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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To T. H. Huxley   9 January [1860]

Summary

Sends ticket to pigeon show.

A quotation from Erasmus Darwin’s Zoonomia [1794, 1796] shows that he anticipated Lamarck.

G. Grote impressed by Times review [26 Dec 1859, p. 8].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  9 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 96)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2646

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Huxley, T. H. …
  • … Archives (Huxley 5: 96) Charles Robert Darwin Down 9 Jan [1860] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … to pigeon show. A quotation from Erasmus Darwin’s Zoonomia [1794, 1796] shows that he …
  • … into many languages. — Ever yours | C.  Darwin Grote, the Historian, was much struck with …
  • … Autobiography : The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882. With original omissions …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Darwin, Erasmus. 1794–6. Zoonomia; or, the …
  • … to suggest that Lamarck was aware of Erasmus Darwin’s work when he composed Philosophie …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … CD refers to his grandfather Erasmus Darwin and Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de …
  • … p.  8. See letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 1 January [1860]. E.  Darwin 1794–6 , 1: 504. CD’ …
  • … inherited from his father Robert Waring Darwin, is in the Cambridge University Library. CD …

To T. H. Huxley   [26 January 1860]

Summary

Has arranged with Baily the poulterer for pigeons for THH to exhibit at Royal Institution lecture.

E. A. Darwin will subscribe to H. Spencer’s book [First principles: a system of philosophy (1862)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  [26 Jan 1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 119)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2673

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Huxley, T. H. …
  • … Archives (Huxley 5: 119) Charles Robert Darwin Down [26 Jan 1860] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … ed.  1900, 1: 212). Like Erasmus Alvey Darwin, CD also subscribed to the series (see …
  • … Spencer, 2 February [1860] ). A copy of Spencer 1860–2  is in the Darwin Library–CUL. …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … exhibit at Royal Institution lecture. E. A. Darwin will subscribe to H. Spencer’s book [ …
  • … two men will be sent. — Ever yours | C.  Darwin Do not forget 3 tickets for my Family as …
  • … Brother as Subscriber to Herbert Spencer Book— E.  Darwin Esq r 57 Queen Anne St | (W. ) …
  • … London from 24 to 27 January 1860 (Emma Darwin’s diary). Huxley planned to exhibit several …

From William Whewell   2 January 1860

Summary

Thanks CD for the Origin. WW is not yet a convert but there is so much "of thought and of fact" in what CD has written that "it is not to be contradicted without careful selection of the ground and manner of the dissent".

Author:  William Whewell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Jan 1860
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2634

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Whewell, William Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98 (ser. 2): 19 William Whewell unstated 2 Jan 1860 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … thanking you for your kindness believe me | Yours very truly | W Whewell C.  Darwin Esq e …
  • … Autobiography : The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882. With original omissions …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … Trin. Lodge Jan.  2. 1860 My dear M r Darwin I have to thank you for a copy of your book …

To T. H. Huxley   [1860–3?]

Summary

Thanks THH for the delightful evening he gave Frank [Darwin].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  [1860–3?]
Classmark:  Janet Huxley (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13817

Matches: 4 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Huxley, T. H. …
  • … Thanks THH for the delightful evening he gave Frank [Darwin]. …
  • … Huxley (private collection) Charles Robert Darwin London, Queen Anne St, 6 [1860–3? ] …
  • … which came bubbling out of his mouth in inextricable confusion. Ever yours | C.  Darwin

From Asa Gray   [10 January 1860]

Summary

Agassiz denounces Origin as "atheistical";

AG is currently reviewing it [in Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 153–84].

Jeffries Wyman praises it, though not a convert.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [10 Jan 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 98 (ser. 2): 26a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2631

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98 (ser. 2): 26a Asa Gray unstated [10 Jan 1860] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … I will mention them hereafter— No time now. Ever dear Darwin | Yours sincerely | Asa Gray …
  • … anatomy, and the scientific reception of Darwin in America. Journal of the History of …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … LL : The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. …
  • … Edited by Francis Darwin. 3 vols. London: John Murray. 1887–8. Origin : …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … however, marked ‘Jan 5 1860’ by Francis Darwin, perhaps on the basis of the letter from …
  • … Origin , have not been traced. Francis Darwin suggested that it was given before the …

To John Murray   29 January [1860]

Summary

Had forgotten that Journal [of researches] was stereotyped. Not worth while now to improve style. Wants to make a few corrections, if possible, on p. 378.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  29 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.96–97)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2668

Matches: 3 hits

  • … for your note— I write in great Haste to catch our early Sunday Post Yours | C.  Darwin
  • Darwin, C. R. Murray, John (b) …
  • … Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.96–97) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 Jan [1860] John Murray …

To Charles Lyell   10 January [1860]

Summary

Comments on corrections [in Origin, 2d ed. (1860)], especially on use of Wallace’s name.

Discusses human evolution with respect to CL’s work. Cites expression as a source of evidence.

Andrew Murray’s criticisms of the Origin involving blind insects in caves [Edinburgh New Philos. J. n.s. 11 (1860): 141–51].

Humorously describes human ancestors.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  10 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.191)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2647

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.191) Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Jan [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … and selection in relation to sex. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1871. …
  • … The expression of the emotions in man and animals. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. …
  • … included. Farewell | Yours affect y | C.  Darwin Our ancestor was an animal which breathed …
  • … relating to the letter on the cover: ‘C.  Darwin   Mortality of children— Man originally …
  • … 1872. Notebooks : Charles Darwin’s notebooks, 1836–1844. Geology, transmutation of …
  • … races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1860. Origin : On …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Spencer, Herbert. …
  • … 1856] ). CD’s copy of this work is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Wedgwood 1859–65. Hensleigh …
  • … of natural sounds. CD’s copy of a later edition of the work is in the Darwin Library–CUL. …
  • … Erasmus Alvey Darwin, CD’s brother. William Benjamin Carpenter reviewed Origin in the …
  • … n.s.  11 (1860): 141–51. He discussed Darwin and Wallace 1858 and also Origin , whose …

To Williams and Norgate   29 [January 1860]

Summary

Orders copy of book by Louis Agassiz [Nomenclatoris Zoologici Index Universalis (1846)].

Mentions book sent by Quatrefages de Bréau.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Williams & Norgate
Date:  29 [Jan 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.194)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2666

Matches: 7 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Williams & Norgate …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.194) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 [Jan 1860] Williams & Norgate …
  • … Williams and Norgate. The address CD gives is that of his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin. …
  • … races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Quatrefages …
  • … Sq e . — Please send there, also, the Index. — Yours very faithfully | C.  Darwin
  • … 1842). CD’s copy of Agassiz 1848 is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Probably Quatrefages de …
  • … a similar title in 1860. Both books are in the Darwin Library–CUL and are inscribed by the …

To Thomas Bridges   6 January 1860

Summary

Queries on expression among Fuegians and Patagonians.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Bridges
Date:  6 Jan 1860
Classmark:  DAR 185: 72
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2640

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Bridges, Thomas (b) …
  • … DAR 185: 72 Charles Robert Darwin Down 6 Jan 1860 Thomas Bridges …
  • … red ears, in the Falkland Islands? Charles Darwin Down Bromley Kent Jan.  6 th — 1860. …
  • … in the hand of an amanuensis are in the Darwin Archive (DAR 185: 72, 73). The draft was …
  • … papers : The collected papers of Charles Darwin. Edited by Paul H. Barrett. 2 vols. …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … of the emotions in man and animals. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1872. …
  • … Richard Broke. 1977. The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist. …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …

To Williams and Norgate   16 January [1860]

Summary

Orders J. E. Tennent’s work on Ceylon [Sir James Emerson, afterwards Tennent, Ceylon, an account of the island, physical, historical, and topographical (1859)], and Richard Owen’s Classification and distribution of Mammalia [1859].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Williams & Norgate
Date:  16 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2653

Matches: 6 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Williams & Norgate …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25. ) Charles Robert Darwin Down 16 Jan [1860] Williams & Norgate …
  • … will pay it, when I get the account for above books. — Yours very faithfully | C.  Darwin
  • … Parker and Son. The work is not in the Darwin Library. CD recorded a payment of £3 11 s . …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Tennent, James …

To J. D. Hooker   14 [January 1860]

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Summary

CD has learned from Lyell that JDH reviewed Origin in Gardeners’ Chronicle writing in Lindley’s style.

Lyell is working on man.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  14 [Jan 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 36
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2651

Matches: 8 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Hooker, J. D. …
  • … DAR 115: 36 Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 [Jan 1860] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … Gray, 24 December [1859] ). His annotated copy is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. …
  • … According to Emma Darwin’s diary, Elizabeth, …
  • … Francis, and Leonard Darwin contracted measles in January 1860. See also letter to J.   …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … in Asa Grays. Farewell    your affect. | C.  Darwin I shall be very glad to hear that Lady …

To John Murray   23 [January 1860]

Summary

Has agreed to permit P. T. A. Talandier to translate the Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  23 [Jan 1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.62–63)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2664

Matches: 6 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Murray, John (b) …
  • … you, I hope, on Wednesday or Thursday My dear Sir | Yours very sincerely | Charles Darwin
  • … Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.62–63) Charles Robert Darwin Down 23 [Jan 1860] John Murray …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … 1860 and returned to Down on 27 January (Emma Darwin’s diary). See also following letter. …

To T. H. Huxley   21 [January 1860]

Summary

Sends copy of 2d ed. of Origin, with list of corrections.

Is at work on "fuller work" [Variation].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  21 [Jan 1860]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 102)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2660

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Huxley, T. H. …
  • … Archives (Huxley 5: 102) Charles Robert Darwin Down 21 [Jan 1860] Thomas Henry Huxley …
  • … Riedel 1824 . There is an annotated copy of the work in the Darwin Library–CUL. T.  H.   …
  • … 1859b. A copy of the work, published by the Ray Society, is in the Darwin Library–Down. …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Riedel, Wilhelm. …
  • … My dear Huxley | Most truly yours | C.  Darwin I have never received from Ray Soc.  your …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …
  • … his Account book (Down House MS). Emma Darwin’s diary indicates that CD was away from home …

To John Murray   [25 January 1860]

Summary

CD asks how soon JM will go to press with Journal [of researches]; thinks he had better look it over to see if progress of science has made any correction necessary.

P.S. Asa Gray has written that Origin has caused great excitement in U. S. Agassiz has denounced it.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  [25 Jan 1860]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.64–67)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2632

Matches: 11 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Murray, John (b) …
  • … Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.64–67) Charles Robert Darwin London, Queen Anne St, 57 [25 Jan 1860] …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Richard Broke. 1977. The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist. …
  • … advertisement! — Yours most sincerely | C.  Darwin N.B | I have forgotten the object of my …
  • … in London from Tuesday, 24 January, to Friday, 27 January 1860 (Emma Darwin’s diary). The …
  • … is that of CD’s brother Erasmus Alvey Darwin, with whom CD usually stayed when in London. …
  • … corrected, with additions. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1845. Journal of …
  • … FitzRoy, RN, from 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Origin : …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … Sir | In Haste | Yours very sincerely | C.  Darwin Let me hear how many copies of Journal …

To William Benjamin Carpenter   6 January [1860]

Summary

WBC’s review [of Origin, Natl Rev. 10 (1860): 188–214] will do great good. It "turns the flanks of theological opposers" capitally.

Asks for information about cuckoo eggs and West Indian sheep.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Benjamin Carpenter
Date:  6 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 261.6: 4 (EH 88205921)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2641

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Carpenter, W. B. …
  • … 261.6: 4 (EH 88205921) Charles Robert Darwin Down 6 Jan [1860] William Benjamin Carpenter …
  • … thanks & respect, Believe me | My dear Carpenter | Yours very sincerely | Ch. Darwin
  • … Autobiography : The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882. With original omissions …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … 5 December [1859]). Although entitled ‘Darwin on the origin of species’, Carpenter’s …
  • … Alfred Russel Wallace’s contribution to Darwin and Wallace 1858 and Baden Powell’s …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Powell, Baden. …
  • … 1854 ). CD owned a copy of this work (Darwin Library–CUL) and studied it carefully in …

To Charles Griffin & Co.   29 January [1860]

Summary

Returns MS [of biography for Dictionary of contemporary biography (1861)]. Part was inaccurate, and there was an important omission so CD has had a new copy made.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Griffin
Date:  29 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  British Library (Add. 28509: 408)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2667

Matches: 8 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Griffin, Charles …
  • … British Library (Add. 28509: 408) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 Jan [1860] Charles Griffin …
  • … Griffin] ed.  1861 , pp.  122–3): Mr.  Darwin, although he has adopted conclusions …
  • … pen through any part. — Sir | Your obent sert | Charles Darwin I return your own M.S.   …
  • … that you may see alterations. — Darwin, Charles. M.A.  Cantab. F.R.S an eminent …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … detailed treatise on the same subject. M r Darwin’s writings exhibit close observation and …
  • … two sentences were altered to read: ‘Darwin Charles. M.A.  Cantab. F.R.S. , an eminent …

To Asa Gray   28 January [1860]

Summary

If an American edition of Origin is considered worth while, CD would like AG’s reviews prefixed to it.

Will use all his strength to produce first part of his three-volume big work [Variation].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  28 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (43)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2665

Matches: 10 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa …
  • … Herbarium of Harvard University (43) Charles Robert Darwin Down 28 Jan [1860] Asa Gray …
  • … say, I think, that in his geology Darwin outdoes Lyell himself in ignoring paroxysmal …
  • … in London from 24 to 27 January (Emma Darwin’s diary). See Correspondence vol.  7, letter …
  • … sympathy & assistance Yours most truly | C.  Darwin I shall value much at any time your …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Origin US ed. : On …
  • … revised and augmented by the author. By Charles Darwin. New York: D. Appleton. 1860. …
  • … that which is living before our eyes. Henry Darwin Rogers, an American-born geologist, was …
  • … any interest is the appearance of Charles Darwin’s book “On the Origin of Species by Means …

To J. D. Hooker   31 [January 1860]

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Summary

CD preparing historical sketch, which will go into second American edition of Origin.

Asks JDH to copy out Naudin’s line on finality.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  31 [Jan 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2671

Matches: 7 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Hooker, J. D. …
  • … DAR 115: 38 Charles Robert Darwin Down 31 [Jan 1860] Joseph Dalton Hooker …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Richard Broke. 1977. The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist. …
  • … I would have copied it. — Yours affect | C.  Darwin I shall end by just alluding to your …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Origin US ed. : On …
  • … and augmented by the author. By Charles Darwin. New York: D. Appleton. 1860. Wiltshear, F. …

To ?   [1860 or later]

Summary

Is "almost certain" plant is Menispermum canadense.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  [1860 or later]
Classmark:  Glenbow Museum
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13875

Matches: 2 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Unidentified …
  • … Glenbow Museum Charles Robert Darwin Down [1860 or later] Unidentified …

From Hensleigh Wedgwood   [January? 1860]

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Summary

Prepared to think world infinitely old, but not that life originated with a single cell. Questions whether geological evidence supports gradual progress in organisation. HW thought scientific opinion during Vestiges debate was against this hypothesis. Argues that presence of same senses in lower animals and vertebrates does not imply descent; assumes resemblance is due to living in same world and thus having organs for the same purposes. Wants CD to know how others may see these questions.

Author:  Hensleigh Wedgwood
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Jan? 1860]
Classmark:  DAR 48: 83–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2389

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Wedgwood, Hensleigh Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 48: 83–5 Hensleigh Wedgwood unstated [Jan? 1860] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … London. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second part of …
  • … innate ideas’ ( Locke 1690 ). There is a copy of Wedgwood 1848  in the Darwin Library–CUL. …
  • … races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Wedgwood, …
  • … copy of the second edition (1872) in the Darwin Library–CUL.  CD’s comments have not been …
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Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig …
  • … as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified …
  • … correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring …
  • … Actor 1 – Asa Gray Actor 2 – Charles Darwin Actor 3 – In the dress of a modern day …
  • … Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwin… and acts as a sort …
  • … the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and …
  • … this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa …
  • … friends in England, copies of his ‘Review of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it …
  • … Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwin… made his home on the border of the little …
  • … are kept in check by a constitutional weakness. DARWIN: A plain but comfortable brick …
  • … by every blessing except that of vigorous health… DARWIN:  4   My confounded stomach …
  • … pursuits and the simplicity of his character. DARWIN:   5   I am allowed to work now …
  • … own house, where he was the most charming of hosts. DARWIN:   6   My life goes on …
  • … being a part of [an unpublished] manuscript. Darwin settles down to write. His tone is …
  • … THE CONCURRENCE OF BOTANISTS: 1855 In which Darwin initiates a long-running correspondence …
  • … gossip about difficult colleagues (Agassiz). Gray realizes Darwin is not revealing all of his …
  • … man, more formally attired and lighter on his feet than Darwin. He has many more demands on his time …
  • … catches his attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN:  8   April 25 th 1855. My …
  • … filled up the paper you sent me as well as I could. DARWIN:  10   My dear Dr Gray. I …
  • … is condensed in that little sheet of note-paper! DARWIN:  11   My dear Hooker… What …
  • … surprising good. GRAY:   12   My dear Mr Darwin, I rejoice in furnishing facts to …
  • … of the sort to the advancement of science… DARWIN:  13   I hope… before [the] end of …
  • … reasonably expect… Yours most sincerely Asa Gray. DARWIN:  16   My dear Gray… Your …
  • … Journal, as a nut for [Professor] Agassiz to crack. Darwin and Gray share a joke at the …
  • … will turn up that he cannot explain away… DARWIN:  22   Hurrah I got yesterday my …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women …
  • … Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • … peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October …
  • … garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwin’s …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber …
  • … Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • … observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - …
  • … and offers to observe birds, insects or plants on Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - …
  • … ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen Lubbock, …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an …
  • … the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his …
  • … 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography …
  • … a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwin’s spirits. ‘I wish that my …
  • … W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the …
  • … that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I …
  • … contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by …
  • … Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). Seventy years old Darwin’s seventieth birthday on 12 …
  • … the veteran of Modern Zoology’, but it was in Germany that Darwin was most fêted. A German …
  • … ). The masters of Greiz College in Thuringia venerated Darwin as ‘the deep thinker’, while …
  • … accepted in Germany. ‘On this festive day’, Haeckel told Darwin, ‘you can look back, with justified …
  • … Hermann Müller wrote on 12 February to wish Darwin a ‘long and serene evening of life’. This …
  • … on the theory of development in connection with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as …
  • … March, with encouragement from his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Darwin decided to publish an …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the …
  • … he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwin’s correspondence reveals the scope …
  • … he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346: Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb 1837 …
  • … one stock.” Letter 2070: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [before 29 Sept 1857] …
  • … down of former continents.” Letter 3054: Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] …
  • … that languages, like species, were separately created. Darwin writes to the geologist Charles Lyell …
  • … I tell him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug …
  • … loud noise?” Letter 7040: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [1868-70?] As …
  • … gradually growing to such a stage” Letter 8367: Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June …
  • … unconsciously altering the breed. Letter 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 …
  • … Letter 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and …
  • … Language […]” Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The …
  • … of race […]” Letter 11074: Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwin’s …
  • … and comparative philologist Archibald Sayce wrote to Darwin with a series of detailed questions …
  • … how a child first uttered the word ‘mum’. In his reply, Darwin told Sayce “that ‘mum’ arose from …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … it had been proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • … impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September …
  • … content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [16 May 1872] Reade …
  • … of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [20 May 1872] Reade …
  • … women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … Cupples got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • … about Hooker’s thoughts. Letter 729 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • … is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844 …
  • … of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 …
  • … of the species. Letter 1685 — Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray …
  • … of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] …
  • … have in simple truth been of the utmost value to me.” Darwin believes species have arisen, like …
  • … or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants. Darwin discusses fertilisation in the bud …
  • … exchange This collection of letters between Darwin and Hooker, while Darwin was writing his …
  • … to information exchange. Letter 1202 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • … followed automatically. On the issue of nomenclature reform, Darwin opposes appending first …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of …
  • … portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that Darwin undertook throughout his lifetime …
  • … was jokingly lamenting his role as an intermediary for Darwin and his correspondents from around the …
  • … of friends and relatives was not a pursuit unique to Darwin (the exchange of photographic images was …
  • … reinforced his experimental and scientific network. Darwin’s Portraits Darwin sat for …
  • … famous photographers to studio portraitists looking to sell Darwin’s image to the masses. Between …
  • … in nineteenth-century photography. Darwin’s first photo-chemical experience …
  • … This particular daguerreotype is unique in terms of Darwin’s collection of photographs – it is the …
  • … exchanged, but rather was an object of display placed on a Darwin family mantlepiece. The image …
  • … in London and made at least four different exposures of Darwin between 1853 and 1857. They …
  • … While this image is notable as the first popular image of Darwin, the extent to which Darwin
  • … me look atrociously wicked.” Image: Charles Darwin, by Maull & Polyblank, albumen …
  • … Portrait Gallery, London (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) Darwin’s next experience with the …
  • … with the results. In 1860-61 and again in 1864 Charles Darwin sat for his eldest son, William Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1876 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 24 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wife … poor creature, has won …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11 …
  • … once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his …
  • … and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and …
  • … had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his …
  • … When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwin’s three volumes of the geology of …
  • … single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at …
  • … volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was nevertheless ‘firmly resolved not …
  • … meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the …
  • … to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second …
  • … concentrated on the ‘means of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self …
  • … return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in his ‘little Autobiography’ ( …
  • … holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a …
  • … for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August …
  • … dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 418–19). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to …
  • … ever return to the consideration of man.’ In particular, Darwin seemed eager to avoid issues that …
  • … wrote with the good news that he could restore Darwin to a religious life. This transformation would …
  • … that used to be called transmigration, Nemo pointed out to Darwin, adding, ‘the term nowadays is …
  • … enemies... Views such as these were easy enough for Darwin to dismiss, but it was more …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] …
  • … a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] …
  • … experiment about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] …
  • … some questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] …
  • … of each fragment at the base of my precipice”. Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 …
  • … of natural selection. He worries about the accusation in Darwin & his teachings “ Natural …
  • … fittest” instead of “Natural Selection”. Wallace urges Darwin to stress frequency of variations. …
  • … Personal Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive …
  • … own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov 1838] In this …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick

Summary

Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … the interview.     1. According to Darwin, how did language begin? …
  • … a bit more about that? 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … is the power of language. And the most important element in Darwin’s account of the origin of …
  • … the world or standing for feelings, begin to accumulate, and Darwin says these signs gave advantages …
  • … predators that might attack them, whatever it might be, Darwin thinks had an advantage in the …
  • … So language begins to accumulate like that. Likewise, Darwin thinks, in the courtship competition …
  • … better functioning brains. And a very important part of Darwin’s account of the origin of language …
  • … become more intelligent. And with larger intelligence comes, Darwin thinks, so many things—the …
  • … and so forth. 2. Was this an important topic for Darwin? And if so, why? It was hugely …
  • … systems of nonhuman animals, and human language.  And so Darwin saw himself as trying to combat that …
  • … Darwinian account of the origin of language. 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …
  • … that? Well, there’s a famous passage at the end of Darwin’s discussion of the evolutionary …
  • … ten of these. And a question has arisen, quite what was Darwin getting up to in pointing out these …
  • … debate, and on the one side are people who say that Darwin couldn’t resist an opportunity to review …
  • … but I also think something more is going on there. Darwin was very concerned to defend his position …
  • … the languages still show the formerly high state. So Darwin’s concerned, in my view, to …
  • … people who like to think of themselves as fans of Charles Darwin because, of course, we don’t …
  • … that, equality of languages. But that wasn’t the case for Darwin, that wasn’t how he understood his …
  • … him and us, however uncomfortable. 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … topics, I learned that there was a story around about how Darwin, very late in life, had changed his …
  • … of study of all this, and it turns out that from the time of Darwin’s death through till now, …
  • … not quite at the deathbed, but in 1881, a letter in which Darwin wrote to a friend of his that he …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Disagreement & Respect | Conduct of Debate | Darwin & Wallace The best-known …
  • … the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of …
  • … was itself an important arena of debate, one that Darwin greatly preferred to the public sphere. …
  • … and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help …
  • … Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged …
  • … Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement …
  • … were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter …
  • … of respect. Letter 2548 — Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859 Adam …
  • … which can neither be proved nor disproved”. He says that Darwin’s “grand principle natural …
  • … and as his true-hearted friend. Letter 2555 — Darwin, C. R. to Sedgwick, Adam, 26 Nov …
  • … have influenced the conclusions at which he has arrived. Darwin does not think the book will be …
  • … and incoming of living species” and so could not regard Darwin’s attempt to demonstrate the nature …
  • … at length a conversation with Owen concerning Origin . Darwin notes “that at bottom he goes …
  • … he thinks a sort of Bear was the grandpapa of Whales!” Darwin has heard Herschel considered his book …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 26 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). Having …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had …
  • … ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my …
  • … 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular reports about their …
  • … to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later …
  • … not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). It is …
  • … had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats …
  • … we must have’, Francis wrote ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 17 July 1878] ), ‘a strong …
  • … me to jump to conclusions rather’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 3 August 1878] ). One day …
  • … day & never the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s …
  • … Cieselski & read him,’ he reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [22 June 1878] ). ‘Sachs …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1877 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 25 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The …
  • … of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwin’s botany was increasingly a …
  • … assisted his father’s research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his son’s own …
  • … The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums …
  • … from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of …
  • … sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • … no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of …
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of …
  • … and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term …
  • … as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton …
  • … measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual …
  • … primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other …
  • … dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March …
  • … which include heterstyled species. This pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small …
  • … separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance more speculative views …
  • … both pollen and seeds’ ( Forms of flowers , p. 344). Darwin was typically pessimistic about the …
  • … be sold’. His publisher knew from previous experience that Darwin was a poor judge of sales, and …
  • … after completing his manuscript of Forms of flowers , Darwin took up the problem of ‘bloom’ in …
  • … characteristic whose purpose was little understood. Darwin had begun studying bloom in August 1873, …
  • … exchanged between Down and Kew over the next six months. Darwin corresponded most often with the …
  • … been for your kindness, we sh d . have broken down’, Darwin wrote back on 5 September . ‘As it …
  • … injury from pure water resting on leaves’. In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but …
  • … on leaves and the distribution of the stomata’ (F. Darwin 1886). Alongside his work on bloom, …
  • … closely to the leaves and required a tolerable shake’. Darwin gained another valuable observer in …
  • … T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and Francis devised a method of …
  • … the phenomenon in a Euphorbia (spurge) plant at Kew. Darwin then asked him to disturb the plant …
  • … card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed working with …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working …
  • … dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwin’s son George dominated the second …
  • … and traveller Alexander von Humboldt’s 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt …
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwin’s cousin, William Darwin Fox, to …
  • … from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one …
  • … I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a week’s visit to …
  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in …
  • … 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of …
  • … by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too …
  • … the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwin’s cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those …
  • … imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all imposture’ …
  • … stop word getting to America of the ‘strange news’ that Darwin had allowed ‘a spirit séance’ at his …
  • … the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwin’s enterprises in the 1870s, were family …
  • … 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in …
  • … and letter to Charles Lyell, [13 January 1874] ). Darwin blamed his illness for the …
  • … . In his preface ( Coral reefs  2d ed., pp. v–vii), Darwin reasserted the priority of his work. …
  • … for the absence of coral-reefs in certain locations. Darwin countered with the facts that low …
  • … whole coastline of a large island. Dana also thought that Darwin had seen fringing reefs as proof of …
  • … presentation copy, Dana sent an apology for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D …
  • … Alongside his revision of  Coral reefs,  Darwin went to work on a new edition of  Descent . In …
  • … George Cupples, a Scottish deerhound expert who forwarded Darwin’s queries about the numbers of …
  • … had raged between himself and Richard Owen since the 1860s. Darwin had omitted this controversial …
  • … elements of geology , and with the cheaper sixth edition of Darwin’s own  Origin . (The first …
  • … Murray’s partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the lower price would bring the profits …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific …
  • … admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of Darwin’s life in 1860, in the immediate …
  • … of publication of Descent of Man in 1871. In this period Darwin became a public figure, and the …
  • … increased accordingly. Letters conveyed public reaction to Darwin, as people who were often complete …
  • … worked up, or their religious doubts and concerns for Darwin’s own soul. Darwin himself used letters …
  • … world a questionnaire on the expression of the emotions. Darwin also continued to confide in his …
  • … yet been pointed out to me. No doubt many will be. Darwin to Huxley, 1860. …
  • … have been miserably uncomfortable. Emma to Charles Darwin, 1861. I am …
  • … gravitating towards your doctrines … Huxley to Darwin, 1862. I cannot bear …
  • … what you think about the derivation of Species … Darwin to Charles Lyell, 1863. …
  • … fairly settled & succeeding in India. John Scott to Darwin, 1864. I …
  • … was quite out of balance once during our voyage … Darwin to Hooker (on hearing of Robert …
  • … that the necks of your horses are badly galled … Darwin to a local landowner, 1866. …
  • … should be still very far off. Mary Boole to Darwin, 1866. Never, for God’s …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and …
  • … his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend …
  • … way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving …
  • … bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript …
  • … coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of …
  • … zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated …
  • … chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous …
  • … on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair …
  • … Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of …
  • … pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also …
  • … in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up …
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • … in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the …
  • … to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial …
  • … Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral …
  • … could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory …
  • … memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • … medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It …
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony …
  • … agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein …
  • … am astounded & disgusted at what you say about Klein,’ Darwin replied to Huxley on 1 November …
  • … the man.’   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwin’s keen interest in the progress of …
  • … leading physiologists. Indeed, some of the experiments that Darwin performed on plants, such as the …
  • … Vallisneria (tape grass). Fayrer had previously supplied Darwin with a quantity of the dried …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now …
  • … and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwin’s neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In …
  • … all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • … hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwin’s theory of transmutation …
  • … alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwin’s American publisher for a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwin’s work was given by Hooker in an …
  • … frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwin’s sisters died, Emily Catherine …
  • … from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwin’s first letters in the new year …
  • … every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July …
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4 …
  • … day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwin’s being teased by his neighbour, John …
  • … John Lubbock, 4 August 1866 ). More predictably, however, Darwin immediately converted his renewed …
  • … Since the publication of  Origin  in November 1859, Darwin had continued gathering and organising …
  • … by natural selection was based. The work relied heavily on Darwin’s extensive correspondence over …
  • … and poultry expert William Bernhard Tegetmeier. In January, Darwin wrote to Tegetmeier that he was …
  • … ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 16 January [1866] ). Darwin found the evidence of variation in …
  • … varieties from  Columbia livia , the rock pigeon. Darwin on heredity: the 'provisional …
  • … chapter headed ‘Provisional hypothesis of pangenesis’, Darwin proposed that the various phenomena of …
  • … example, the reproductive organs, or the tissues of a bud. Darwin had submitted a preliminary sketch …
  • … & brimful of my dear little mysterious gemmules.’ Darwin collected information on …
  • … Thomas Rivers, and the German botanist Robert Caspary. Darwin was particularly interested in recent …
  • … the scion apparently produced buds with blended characters; Darwin had tried to propagate the …

Early Days

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment The young Charles Darwin From an early age, Darwin exhibited a keen interest in the natural world. His boyish fascination with naturalist pursuits deepened as he entered college and started to interact with…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Questions | Experiment The young Charles Darwin From an early age, Darwin
  • … started to interact with fellow natural history enthusiasts. Darwin's correspondence from this …
  • … Under the mentorship of Robert Grant at Edinburgh, Darwin undertook original research about the …
  • … of bryazoan. In correspondence from his student days, Darwin negotiates complicated relationships …
  • … SOURCES Books Browne, Janet. Darwin's Origin of Species: A Biography. (2008 …
  • … so pleasant receiving letters.” Letter 68 —Darwin to William Darwin Fox [15 July 1829] …
  • … must take to complete his degree. Letter 78 —Darwin to William Darwin Fox [25 Mar 1830] …
  • … visit beetling in Cambridgeshire. Letter 98 —Darwin to Caroline Darwin [28 Apr 1831] …
  • … DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Do you think Darwin resented that his work was published under …
  • … letters to his brother Erasmus? 4. Why do you think Darwin was unable to take courses in …
  • … EXPERIMENT In order to experience some of Darwin's observations and experiments with …

Darwin's health

Summary

On 28 March 1849, ten years before Origin was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, where Dr James Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … March 1849, ten years before  Origin  was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker …
  • … Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to …
  • … See the letter At various periods in his life Darwin suffered from gastrointestinal …
  • … fatigue, trembling, faintness, and dizziness. In 1849, Darwin’s symptoms became so severe that he …
  • … for three months while he took Dr Gully’s water cure. In Darwin’s letter to Hooker, he described Dr …
  • … See the letter After returning from Malvern, Darwin continued his hydropathic …
  • … 1863. In a letter to Hooker in April of 1861, for example, Darwin used his delicate physiology to …
  • … Edward Wickstead Lane, and at Ilkley with Dr Edmund Smith, Darwin sought advice from his consulting …
  • … of a fashionable spinal ice treatment. In April 1864, Darwin attributed his improved health to Dr …
  • … to J. D. Hooker, 13 April [1864] ) Why was Darwin’s so ill? Historians and others have …
  • … that there were psychological or psychosomatic dimensions to Darwin’s most severe periods of crisis. …
  • … letter to F. T. Buckland, 15 December [1864] ). On Darwin’s early stomach troubles, see …
  • … , and letter to Robert FitzRoy, [20 February 1840] . Darwin’s health diary (Down House MS), which …
  • … occurrences of flatulence (see Colp 1977, pp. 46-7). Darwin first mentioned attacks of …
  • … daily (see Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6 May 1864] ). …
  • … up food.  In his letter to Chapman of 16 May [1865] , Darwin stated that his sickness was ‘always …
  • … 64). Fainting and ‘rocking’ had been recorded in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) on several occasions …
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