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From W. E. Darwin   1 January [1881]

Summary

Discusses possible investments.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Jan [1881]
Classmark:  Cornford Family Papers (DAR 275: 75)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12392G

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From W. E. Darwin   1 January [1881] …
  • … Papers (DAR 275: 75) William Erasmus Darwin Southampton 1 Jan [1881] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … bonds in 1852; these were sold in January 1881 for £2044 5 s . 5 d . (CD’s Investment …
  • … Mortgage Bonds’ for £1980 in January 1881 (CD’s Account books–banking account (Down House …
  • … 2 per cent; he purchased more in December 1881 (CD’s Investment book (Down House MS), pp. …
  • … Company ( Roussel 2009 , pp. 12, 17). The notes are for CD’s reply of 3 January [1881] . …

To V. O. Kovalevsky   1 and 6 January 1881

Summary

Thanks VOK for the Russian tea.

Rejoices at his prosperity and appointment at Moscow [Associate Professor, Moscow University, 1880–3].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский)
Date:  1 and 6 Jan 1881
Classmark:  Institut Mittag-Leffler (Sophie Kowalevski collections, box 3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12963

Matches: 4 hits

  • … To V.  O.  Kovalevsky   1 and 6 January 1881
  • … Leffler (Sophie Kowalevski collections, box 3) Charles Robert Darwin Down 1 Jan 1881 6 …
  • … Jan 1881 Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский) …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) Jan 1 st 1881. My dear Sir I am very much obliged to you for …

From A. R. Wallace   1 January 1881

Summary

ARW’s view of migration of plants from mountain to mountain gains support from case described in Nature [23 (1880): 125–6] by J. G. Baker. Identical species of alpine plants found in African mountains and Madagascar.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 271.6: a6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12964

Matches: 3 hits

  • … From A.  R.  Wallace   1 January 1881
  • … DAR 271.6: a6 Alfred Russel Wallace Croydon 1 Jan 1881 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … St. Peter’s R d . ; Croydon. Jan y . 1st.  1881 My dear Darwin I have been intending to …

From T. H. Farrer   2 January [1881]

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Summary

Concerning subscriptions raised for Torbitt’s experiments on potato disease.

Comments on CD’s latest book [Movement in plants].

Author:  Thomas Henry Farrer, 1st baronet and 1st Baron Farrer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Jan [1881]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12395

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From T.  H.  Farrer   2 January [1881] …
  • … and 1st Baron Farrer London, Bryanston Square, 11 2 Jan [1881] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … and the letter from James Caird, 3 January 1881 . Farrer evidently wrote ‘1880’ in error. …
  • … Correspondence vol. 28, Appendix IV). In 1881, the president of the Board of Trade, Joseph …

From Ernst Krause   2 January 1881

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Summary

Encloses reply to Butler [Kosmos 8 (1881): 321–2]. Has also written a reply intended for English reader. Will have it translated for Popular Science Review if CD thinks suitable.

Report of Jäger accident was an error.

Kosmos has been purchased by Eduard Koch in Stuttgart and will continue as in the past.

Author:  Ernst Ludwig (Ernst) Krause
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 92: B61; DAR 221.2: 27
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12969

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From Ernst Krause    2 January 1881
  • … 92: B61; DAR 221.2: 27 Ernst Ludwig (Ernst) Krause Berlin 2 Jan 1881 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Encloses reply to Butler [ Kosmos 8 (1881): 321–2]. Has also written a reply intended for …
  • … sofort als einfaches Versehen erkennen Berlin 2 Januar 1881 (signed) Ernst Krause …
  • … horrible “falsification” as a simple oversight Berlin 2 January 1881 (signed) Ernst Krause …
  • … was published in Nature , 27 January 1881, p. 288. Krause had informed CD that Gustav …

To A. R. Wallace   2 January 1881

Summary

On land migration of plants. The case in Nature is striking but CD doubts that seeds of plants could be blown from mountains of Abyssinia to mountains of Madagascar.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  2 Jan 1881
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 46434)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12968

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To A.  R.  Wallace   2 January 1881
  • … British Library (Add MS 46434) Charles Robert Darwin Down 2 Jan 1881 Alfred Russel Wallace …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) Jan 2 d 1881 My dear Wallace. The case which you give is a …
  • … Africa (see letter from A.  R.  Wallace, 1 January 1881 ). See letter from A.   …
  • … R.  Wallace, 1 January 1881 and n. 1. James Croll had theorised that glacial periods …

To H. W. Bates   3 January 1881

Summary

Alarm over Wallace’s memorial; asks HWB if he has received it and forwarded it to Hooker. Wanted to get it to Gladstone before Parliament met.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  3 Jan 1881
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Robert M. Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12970

Matches: 5 hits

  • … To H.  W.  Bates   3 January 1881
  • … Robert M. Stecher collection) Charles Robert Darwin Down 3 Jan 1881 Henry Walter Bates …
  • … Parliament was to convene on 6 January 1881 ( Journals of the House of Commons. …
  • … Session 1881 ). …
  • … Station | Orpington. S.E.R. ) Jan.  3 d . 1881 (After our 2 d Post) My dear Bates I am …

From James Caird   3 January 1881

Summary

JC and Farrer are impressed with Torbitt’s papers. Will continue financial support.

Author:  James Caird
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 161: 6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12974

Matches: 2 hits

  • … From James Caird   3 January 1881
  • … DAR 161: 6 James Caird London, St James’s Square, 3 3 Jan 1881 Charles Robert Darwin …

From James Caird to T. H. Farrer   3 January 1881

Summary

JC agrees with THF that CD should keep the money to disburse when proper for [James] Torbitt’s cause.

Author:  James Caird
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Farrer, 1st baronet and 1st Baron Farrer
Date:  3 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 144: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12974F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … From James Caird to T.  H.  Farrer   3 January 1881
  • … James Caird London, St James Square, 3 3 Jan 1881 Thomas Henry Farrer, 1st baronet and 1st …

To the Darwin children   3 January 1881

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Summary

About the distribution of [surplus income] funds among the children.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Elizabeth (Bessy, Lizzy) Darwin; Francis Darwin; George Howard Darwin; Horace Darwin; Leonard Darwin; William Erasmus Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  3 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 169
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12972

Matches: 3 hits

  • … To the Darwin children   3 January 1881
  • … 210.6: 169 Charles Robert Darwin Down 3 Jan 1881 Elizabeth (Bessy, Lizzy) Darwin Francis …
  • … Down. ] Jan.  3 d 1881. Circular I have written to Bank today to pay sums as below to your …

To W. E. Darwin   3 January [1881]

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Summary

Thanks WED for some earthworm observations.

Discusses investments.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  3 Jan [1881]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 170
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12973

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To W. E. Darwin   3 January [1881] …
  • … DAR 210.6: 170 Charles Robert Darwin Down 3 Jan [1881] William Erasmus Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Geikie, James. 1881. Prehistoric Europe: a geological sketch. London: Edward …
  • … E. Darwin, 1 January [1881] . CD purchased 1600 general …
  • … Pennsylvania Railroad Company on 11 January 1881 (CD’s Investment book (Down House MS)); …
  • … see letter from W. E. Darwin, 1 January [1881] and n. 5. Emma Darwin had inherited £1000 …
  • … Europe: a geological sketch ( J. Geikie 1881 ; see Correspondence vol. 28, letter to W. E. …
  • … Sara Darwin the letter from W. E. Darwin, 1 January [1881] . Sara had spent time at Down …
  • … from Emma Darwin to Sara Darwin, [13 January 1881] (DAR 219.1: 140)). See letter from W. …

From T. H. Huxley   3 January 1881

Summary

Returns [Wallace] memorial.

Hopes to be able to send classification paper soon. [See 12935.]

Author:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Jan 1881
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 9: 202)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12971

Matches: 4 hits

  • … From T.  H.  Huxley   3 January 1881
  • … Archives (Huxley 9: 202) Thomas Henry Huxley unstated 3 Jan 1881 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Janry 3. 1881 My dear Darwin I have no doubt your Memorial which I return herewith will …
  • … paper to send you With best wishes for 1881 to you & M rs Darwin & all Ever Yours | T H …

To A. B. Buckley   4 January 1881

Summary

Memorial for Wallace pension dispatched to W. E. Gladstone.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Arabella Burton Buckley
Date:  4 Jan 1881
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 46434); DAR 143: 185
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12977

Matches: 4 hits

  • … To A.  B.  Buckley   4 January 1881
  • … Add MS 46434); DAR 143: 185 Charles Robert Darwin Down 4 Jan 1881 Arabella Burton Buckley …
  • … Down Beckenham Jan.  4 th . 1881 My dear Miss Buckley The Memorial to Gladstone was …
  • … see letter to W.  E.  Gladstone, [4 January 1881] and n. 2). Thomas Henry Huxley . Buckley …

To W. E. Gladstone   [4 January 1881]

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Summary

Covering letter to enclose a memorial [petitioning for a civil list pension for Wallace].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Ewart Gladstone
Date:  [4 Jan 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 202: 58
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12975

Matches: 3 hits

  • … To W.  E.  Gladstone   [4 January 1881] …
  • … DAR 202: 58 Charles Robert Darwin Down [4 Jan 1881] William Ewart Gladstone …
  • … and the letter to A. B. Buckley, 4 January 1881 . CD had circulated a memorial for a civil …

To Ernst Krause   4 January [1881]

Summary

CD is pleased with EK’s account in Kosmos [8 (1880–1): 321–2] of the Buffon and Coleridge passage [cited by Samuel Butler, see 12939, 12969]. Would like a translation published in England, but Butler seeks notoriety and would make unscrupulous use of it. Will ask advice. Thinks EK’s letter to Popular Science Monthly, just received, an excellent reply to Butler.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ernst Ludwig (Ernst) Krause
Date:  4 Jan [1881]
Classmark:  The Huntington Library (HM 36211)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12976

Matches: 9 hits

  • … To Ernst Krause   4 January [1881] …
  • … Library (HM 36211) Charles Robert Darwin Down 4 Jan [1881] Ernst Ludwig (Ernst) Krause …
  • … see letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ). Krause had suggested that his reply to …
  • … of Krause’s reply to Butler was published in Nature , 27 January 1881, p. 288; this …
  • … was a slightly revised version, dated 12 January 1881, of the text he sent …
  • … to CD on 2 January 1881 . …
  • … by the relationship between this letter and the letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 . …
  • … In his letter of 2 January 1881 , Krause had enclosed his review of Butler 1880 in …
  • … also letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 and n. 4). Elizabeth Darwin had translated …

To H. E. Litchfield   4 January 1881

Summary

Seeks R. B. Litchfield’s advice about publishing a translation of a letter and article by E. Krause [answering Samuel Butler’s Unconscious memory].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  4 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 153: 89
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12978

Matches: 7 hits

  • … To H. E. Litchfield   4 January 1881
  • … DAR 153: 89 Charles Robert Darwin Down 4 Jan 1881 Henrietta Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma …
  • … was published in Nature , 27 January 1881, p. 288; Krause’s article in Kosmos ( Krause …
  • … Krause 1881b ); Emma Darwin had translated the letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 . …
  • … In his letter of 2 January 1881 , Krause had enclosed a separate response to accusations …
  • … also letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 and n. 4). While CD was staying in Coniston, …
  • … the letter to W. E. Gladstone, [4 January 1881] . No letter from CD’s publisher has been …

From Gottlieb Haberlandt   5 January 1881

Summary

Thanks CD for a second copy of Movement in plants. His letter acknowledging the first must have gone astray. Marvels at the number of interesting observations and is honoured by CD’s mention of his work.

In recent years GH has been applying CD’s principles to the histologico-anatomical structure of plant organs. He will send CD the papers.

Author:  Gottlieb Haberlandt
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 166: 14
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12980

Matches: 6 hits

  • … From Gottlieb Haberlandt    5 January 1881
  • … DAR 166: 14 Gottlieb Haberlandt Graz 5 Jan 1881 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Gerold’s Sohn. Haberlandt, Gottlieb. 1881. Vergleichende Anatomie des assimilatorischen …
  • … tissue systems of plants; Haberlandt 1881 ) is in the Darwin Library–Down. See …
  • … Graz (Oesterreich) am 5 1 1881 Hochverehrter Herr! Gestern erhielt ich dank Ihrer gütigen …
  • … Graz (Austria) 5 1 1881 Most esteemed Sir! Yesterday I received thanks to your kind …

From R. B. and H. E. Litchfield   5 January [1881]

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Summary

The Litchfields and George Darwin think care should be taken that E. Krause’s reply to S. Butler’s Unconscious memory does not appear to be instigated by CD. Suggest it be sent to Popular Science Review, not Athenæum.

Author:  Richard Buckley Litchfield; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Jan [1881]
Classmark:  DAR 92: B88–90, B106
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12979

Matches: 9 hits

  • … From R.  B. and H.  E.  Litchfield   5 January [1881] …
  • … Henrietta Emma Litchfield London, Bryanston St, 4 5 Jan [1881] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … enclosure to letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 , and the slightly revised version …
  • … published in Nature , 27 January 1881, p. 288). The translation is of part of Krause’s …
  • … and the letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 . CD had asked the Litchfields and …
  • … the letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 , Ernst Krause ’s review of Butler 1880 ( …
  • … to letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 ). Krause had suggested that his reply to …
  • … letter from Ernst Krause, 2 January 1881 ). Butler had used the Athenæum to initiate a …
  • … Butler was published in Nature , 27 January 1881, p. 288. Dallas had translated Krause’s …

To James Torbitt   [5] January 1881

Summary

T. H. Farrer and James Caird express great interest in JT’s report. Have instructed CD to hold £90 for use by JT in spring. Caird asks that potatoes be sent to his gardener for trials.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Torbitt
Date:  [5] Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 148: 127
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12966

Matches: 8 hits

  • … To James Torbitt   [5] January 1881
  • … DAR 148: 127 Charles Robert Darwin Down [5] Jan 1881 James Torbitt …
  • … Down, Jan.  1, 1881. My dear Sir I have now heard from Mr.  Farrer and Caird. They both …
  • … the letter from James Torbitt, 10 March 1881 . The letter was evidently misdated by the …
  • … copyist. See letter from T.  H.  Farrer, 2 January [1881] , and letter from …
  • … James Caird, 3 January 1881 . CD had sent Thomas Henry Farrer a report of Torbitt’s …
  • … to James Torbitt, 6 March [1880] ). See letter from T.  H.  Farrer, 2 January [1881] . See …
  • … letter from James Caird, 3 January 1881 . CD’s head gardener in 1880, William Duguid , was …

From W. E. Darwin   6 January 1881

Summary

Passes on legal advice.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Jan 1881
Classmark:  Cornford Family Papers (DAR 275: 85)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12980F

Matches: 7 hits

  • … From W. E. Darwin   6 January 1881
  • … Papers (DAR 275: 85) William Erasmus Darwin Southampton 6 Jan 1881 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … CD made a new will, dated 27 September 1881, in which he appointed his two eldest sons at …
  • … Dock Company (see letter from W. E. Darwin, 1 January [1881] , and letter to W. …
  • … E. Darwin, 3 January [1881] ); the person in whose name the shares were to be purchased …
  • … letter to the Darwin children, 3 January 1881 . CD’s honorary diplomas are in the Darwin …
  • … found; in CD’s will dated 27 September 1881, he bequeathed his family portraits, family …
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Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers

Summary

In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, …
  • … was another source of pleasure in the early months of 1881. This book had been a major undertaking …
  • … making 2000’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ). Unlike Darwin’s other books, …
  • … case is to me’ (letters to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] and 19 February [1881] ). On 7 …
  • … individual experience ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 7 March 1881 ). The difficulty with earthworms …
  • … were trustworthy ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 March [1881] ). Although results from earlier …
  • … ‘a game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18 May he described his work on …
  • … annuals ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 21 March [1881] ). Darwin thought flowers of the semi- …
  • … sulky in a day or two’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 July 1881 ). The degree of Darwin’s distress …
  • … period of the season’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 30 July 1881 ). Darwin gave in. ‘I am now uneasy …
  • … teacher told him ( letter from C. E. Södling, 14 October 1881 ), while H. M. Wallis, who sent …
  • … general stock of knowledge’ ( letter to E. W. Bok, 10 May 1881 ). Josef Popper, an expert on …
  • … any criticism’ ( letter to C. G. Semper, 19 July 1881 ). He continued his friendly disagreement …
  • … of the Fuegians’ ( letter to W. P. Snow, 22 November 1881 ). Darwin received news about the …
  • … on the shoulder (l etter from B. J. Sulivan, 18 March 1881 ). Among numerous new …
  • … ( letter from Francisco de Arruda Furtado, 29 July 1881 ). Likewise, among the many books …
  • … excellent Journal’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 4 July [1881] ). In these ways, Darwin kept up with …
  • … conscious of it’ ( letter to Alexander Agassiz, 5 May 1881 ). His scientific friends, however, did …
  • … on all our minds’ ( letter to John Lubbock, [18 September 1881] ). When Hooker, anxious about his …
  • … much out’ of his mind ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 20 June [1881] ). Feeling ‘awfully guilty’ for …
  • … & many a good fight’ (letters to J. D. Hooker, 6 August 1881 and 12 August 1881 ). …
  • … on all physiologists’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 18 April 1881 ). A letter he had written to the …
  • … & tear of controversy’ ( letter to G. R. Jesse, 23 April 1881 ). Later in the year, Darwin …
  • … judgment on the subject ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 12 July 1881 ). However, some requests were …
  • … intelligent man’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 1 July [1881] ). Despite this, Darwin thanked ‘all …
  • … ‘go to the wall’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 19 November [1881] ). Darwin was as solicitous about …
  • … no pretensions’ (l etter from W. E. Darwin, 13 January [1881 ]), Darwin immediately prepared a …
  • … have occurred to him’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 29 January 1881 ). While Francis was …

Volume 29 (1881) is published!

Summary

In October 1881, Darwin published his last book, The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms: with observations on their habits. A slim volume on a subject that many people could understand and on which they had their own opinions, it went…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … From the start of 1881, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He increasingly relied on his son …
  • … now available. Read more about Darwin's life in 1881  in our Life in letters series …
  • … received.    Letter t o Francis Darwin, 9 November [1881] In October 1881, Darwin …
  • …              Letter to A. B. Buckley, 4 January 1881 In January, Darwin heard that …
  • … do.            Letter to J. D. Hooker, 15 June 1881 The Darwins spent June in the …
  • …               Letter to W. E. Darwin, 4 August [1881] In early August, Darwin …
  • …               Letter to T. H. Farrer, 28 August 1881 Darwin’s elder brother, …
  • …          Letter t o B. J. Sulivan, 1 December 1881         …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … in Down, where his brother Erasmus had been interred in 1881. But some of his scientific friends …
  • … vol. 29, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running …
  • … last book, Earthworms , had been published in October 1881. It proved to be very popular, with …
  • … vol. 29, letter from J. F. Simpson, 8 November 1881 ). He remarked on the ‘far reaching …
  • … Correspondence vol. 29, letter to Emily Talbot, 19 July 1881 ) was also published in the …
  • … American, Caroline Kennard, had written on 26 December 1881 (see Correspondence vol. 29) to …
  • … on the topic of science and art. He had sat for Collier in 1881 for a portrait commissioned by the …
  • … letter from John Collier, 22 February 1882 ; T. H. Huxley 1881, pp. 199–245). Huxley used …
  • … discoverer of tidal evolution’ ( Nature , 24 November 1881, p. 81). Darwin boasted to Rich: …
  • … the birth of his first child (Erasmus Darwin) on 7 December 1881. Finally, Darwin had a second …
  • … by Lyell’s sister-in-law Katherine (see K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 445–6). A complete draft and …

Alexander Burns Usborne

Summary

Alexander Burns Usborne was born in Kendal, Westmorland, in 1808, the son of Alexander and Margaret Usborne; his father died in 1818 and in his will was described as the purser on HMS Hannibal. His son joined the navy in 1825 aged 16 as a second-class…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … one called Beagle , in Plymouth harbour, until 1881 . He died in 1885, aged 76. His sister …
  • … 1861 (RG 9/1428/56/38), 1871 (RG10/2106/42/4), 1881 (RG11/2185/145/41) L. S. Dawson. 1885. …

1.18 John Collier, oil in Linnean

Summary

< Back to Introduction By 1881 it was clear to Darwin’s intimates that he was increasingly frail, and that, as he approached death, he had finally escaped from religious controversy to become a heroic figure, loved and venerated for his achievements…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … < Back to Introduction By 1881 it was clear to Darwin’s intimates that he was …
  • … Society in 1858. Moreover, the Society was now, in May 1881, dominated by Darwinians. Its President …
  • … work and any other subject that cropped up.’ On 7 August 1881 Darwin was able to report to Romanes …
  • … of image John Collier 
 date of creation 1881 
 computer-readable date …
  • … archive, manuscript letter LL/8, Darwin to Romanes, 27 May 1881. Correspondence between Darwin and …
  • … Letter from Darwin to his son George, 23 July 1881, telling him the picture was finished (DCP-LETT …
  • … pp. 118–121, correspondence between Romanes and Darwin in 1881 (DCP-LETT-13173, 13229, 13282). …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … from scientific debate. The matter spilled over into January 1881. With Henrietta’s aid, the advice …
  • … bags ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [6, 13, or 20] March 1881 ). Romanes was at work on a lengthy …
  • … memorial was eventually submitted to Gladstone in January 1881 and was successful. For a copy of the …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … , with observations on their habits, which was published in 1881. Despite Darwin’s fears that a book …
  • … earthworms. Although his monograph was not published until 1881, he had long been interested in …
  • … anyone wd suppose’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] (CUL DAR 210.6: 173)). …

Diagrams and drawings in letters

Summary

Over 850 illustrations from the printed volumes of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin have been added to the online transcripts of the letters. The contents include maps, diagrams, drawings, sketches and photographs, covering geological, botanical,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and the fertilisation of figs by Hymenoptera,  9 January 1881 CD's instructions to …

4.41 'Punch', Sambourne cartoon 2

Summary

< Back to Introduction In October 1881, Darwin was included in Linley Sambourne’s series of ‘Punch’s Fancy Portraits’ of celebrities as No. 54. While the caption recurs to the old theme of Darwin’s views on human ancestry, the drawing contains a more…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … < Back to Introduction In October 1881, Darwin was included in Linley Sambourne’s …
  • … Linley Sambourne 
 date of creation October 1881 
 computer-readable date 1881
  • … references and bibliography Punch vol. 81 (22 October 1881), p. 190. Janet Browne, Charles …

3.20 Elliott and Fry, c.1880-1, verandah

Summary

< Back to Introduction In photographs of Darwin taken c.1880-1, the expression of energetic thought conveyed by photographs of earlier years gives way to the pathos of evident physical frailty. While Collier’s oil portrait of this time emphasises…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … and Letters of his father (1887), and there it was dated 1881. However, another photograph from …
  • … by the National Portrait Gallery (NPG X5938) to 29 November 1881. However, Janet Browne points out …
  • … of sadness at that time. In a letter to Hooker of 15 June 1881, echoed in another to B.J. Sulivan of …
  • … of Elliott and Fry 
 date of creation c.1880-1881 
 computer-readable date c …
  • … and bibliography letters from Darwin to Hooker, 15 June 1881 (DCP-LETT-13207) and to B.J. Sulivan, …

Darwin's bad days

Summary

Despite being a prolific worker who had many successes with his scientific theorising and experimenting, even Darwin had some bad days. These times when nothing appeared to be going right are well illustrated by the following quotations from his letters:

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Despite being a prolific worker who had many successes with his scientific theorising and …

Exercise: Caricatures of Science

Summary

Caricatures provide intriguing insights into both ideals and transgressions of gender. The following six images show caricatured representations of nineteenth-century men and women of science. They provide insight into the boundaries of what was deemed …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … align="aligncenter" width="206"] Clémence Royer (1881)[/caption] …

3.18 Elliott and Fry photos, c.1869-1871

Summary

< Back to Introduction The leading photographic firm of Elliott and Fry seems to have portrayed Darwin at Down House on several occasions. In November 1869 Darwin told A. B. Meyer, who wanted photographs of both him and Wallace for a German…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … by Edmond Barbier and published in Paris by C. Reinwald in 1881. The frontispiece to Henry Alleyne …
  • … agree to another session at Down with their photographer in 1881.  physical location …
  • … influence on horticulture (DAR 140.1.4) was reprinted in 1881 (DAR 140 1.33) and for an obituary …

3.21 Herbert Rose Barraud, photos

Summary

< Back to Introduction The successful portrait photographer Herbert Rose Barraud, who had studios in London and Liverpool, photographed Darwin in the summer of 1881, in a group of four or so close-up head-and-shoulders portraits. This was probably at…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … London and Liverpool, photographed Darwin in the summer of 1881, in a group of four or so close-up …
  • … Barraud for photographs, presumably these ones, on 6 July 1881, establishing their approximate date …
  • … Herbert Rose Barraud  
 date of creation 1881 
 computer-readable date c.1881-01 …

4.42 'Punch' Sambourne cartoon 3

Summary

< Back to Introduction Linley Sambourne’s last caricature of Darwin, ‘Man is But a Worm’, was published in Punch’s Almanac for 1882 on 6 December 1881, only four months before Darwin’s death. Like Sambourne’s ‘Punch’s Fancy Portraits. No. 54. Charles…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … published in Punch’s Almanac for 1882 on 6 December 1881, only four months before Darwin’s death …
  • … No. 54. Charles Robert Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S.’ of October 1881, it is an affectionate and whimsical …
  • … date of creation November-December 1881 
 computer-readable date 1881-11-01 to 1881-12-5 …
  • … Punch’s Almanac for 1882 , issued 6 December 1881 (unpaginated). Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 Darwin praises Graham’s Creed …
  • … — Darwin, C. R. to Fegan, J. W. C., [Dec 1880 – Feb 1881] Darwin writes to J. W. C Fegan, a …

Earthworms

Summary

As with many of Darwin’s research topics, his interest in worms spanned nearly his entire working life. Some of his earliest correspondence about earthworms was written and received in the 1830s, shortly after his return from his Beagle voyage, and his…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Geological Society (Ser. 2) 5:505-509. Darwin, C.R. 1881. The Formation of Vegetable Mould, …
  • … Mary Catherine Stanley (Lady Derby) to Darwin, 16 October 1881 Among pleasantries about the …
  • … Vegetable Mould and Earth-Worms (London: John Murray, 1881), 26. [2] Ibid., 26-27. …

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … again, for I am sure that it is worth it.’  As late as 1881, less than a year before his death, …

2.9 Legros medallion, plaster model

Summary

< Back to Introduction This plaster model for Legros’s bronze medallion of Darwin has an interesting provenance. It originally belonged to William Ernest Henley, the poet, journal editor and art critic, who was a close friend and associate of Legros.…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and hosted him when he came to London in the summer of 1881. Rodin was closely involved in Legros’s …
  • … on their progress. He reported in a letter of November 1881 that Legros’s medallions had come out …
  • … Alphonse Legros 
 date of creation 1881 
 computer-readable date 1881

Animals, ethics, and the progress of science

Summary

Darwin’s view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical implications. In Descent, he argued that some animals exhibited moral behaviour and had evolved mental powers analogous to conscience. He gave examples of cooperation, even…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … honorary president ( letter to T. L. Brunton, 17 December 1881 ). The organization had its first …
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