie appeared in Nature , 10 February 1881, p. 336. …
  • … of fierce review against J. Geikie’s book [ Prehistoric Europe (1881)] in Nature [by W. …
  • … B. Dawkins, 23 (1881): 309–10], but if reindeer and hippopotamus have really been found in …
  • … this letter and the letter from W.  E.  Darwin, 6 February 1881 . See letter from W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, 6 February 1881 and n. 1. Francis Darwin may have been deciding …
  • … letter to the Darwin children, 3 January 1881 ). Sara Darwin , William’s wife. A scathing …

From Francis Darwin   17 June 1881

Summary

Glad CD approves of diaheliotropic paper. Reports on experiments with Carex and Yucca. Discusses translation of ‘Växtbook’ from Swedish. Heard some excellent music the previous night.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 June 1881
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 73
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13208F

Matches: 19 hits

  • … From Francis Darwin   17 June 1881
  • … DAR 274.1: 73 Francis Darwin Strassburg 17 June 1881 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … not been found. Robert Stawell Ball ; see letter to G. H. Darwin, 8 June [1881] and n. 2. …
  • … The history of salt ( Boddy 1881 ) was anonymously reviewed …
  • … in Nature , 9 June 1881, pp. 123–4. The reviewer supposed that the book was written as ‘an …
  • … Bibliography Boddy, Evan Marlett. 1881. The history of salt; with observations on its …
  • … schen Buchhandlung. Hensen, Victor. 1881. Physiologie der Zeugung . Part II: Physiologie …
  • … Ludimar Hermann. Leipzig: Vogel. Hult, Ragnar. 1881. Försök till analytisk behandling af …
  • … has not been found; CD’s letter of [16 June 1881] must have crossed in the mail with this …
  • … Read 16 December 1880. ] Journal of the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 18 (1881): 420–55. …
  • … Engler, Adolf. 1881. [Review of Die Physiologie der …
  • … Zeugung . ] Botanische Zeitung , 17 June 1881, pp. 387–8. Hahn, Otto. 1880. Die …
  • … 17, 24–6). See letter to Francis Darwin, [16 June 1881] and n. 6; the work was ‘Försök bis …
  • … approach to plant formations; Hult 1881 ). The German ‘Gewächs’ and Swedish ‘växt’ are …
  • … s recent work, Physiologie der Zeugung (Physiology of reproduction; Hensen 1881 ). See …
  • … letter to Francis Darwin, 27 May 1881 . It was Adolf …
  • … Engler , rather than Eduard Strasburger , who reviewed Hensen 1881 in Botanische …
  • … Zeitung , 17 June 1881 ( …
  • … Engler 1881 ). Otto Hahn had sent CD a copy of his work Die Meteorite (Chondrite) und ihre …

To W. F. Stanley   21 December 1881

Summary

Comments on WFRS’s book [Properties and motions of fluids (1881)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Ford Robinson (William) (Ford) Stanley
Date:  21 Dec 1881
Classmark:  DAR 147: 490
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13573

Matches: 10 hits

  • … To W.  F.  Stanley   21 December 1881
  • … DAR 147: 490 Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 Dec 1881 William Ford Robinson (William) (Ford) …
  • … Comments on WFRS’s book [ Properties and motions of fluids (1881)]. …
  • … science that he remembered buying ( letter from W. F. Stanley, 15 December 1881 ). …
  • … Murray. 1859. Stanley, William Ford. 1881. Experimental researches into the properties and …
  • … Down. | Beckenham Kent & c . Dec.  21. 1881. Dear Sir. Absence from home has prevented me …
  • … See letter from W. F. Stanley, 15 December 1881 . Stanley sent his book, …
  • … Experimental researches into the properties and motions of fluids ( Stanley 1881 ). …
  • … Stanley suggested that CD read Stanley 1881 , pp. 106–7 and 311–17 ( letter from W. …
  • … F. Stanley, 15 December 1881 ). He speculated that some of the mechanical principles …

To Francis Darwin   16 and 17 May 1881

Summary

Some papers have arrived for FD.

Comments on the work of Phillipe van Tieghem who evidently knows nothing of insectivorous plants.

Leslie Stephen’s visit to Down went off well.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  16 and 17 May 1881
Classmark:  DAR 211: 73
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13159

Matches: 23 hits

  • … To Francis Darwin   16 and 17 May 1881
  • … DAR 211: 73 Charles Robert Darwin Down 16 and 17 May 1881 Francis Darwin …
  • … Orpington. S.E.R. ) May 16 th Evening 1881. My dear Frank. Thanks for card about M.S.  I …
  • … Society, 12 May 1880. ] Scientific American Supplement no. 275 (9 April 1881). Candolle, …
  • … Casimir de. 1881. Considérations sur l’étude de la phyllotaxie. Archives des sciences …
  • … see the letter from Francis Darwin, 14 May 1881 and n. 1. CD was waiting for more proof- …
  • … See postcard to Francis Darwin, 12 May [1881] and n. 1. The paper was ‘The theory of the …
  • … von Voigts-Rhetz, [ after 18 April 1881] . CD subscribed to Botanische Zeitung , a bi- …
  • … See letter from Francis Darwin, 14 May 1881 and n. 7; Francis had mentioned that Julius …
  • … See letter from Francis Darwin, 14 May 1881 and n. 10. Caroline Wedgwood was CD’s sister. …
  • … Emma Darwin visited Ellen Harriet Tollet on 17 May 1881 ( Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). …
  • … the Linnean Society ( Botany ) 18 (1881): 406–19. Darwin, Francis. 1881a. Kletterpflanzen. …
  • … By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1881. OED : The Oxford English dictionary. Being a …
  • … 1880 (see letter from Ernst Krause, 15 May 1881 and n. 5). A copy of Casimir de Candolle ’ …
  • … the study of phyllotaxy; C. de Candolle 1881 ) is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. …
  • … appeared in Scientific American Supplement , 9 April 1881. Obtund: blunt, deaden ( OED ). …
  • … Leslie Stephen visited Down from 14 to 17 May 1881; Emily Elizabeth Loch visited …
  • … from 14 to 18 May 1881; no visit by George Howard Darwin and Leonard Darwin is recorded ( …
  • … s nurse until her marriage in April 1881 to Arthur Parslow . The incident regarding a ship …
  • … of May ( letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [3 May 1881] ; DAR 219.9: 263). John …
  • … died at Hayes Common, Kent, on 16 June 1881 ( ODNB ); George had visited him in Davos, …
  • … See letter from Francis Darwin, 14 May 1881 and n. 9. Ernst Stahl had replaced Eduard …
  • … of botany at Jena. See letter from Frithiof Holmgren, 8 May 1881 , and letter from W. …

To Francis Darwin   [16 June 1881]

Summary

Describes seeds sent by George Payne [see 13205]. Is surprised that they bury themselves.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [16 June 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 98v
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13206

Matches: 16 hits

  • … To Francis Darwin   [16 June 1881] …
  • … DAR 211: 98v Charles Robert Darwin Patterdale [16 June 1881] Francis Darwin …
  • … 1872 ). See letter to Francis Darwin, 27 May 1881 and n. 4. CD had mistakenly thought that …
  • … approach to plant formations; Hult 1881 ) was about bloom. George, who understood Swedish, …
  • … of continents and mountains. [Read 16 June 1881. ] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal …
  • … of London 173 (1882): 187–230. Hult, Ragnar. 1881. Försök till analytisk behandling af …
  • … and the letter from George Payne, 14 June 1881 , and by the date of George Howard Darwin ’ …
  • … See letter from George Payne, 14 June 1881 and n. 1. Payne had sent seeds of Anemone …
  • … Patterdale in the Lake District on 15 June 1881. George’s paper, ‘On the stresses caused …
  • … pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 8: 1–155. Wortmann, Julius. 1881. Ein Beitrag zur Biologie der …
  • … Mucorineen. Botanische Zeitung , 10 June 1881, pp. …
  • … 368–74, 17 June 1881, pp. 383–7. …
  • … was received at the Royal Society of London on 11 June 1881 ( G. H. Darwin 1881b ). …
  • … contribution on the biology of Mucorales; Wortmann 1881 ), appeared in parts in Botanische …
  • … Zeitung , 10 and 17 June 1881. CD had evidently read the first part, in which Wortmann …
  • … sporophores away from moisture. In Wortmann 1881 , pp. 373–4, Wortmann had cited Theophil …
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Beagle voyage networks in Commentary
4 Items

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … one called Beagle , in Plymouth harbour, until 1881 . He died in 1885, aged 76. His sister …
  • … 1861 (RG 9/1428/56/38), 1871 (RG10/2106/42/4), 1881 (RG11/2185/145/41) L. S. Dawson. 1885. …

Richard Henry Corfield

Summary

Richard Henry Corfield was in his final year at Shrewsbury School when Darwin started there. It’s hard to say how well they knew each other, but fifteen years later Corfield appeared again in Darwin’s life as a surprisingly familiar face on the other side…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his daughter, Elinor, and her husband Edward K. Ellison (1881 England Census). References …

George Robert Waterhouse

Summary

George Waterhouse was born on 6 March 1810 in Somers Town, North London. His father was a solicitor’s clerk and an amateur lepidopterist. George was educated from 1821-24 at Koekelberg near Brussels. On his return he worked for a time as an apprentice to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Natural History Museum in South Kensington, which opened in 1881. Waterhouse had six children …

Thomas Burgess

Summary

As well as its complement of sailors, the Beagle also carried a Royal Marine sergeant and seven marines, one of whom was Thomas Burgess. When the Beagle set sail he was twenty one, having been born in October 1810 to Israel and Hannah Burgess of Lancashire…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … apprentice, and Ann, a silk winder (TNA RG10/3671/34/16). By 1881 the household consisted of Burgess …