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To J. D. Hooker   11 [December 1854]

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Summary

Debates aberrant species, e.g., Ornithorhynchus and Echidna, with JDH. CD argues they are result of extinction having removed intermediate links to allied forms.

Studying effects of disuse in wings of tame and wild ducks.

Tabulations showing that number of species in a genus is not correlated with number of genera in an order.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 [Dec 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 148
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1612

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   11 [December 1854] …
  • … Thomson 1855 (see letter from J.  D Hooker, 5 December [1854] , n.  4). CD made this point …
  • … The Monday following the letter from J.  D. Hooker, 5 December [1854] . J.  D. Hooker …
  • … Hooker, 5 December [1854] , Hooker proposed giving CD a copy of J.  D. Hooker and Thomson …
  • … a point made in letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1854] . The genus Erythroxylon , …
  • … by CD. See letters from J.  D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] and 5 December [1854] . See CD’s …
  • … Gazette , see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 4 December [1854] , n.  5. CD later described his …
  • … s list, see letter from J.  D. Hooker, [after 11 December 1854] . Athenæum , no. 1415, 9  …

From J. D. Hooker   5 December [1854]

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Bentham’s list of aberrant genera: CD’s worry that he eliminated large genera a priori is half right. He eliminated those large, anomalous genera that virtually constitute natural orders. JDH criticises CD’s tabulations of aberrants.

Difficulty of distinguishing affinity and analogy in plants.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Dec [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 388–90
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1611

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   5 December [1854] …
  • … from J.  D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] , enclosing Bentham’s list, and letter to J.  D. …
  • Hooker, 15 November [1854] . See letter from J.  D. …
  • Hooker, [15 November 1854] . J.  D. Hooker and Thomson 1855, introductory essay, pp.  109, …
  • … pp.  43–7. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 11 [December 1854] . The memorandum is preserved …
  • 1854] . It is not clear whether Hooker is making a literal reference to the vegetable kingdom or to CD’s work on John Lindley’s Vegetable kingdom ( Lindley 1846 ), as mentioned in letter to J.  D. …

From J. D. Hooker   [6 November 1854]

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Summary

Fossil leaves from Disko Island.

JDH to begin working out the botanical geography of the polar sea.

Has not forgotten CD’s request on aberrant species.

Has taken a house on Richmond Hill.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [6 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 385
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1600

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [6 November 1854] …
  • … for whom CD was seeking a place at Kew (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 15 November [1854] ). …
  • … following the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 November [1854] . Disko Island, off the west …
  • … 1862. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [3 November 1854] , n.  7. George Bentham . When …
  • Hooker, [3 November 1854] , n.  4. J.  D. Hooker 1857 and …
  • Hooker exhibited the leaves at the meeting of the Philosophical Club on 23 November 1854 ( Bonney 1919 , p.  126). The Arctic fossils had been collected on Frederick William Beechey’s expedition to Disko Island and were of interest as evidence of a much warmer climate in the Tertiary period. See letter from J.  D. …
  • Hooker moved to 3 Montague Villas, Richmond Hill, in December 1854 (L.  Huxley ed. 1918, 1: 352). According to Emma Darwin’s diary and CD’s Health diary (Down House MS), CD and Emma were in London from 2 to 4 November. They had to return home by 6 November in order to receive visitors at Down House (see letter to J.  D. …

From J. D. Hooker   [29 June 1854]

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JDH on "highness" of Coniferae: they are genuine Dicotyledons, not a link to cryptogams; that is a geologists’ fallacy. Thus they are highest plants in Carboniferous.

Does not agree with CD’s "elastic" species theory. Long correspondence with Lyell on this.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [29 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 383
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1576

Matches: 5 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [29 June 1854] …
  • … letter to J.  D. Hooker, 7 July [1854] ). …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [24 June 1854] . See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] . …
  • … The Thursday after letter to J.  D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] . The use of chloroform as a …
  • … 95–117). See also letter to S.  P. Woodward, 6 May 1854 , n.  4. J.  D. Hooker 1855 (see …

To J. D. Hooker   4 December [1854]

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Is Bentham’s list of aberrant genera biased by exclusion of genera with many species?

JDH’s belief that Aquilegia varieties are one species is consistent with their great interfertility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  4 Dec [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 159
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1610

Matches: 3 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   4 December [1854] …
  • … genera’ (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] ). See CD’s memorandum attached …
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] , n.  4. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, 5  …

To Arthur Henfrey   17 March [1855]

Summary

Can AH give information about D. A. Godron, "De l’espèce et des races" [Mem. Soc. Sci. Lett. & Arts Nancy (1847): 182, 239–88]? CD unable to locate reference.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Arthur Henfrey
Date:  17 Mar [1855]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1648

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Henfrey ed. 1853). See letter from J.  D. Hooker, 25 August 1854 , and letter to J.  D. …
  • 1854] , in which Braun 1853b was discussed. Godron 1848–9 . See letter to J.  D. Hooker, [ …

From J. D. Hooker   13 October 1848

Summary

Hugh Falconer’s misbehaviour.

Waiting out rains at Brian Hodgson’s.

Will make botanical transverse section of Himalayas from plains to snow.

Arrangements to pass Sikkim Rajah’s territory.

No evidence of glacial or diluvial action in sub-Himalayan mountains. No evidence of detrital coal formation.

Hodgson’s replies to CD on introduced species and hybrids.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 Oct 1848
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (India letters 1847–51: 112–14 JDH/1/10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1203

Matches: 7 hits

  • … The expedition is described in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 177–270. While Hooker was travelling …
  • … Darjeeling through his territory (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 198). Major C.  Thoresby ( East- …
  • … of Sikkim, Nepal, and Bhutan (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 115–18). The British did eventually …
  • … analyses of the soils of Sikkim to J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 383–4. He also assisted …
  • … Hooker’s absence from Darjeeling (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 402–4). Hooker discussed the …
  • … snow (‘P.S. ’ in the letter text) in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 394–400. The Gangetic valley …
  • … the foothills of the Himalayas (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 101–2). Hugon 1837 , one of several …

To J. D. Hooker   1 August [1857]

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Important issue at stake with new flora calculations: evidence that species are only strongly marked varieties. Planning large-scale survey.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Aug [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 206, 207
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2130

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  5, letter to J.  D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] , and letter from J.  D. …
  • … J.  D. Hooker 1853–5  and J.  D. Hooker and Thomson 1857–8. Wollaston 1854 . Koch 1843–4 . …
  • Hooker, [29 June 1854] . The proper dosage of chloroform had recently been the subject of discussion in various medical journals following an increase in the number of deaths resulting from its use. See letters to J.  S. Henslow, 10 August [1857] , and to John Lubbock , 11 August [1857] and 12 [August 1857]. Fürnrohr 1839  and Boreau 1840 . See letter to J.  D. …

To J. D. Hooker   1 March [1854]

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Thanks JDH for dedication of Himalayan journals. CD praises the work and suggests stylistic revisions.

Lyell’s remarks on lava beds in letter from Madeira are not original – they refer exclusively to Élie de Beaumont’s data.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 Mar [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 118
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1556

Matches: 3 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   1 March [1854] …
  • … pp.  237–9. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [26 February 1854] . Roderick Impey Murchison …
  • … 1: 65–70. See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [26 February 1854] . A favourable review of J.   …

From J. D. Hooker   26 November 1850

Summary

Falconer’s misbehaviour.

Geology of Khashia [Khasi] mountains. Speculations on mountain building and origin of Himalayas.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 Nov 1850
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (India letters 1847–51: 314–15 JDH/1/10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1371

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Hooker’s suggestions made on CD. See J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 302–3, in which he discussed …
  • … found sparingly. ’ (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 347). In J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 336 n. , Hooker …
  • … s description of these mountains, see J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 265–325. Samuel Turner , who …
  • … of 2500 species in that area alone (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 323). Described in McClelland …

From J. D. Hooker   6 and 7 April 1850

Summary

Spoke too harshly about CD’s involvement in nomenclatural reform.

JDH used to think CD "too prone to theoretical considerations about species", hence was pleased CD took up a difficult group like barnacles. CD’s theories have progressed but JDH not converted. Sikkim has not cleared up his doubts about CD’s doctrines.

Argument with Falconer.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 and 7 Apr 1850
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (India Letters 1847–51: 274–6 JDH/1/10)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1319

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his first expedition to Nepal in 1848 (J.  D. Hooker 1854, 1: 178). He visited England in …
  • … physical geography of Sikkim are in J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 386–401. Thomas Thomson joined …
  • … drain and embank the land (see J.  D. Hooker 1854, 2: 244–7). For Falconer’s involvement …

From J. D. Hooker   [after 11 December 1854]

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List of most anomalous Leguminosae [from George Bentham].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 11 Dec 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 391
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1546

Matches: 2 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [after 11 December 1854] …
  • … to CD’s request ( letter to J.  D. Hooker, 11 [December 1854] ). The numbers in the column …

To J. D. Hooker   2 December [1854]

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JDH’s "grand speech" on receiving the Royal Medal.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  2 Dec [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 158
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1609

Matches: 3 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   2 December [1854] …
  • … 30 November (see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 5 November [1854] ). CD attended the meeting but …
  • J.  D. Hooker’s achievements made no mention of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, with which Hooker and his father were so closely associated ( Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 7 (1854– …

From J. D. Hooker   [3 November 1854]

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JDH’s contempt for R. I. Murchison.

There is a Cyperus species and a Pteris species endemic to hot volcanoes of Ischia. Why are there no other migrators?

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [3 Nov 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 214–15
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1629

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [3 November 1854] …
  • … same topic (see letter from J.  D. Hooker, [15 November 1854] ). A note in DAR 114.4: 222a …
  • … G.  R. Waterhouse, 11 November 1854 , n.  2. J.  D. Hooker 1854b. Hooker had been elected …
  • J.  D. Hooker, 14 November 1844 , n.  2). CD had been elected a fellow on 7 March 1854 and …
  • J.  D. Hooker, [8 July 1855] (see L.  Huxley ed. 1918, 1: 446–7). Franz Unger , botanist and palaeobotanist. Murchison 1854 . …
  • J.   D. Hooker 1862. Louis Claude Desaulses de Freycinet. Charles Beaupré-Gaudichaud, botanist on the voyage commanded by Freycinet. Hooker’s reference is to Gaudichaud 1826 , pp.  64–83. During Hooker’s visit to Down at the end of October 1854 ( …
  • 1854 . David Lyall had been assistant surgeon in H.M.S. Terror when Hooker was assistant surgeon in H.M.S. Erebus during the Antarctic expedition led by James Clark Ross (L.  Huxley ed. 1918, 1: 77, n.  2). In 1852 he accompanied Sir Edward Belcher in H.M.S. Assistance in search of the lost Franklin expedition. Hooker published a description of the Arctic plants collected by Lyall and others in J.  D. …

To J. D. Hooker   26 March [1854]

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CD welcomes the prospect of the Philosophical Club of the Royal Society as means for seeing old acquaintances and making new ones. Will try to go up to London regularly.

Admits that the warning from JDH and Asa Gray (that more harm than good will come from combat over the species issue) makes him feel "deuced uncomfortable".

Reflects upon the complexity of Agassiz; how singular that a man of his eminence and immense knowledge "should write such wonderful stuff & bosh".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  26 Mar [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 120
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1562

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   26 March [1854] …
  • 1854 (Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), commented on Hooker’s introductory essay to Flora Novæ-Zelandiæ ( J.  D. …
  • … generally, see letters from J.  D. Hooker, [29 June 1854] and 25 August 1854 . The …
  • 1854 and remained a member until his resignation in 1864 ( Bonney 1919 , pp.  39, 57). See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [ …
  • 1854], n.  3. Henry Holland , physician in ordinary to Queen Victoria, was a distant cousin of CD and occasionally his physician. For CD’s low opinion of Holland’s scientific qualifications, see Correspondence vol.  4, letter to J.  D. Hooker, [ …

From J. D. Hooker   25 August 1854

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JDH and F. W. Binney identify Calamites specimens as pith casts. They are cryptogams related to, but higher than, Lycopodiaceae and contradict progression.

Insects found in coal.

Lyell says Stonesfield slate marsupials are actually placentals.

JDH reading Alexander Braun on individuality ["Das Individuum der Pflanze in seinem Verhältniss zur Species", Abh. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (Phys. Kl.) (1853): 19–122].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Aug 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 384
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1581

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   25 August 1854
  • … letter from J.  D. Hooker, [29 June 1854] , and letter to J.  D. Hooker, 7 July [1854] , …
  • 1854] ). Possibly a reference to Hooker’s application to the East India Company for funds to reimburse the expenses of compiling J.  D. …
  • J.  D. Hooker, [1 May 1847] . Binney and Hooker were preparing a paper on the fossil plants in limestone nodules found in the Lancashire coalfield (Binney and Hooker 1855). It was read on 14 December 1854  …

To J. D. Hooker   15 November [1854]

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Calculating small number of species in aberrant genera of insects and plants.

Joachim Barrande’s "Colonies", Élie de Beaumont’s "lines of Elevation", Forbes’s "Polarity" make CD despair, as these theories lead to conclusions opposite to CD’s from the same classes of facts.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  15 Nov [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 156
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1601

Matches: 4 hits

  • … To J.  D. Hooker   15 November [1854] …
  • … See letter from J.  D. Hooker, [6 November 1854] , n.  10. …
  • … a geometrical pattern. Edward Forbes . See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 7 July [1854] , n.  9. …
  • 1854 , n.  1. Waterhouse 1845 , p.  19 n. There is an annotated copy in the Darwin Library–CUL. See Correspondence vol.  3, letter to J.  D. Hooker, …

From J. D. Hooker   [24 June 1854]

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Birth of JDH’s second child.

Asks CD’s view of "highness" and "lowness" in animals. Gives his own for plants; extent of deviation from type, e.g., floral parts deviating from leaf.

Reading B. C. Brodie’s Psychological inquiries [1854].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 202–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1572

Matches: 2 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [24 June 1854] …
  • … on this subject, see letter to J.  D. Hooker, 27 [June 1854] . CD had been in London 21 to …

From J. D. Hooker   [c. 25 March 1854]

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JDH summarises letter from Humboldt.

JDH answers CD’s questions on glacial action in Himalayas.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 25 Mar 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 382
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1559

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From J.  D. Hooker   [ c . 25 March 1854] …
  • … Journal of researches 2d ed. , p.  322. See letter to J.  D. Hooker, 10 March [1854] . …
  • … s reference in the letter to J.  D. Hooker, 26 March [1854] , to having received Hooker’s …
  • 1854. The two surviving pages of the letter are numbered ‘III’ and ‘IV’. East India Company. A reference to Alexander von Humboldt (see n.  4, below). For Hooker’s personal acquaintance with Humboldt, see Correspondence vol.  3, letter from J.  D. …

From J. D. Hooker   30 July [1867]

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Plans to come to Down on Saturday.

Returned Adam Bede two years ago.

Wishes CD would return Tylor’s Early history of mankind

and his own Himalayan journal with his notes, "both of which I have lent, i.e., lost".

Lyell well and full of "Insular" difficulties which he will propound.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  30 July [1867]
Classmark:  DAR 102: 172–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5588

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Hooker refers to Tylor 1865  and J.  D.  Hooker 1854. CD and Hooker read and discussed …
  • … Variation 2: 122 n.  22. CD cited J.  D.  Hooker 1854 in Variation 1: 259 n.  67, 307 n.   …
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