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From Edward Blyth   21 April 1855

Summary

Indigenous domestic animals of the New World.

Relationship of Newfoundland and Esquimo dogs to the wolf. Dogs like the Esquimo occur in Tibet and Siberia. Indian pariah dogs and jackals occasionally interbreed.

Describes domestic cats of India; reports cases of their interbreeding with wild cats. Wild cats are tamed for hunting.

Races of silkworm in India are crossed [see 1690].

Domesticated plants, fish, and birds of India.

Comments on local races and species of crows; it is impossible to trace a line of demarcation between races and species.

Variation in the ability of hybrids to propagate.

Indian cattle breeds; differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus.

Is not satisfied that aboriginally wild species of horse and ass exist.

Believes all fancy breeds of pigeon originated in the East. Wild ancestors of pigeons, ducks, geese, and fowls. Interbreeding of wild species of pheasant.

[CD’s notes are an abstract of this letter.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  21 Apr 1855
Classmark:  DAR 98: A57–A68
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1670

Matches: 15 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A57–A68 Edward Blyth Calcutta 21 Apr 1855 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Paget, John. …
  • … plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. White, …
  • … 5. Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … FitzRoy, RN, from 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Henry Colburn. 1839. Lambert, …
  • … 2: 217–465. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second part …
  • … 349–55, 415–23. Notebooks : Charles Darwin’s notebooks, 1836–1844. Geology, transmutation …
  • … the earlier of the two editions in the Darwin Library–CUL ( G.  White 1825 , 2: 118, 121). …
  • … 1840), pp.  132–4. This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. ‘Of a …
  • … 1839 . There is a copy of this work in the Darwin Library–CUL inscribed by the author. …
  • … Himalaya Mountains. ’ This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL, and CD scored this passage …
  • … 25. Pennant 1793, 1: 21. This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. …
  • … Many of the illustrations have been coloured by the Darwin children. R.  Owen 1846, p.   …
  • … 498. This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. The Bos frontosus . …

From Edward Blyth   4 August 1855

Summary

Sends a skeleton of a Bengal jungle cock.

Has never heard of trained otters breeding in captivity.

Introduced domestic rabbits are confined to the ports of India.

Canaries and other tame finches and thrushes brought into India do not breed well.

Origin of the domestic canary. Tendency of domesticated birds to produce "top-knot" varieties.

The tame geese of lower Bengal are hybrids; those of upper Bengal are said to be pure Anser cygnoides.

Wild Anser cinereus occur in flocks in the cold season.

Discusses at length different breeds of domestic cats and possible wild progenitors. Wild and domestic cats occasionally interbreed. The Angora variety breeds freely with the common Bengal cat and all stages of intermediates can be found.

Believes pigeons have been bred in India since remote antiquity.

Discusses whether mankind is divided into races or distinct species.

[CD’s notes are an abstract of this letter.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Aug 1855
Classmark:  DAR 98: A69–A78
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1735

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A69–A78 Edward Blyth Calcutta 4 Aug 1855 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … these articles, annotated by CD, in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. See also letter …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …
  • … an annotated offprint of this paper in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. Blyth served as …
  • … which Blyth 1837a appeared is in the Darwin Library–CUL. The article is heavily annotated. …
  • … title. ’ CD scored this passage in his copy of E.  S. Dixon 1848 (Darwin Library–CUL). …
  • … Delamer 1854  is also in the Darwin Library–CUL and CD wrote ‘M r Dixon’ under E.  S. …
  • … There is an offprint of this paper in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. Fryer 1698 , …
  • … is an offprint of this paper in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL, which was annotated by …
  • … in which this paper appeared is in the Darwin Library–CUL. The paper was extensively …
  • … noting: ‘Blyth says the names are Persian. ’ (Darwin Library–CUL). The English translation …

From Edward Blyth   22–3 August 1855

Summary

Gives extracts from a letter by Thomas Hutton.

Rabbits are kept (generally by Europeans) in the NW. provinces and breed freely. Canaries are not well adapted to the climate. Reports on domestic cats and pigeons of the area. EB gives references to further information on cats, pigeons, and silkworms.

[CD’s notes are an abstract of this letter.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22–3 Aug 1855
Classmark:  DAR 98: A79–A84
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1746

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A79–A84 Edward Blyth Calcutta 22–3 Aug 1855 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … passage in his copy of Harcourt 1855 (Darwin Library–CUL). Blyth 1849a, p.  124, gives the …
  • … Edinburgh. 1843. ML : More letters of Charles Darwin: a record of his work in a series of …
  • … unpublished letters. Edited by Francis Darwin and Albert Charles Seward. 2 vols. London: …
  • … Blyth— Miscellaneous Notes for M r . Darwin Cat . In Ogilby’s ‘Mammalogy of the Himalaya’, …

From Edward Blyth   [8 November 1855]

Summary

History of the rose in India.

Looks forward to reading what Hooker and Thompson say on species and varieties in their Flora Indica [1855].

Domestication of the turkey in America. The Peruvians had domestic dogs. W. W. Robinson of Assam reports that otters are extensively trained for fishing but cormorants never are. Gives Robinson’s comments on local domestic geese, rabbits, and cats.

EB has skins of jungle fowl from different localities to send.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [8 Nov 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 98: A108–A109
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1776

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A108–A109 Edward Blyth Calcutta [8 Nov 1855] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Notes for M r . Darwin. You will be surprised to learn that there is actually no Sanscrit …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …

From Edward Blyth   8 December 1855

Summary

What does CD think of A. R. Wallace’s paper in the Annals & Magazine of Natural History ["On the law which has regulated the introduction of new species", n.s. 16 (1855): 184–96]? EB considers it good on the whole.

Japanned variety of peacock.

Regional variations in bird species.

EB has little faith in the aboriginal wildness of the Chillingham cattle.

Races of humped cattle of India, China, and Africa.

Indian and Malayan gigantic squirrels, with various races remaining true to their colour, would afford capital data for Wallace, as would the local varieties of certain molluscs. Has Wallace’s lucid collation of facts unsettled CD’s ideas regarding the persistence of species?

Bengal hybrid race of geese is very uniform in colour and as prolific as the European tame goose [see Natural selection, p. 439].

Will see what he can do for CD with regard to domestic pigeons.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Dec 1855
Classmark:  DAR 98: A104–A107
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1792

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A104–A107 Edward Blyth Calcutta 8 Dec 1855 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … vols. London. Eisely, Loren. 1959. Charles Darwin, Edward Blyth, and the theory of natural …
  • … in which Wallace 1855  appeared, is in the Darwin Library–CUL. The paper was annotated and …
  • … scored this passage in his copy of the paper (Darwin Library–CUL). See letter from Edward …

From Edward Blyth   [22 September 1855]

Summary

Gives extract from a letter from Capt. R. Tickell: rabbits are not bred by the Burmese; common European and Chinese geese are bred but have probably only recently been introduced.

EB gives references to works illustrating the dog-like instinct of N. American wolves.

Discusses reason and instinct; ascribes both to man and animals. Comments on various instincts, e. g. homing, migratory, parental, constructive, and defensive. Reasoning in animals; cattle learning to overcome fear of passing trains.

Hybrid sterility as an indication of distinct species. Interbreeding as an indication of common parentage.

Enlarges upon details given by J. C. Prichard [in The natural history of man (1843)].

Adaptation of the two-humped camel to cold climates. Camel hybrids.

Doubts that domestic fowl or fancy pigeons have ever reverted to the wild.

Feral horses and cattle of S. America.

Believes the "creole pullets" to be a case of inaccurate description.

Variations in skulls between species of wild boar.

Pigs are so prolific that the species might be expected to cross.

Milk production of cows and goats.

Sheep and goats of lower Bengal.

Indian breeds of horses.

Variation in Asiatic elephants.

Spread of American tropical and subtropical plants in the East.

EB distinguishes between races and artificially-produced breeds.

[CD’s notes are an abstract of this memorandum.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [22 Sept 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 98: A85–A92
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1755

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A85–A92 Edward Blyth Calcutta [22 Sept 1855] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Memoranda for M r . Darwin. Extracts from a letter from Capt. S.  R. Tickell, Principal …
  • … skinned fowls in his copy of the paper (Darwin Library–CUL). Prichard 1843 , p.  38: ‘ “ …
  • … no more published). Singapore. Notebooks : Charles Darwin’s notebooks, 1836–1844. Geology, …
  • … CD’s copy of Blyth 1837a is annotated (Darwin Library–CUL). Stokes 1846 , 1: 222. Bewick …
  • … passages in his copy of G.  White 1825 , 2: 6, 57 (Darwin Library–CUL). Audubon 1831–9, 3: …
  • … 454–7. This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Blyth had earlier published on this …
  • … 1845, p.  347). In CD’s copy of this work (Darwin Library–CUL), this passage is scored in …
  • … of Hutton 1850 . This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. In Hutton …

From Edward Blyth   [22 October 1855]

Summary

Gives references to William Allen’s narrative of the Niger expedition [William Allen and T. R. H. Thompson , A narrative of the expedition sent by Her Majesty’s Government to the river Niger in 1841 (1848)]: common fowl returning to wildness, details of domestic sheep, ducks, and white fowl.

Range of the fallow deer; its affinity to the Barbary stag.

Natural propensity of donkeys for arid desert.

Indian donkeys often have zebra markings on the legs.

Believes the common domestic cat of India is indigenous.

Occurrence of cultivated plants from Europe in India; success of cultivation. Ancient history of cultivated plants.

[CD’s notes are an abstract of this memorandum and indicate that it was originally 20 pages long.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [22 Oct 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 98: A93–A98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1811

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A93–A98 Edward Blyth Calcutta [22 Oct 1855] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … 9. Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Notes for M r . Darwin I have been looking over Capt. W.  Allen’s narrative of the …
  • … 1851 , pp.  437–9. This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. This …

From Edward Blyth   7 September [1855]

Summary

Comments on the ease with which different species of Felis can be tamed.

Asian species of wild cattle.

Variation in colour of jackals.

Discusses the difficulties of differentiating between varieties and species. EB recommends Herman Schlegel’s definition of species [in Essay on the physiognomy of serpents, trans. T. S. Traill (1843)]. Problems of defining species of wolves and squirrels. Pigeons and doves afford an illustration of "clusters of species, varieties, or races". Various pigeons have local species in different parts of India and Burma, some of which interbreed where their ranges cross; as do the local species of Coracias [see Natural selection, p. 259].

[CD’s notes are an abstract of this memorandum.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Sept [1855]
Classmark:  DAR 98: A51–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1752

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A51–5 Edward Blyth Calcutta 7 Sept [1855] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … 1843 , pp.  195–243. CD’s copy, now in the Darwin Library–CUL, is annotated. See letter …
  • … Notes for M r . Darwin. Felis himalayanus of Jardine’s ‘Nat. Library’. — I remember …

From Edward Blyth   [30 September or 7 October 1855]

Summary

Origin of domestic varieties. EB ascribes "abnormal" variations to man’s propagation of casual monstrosities; believes "normal" variations, e.g. European races of cattle, are a consequence of man’s selecting the choicest specimens. Gives examples of "abnormal" variations; they give rise to features that have no counterpart among possible wild progenitors. Divides domestic animals into those whose origin is known and those whose origin is unknown. Considers that the wild progenitors of nearly all domestic birds are known. Fowls and pigeons show many varieties but if propagated abnormalities are ignored each group can be seen to be variations of a single species, the ancestors of which can be recognised without difficulty. Discusses varieties and ancestry of the domestic fowl. Variation in the wild; the ruff shows exceptional variability; other species of birds show variability in size of individuals. Remarks that markings sometimes vary on different sides of the same animal. Comments on the want of regularity in leaf and petal patterns of some plants. Discusses domestic varieties of reindeer and camels. Origin of humped cattle. Reports the rapid spread of a snail in lower Bengal that was introduced as a single pair five or six years previously.

[CD’s notes are an abstract of part of this memorandum. Memorandum originally enclosed with 1760.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [30 Sept or 7 Oct] 1855
Classmark:  DAR 98: A25–A36
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1761

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A25–A36 Edward Blyth Calcutta 30 Sept 1855 7 Oct 1855 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. Vrolik, …
  • … Notes for M r . Darwin. The 2 d . Vol. of Lyell’s ‘Principles’ not being conveniently at …
  • … 7. Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … 1841 , p.  881). Hodgson 1847 is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. CD scored the …
  • … in which these papers appeared, are in the Darwin Library–CUL. Both of the papers were …
  • … 1829–36, 1: xxiii–xxv. This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. In …
  • … class of mammalia. ’ This article is in Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL and was annotated …

From Edward Blyth   [1–8 October 1855]

Summary

Notes on Lyell’s Principles, vol. 2.

EB does not believe in connecting links between genera; there is no tendency to gradation between groups of animals.

Does not believe shortage of food can directly produce any heritable effect on size.

Comments on significance of variations discussed by Lyell. Variation in dentition and coloration.

Behaviour of elephants and monkeys.

When varieties are crossed EB considers that the form of the offspring, whether intermediate or like one or other of the parents, depends upon how nearly related the parents are.

Thinks that in the struggle for existence hybrids, and varieties generally, must be expected to give way to the "beautiful & minute adaptation" of the pure types.

Colours of Indian birds.

Vitality of seeds.

Variation among palms.

Fauna of Malaysia and New Zealand. Ranges of bird species.

[Memorandum originally enclosed with 1760.]

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1–8 Oct 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 98: A37–A50
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1762

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A37–A50 Edward Blyth Calcutta [1–8 Oct 1855] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. Wrangel, …
  • … There is a copy of Lyell 1830–3  in the Darwin Library–CUL. The Egyptian Hall (whose name …
  • … in which this paper appeared, is in the Darwin Library–CUL. The passage mentioned in the …
  • … in which this article appeared is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. C.   …
  • … 1837–52 , 1: 165–210. This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. …
  • … in which these articles appeared is in the Darwin Library–CUL. They were annotated by CD. …
  • … 253. An offprint of this report is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL and was annotated …
  • … an aberrant species. ’ This work is in the Darwin Library–CUL and was annotated by CD. The …

From Edward Blyth   8 October 1855

Summary

Encloses two sets of notes [see 1761 and 1762]. EB believes that as a general rule species do not inter-mix in nature whereas varieties, descendants of a common stock, do. Origin of varieties. Geographically separated species are sometimes obviously distinct and sometimes apparently identical. EB does not believe that species or races of independent origin need necessarily differ. Local distribution of species of black cockatoo contrasts with the widespread white cockatoo. The occurrence of distinct but related species in different regions of a zoological province, preserved because of geographical barriers. Instances of interspecific hybrids and intraspecific sterility. Local varieties of species. Varieties are subdivisions of the main branches of the tree of organisms, dividing irregularly but remaining independent of the twigs from another branch.

Author:  Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Oct 1855
Classmark:  DAR 98: A99–A103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1760

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 98: A99–A103 Edward Blyth Calcutta 8 Oct 1855 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …

From F. Bashford and Edward Blyth   [after 3 July 1855]

Summary

Notes on the interbreeding of different races of silkworm. [Forwarded with explanatory note by Edward Blyth.]

Author:  Frederick Bashford; Edward Blyth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 3 July 1855]
Classmark:  DAR 98: A56
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1690

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Bashford, Frederick Blyth, Edward Darwin, C. R. …
  • … 98: A56 Frederick Bashford Edward Blyth Calcutta [after 3 July 1855] Charles Robert Darwin
Document type
letter[X]
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Correspondent
Blyth, Edward[X]
Darwin, C. R. (12)
Bashford, Frederick (1)
Date
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04 (1)
07 (1)
08 (2)
09 (3)
10 (3)
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Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig …
  • … as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified …
  • … correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring …
  • … Actor 1 – Asa Gray Actor 2 – Charles Darwin Actor 3 – In the dress of a modern day …
  • … Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwin… and acts as a sort …
  • … the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and …
  • … this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa …
  • … friends in England, copies of his ‘Review of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it …
  • … Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwin… made his home on the border of the little …
  • … are kept in check by a constitutional weakness. DARWIN: A plain but comfortable brick …
  • … by every blessing except that of vigorous health… DARWIN:  4   My confounded stomach …
  • … pursuits and the simplicity of his character. DARWIN:   5   I am allowed to work now …
  • … own house, where he was the most charming of hosts. DARWIN:   6   My life goes on …
  • … being a part of [an unpublished] manuscript. Darwin settles down to write. His tone is …
  • … THE CONCURRENCE OF BOTANISTS: 1855 In which Darwin initiates a long-running correspondence …
  • … gossip about difficult colleagues (Agassiz). Gray realizes Darwin is not revealing all of his …
  • … man, more formally attired and lighter on his feet than Darwin. He has many more demands on his time …
  • … catches his attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN:  8   April 25 th 1855. My …
  • … filled up the paper you sent me as well as I could. DARWIN:  10   My dear Dr Gray. I …
  • … is condensed in that little sheet of note-paper! DARWIN:  11   My dear Hooker… What …
  • … surprising good. GRAY:   12   My dear Mr Darwin, I rejoice in furnishing facts to …
  • … of the sort to the advancement of science… DARWIN:  13   I hope… before [the] end of …
  • … reasonably expect… Yours most sincerely Asa Gray. DARWIN:  16   My dear Gray… Your …
  • … Journal, as a nut for [Professor] Agassiz to crack. Darwin and Gray share a joke at the …
  • … will turn up that he cannot explain away… DARWIN:  22   Hurrah I got yesterday my …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women …
  • … Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • … peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October …
  • … garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwin’s …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber …
  • … Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • … observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - …
  • … and offers to observe birds, insects or plants on Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - …
  • … ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen Lubbock, …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an …
  • … the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his …
  • … 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography …
  • … a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwin’s spirits. ‘I wish that my …
  • … W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the …
  • … that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I …
  • … contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by …
  • … Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). Seventy years old Darwin’s seventieth birthday on 12 …
  • … the veteran of Modern Zoology’, but it was in Germany that Darwin was most fêted. A German …
  • … ). The masters of Greiz College in Thuringia venerated Darwin as ‘the deep thinker’, while …
  • … accepted in Germany. ‘On this festive day’, Haeckel told Darwin, ‘you can look back, with justified …
  • … Hermann Müller wrote on 12 February to wish Darwin a ‘long and serene evening of life’. This …
  • … on the theory of development in connection with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as …
  • … March, with encouragement from his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Darwin decided to publish an …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the …
  • … he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwin’s correspondence reveals the scope …
  • … he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346: Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb 1837 …
  • … one stock.” Letter 2070: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [before 29 Sept 1857] …
  • … down of former continents.” Letter 3054: Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] …
  • … that languages, like species, were separately created. Darwin writes to the geologist Charles Lyell …
  • … I tell him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug …
  • … loud noise?” Letter 7040: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [1868-70?] As …
  • … gradually growing to such a stage” Letter 8367: Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June …
  • … unconsciously altering the breed. Letter 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 …
  • … Letter 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and …
  • … Language […]” Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The …
  • … of race […]” Letter 11074: Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwin’s …
  • … and comparative philologist Archibald Sayce wrote to Darwin with a series of detailed questions …
  • … how a child first uttered the word ‘mum’. In his reply, Darwin told Sayce “that ‘mum’ arose from …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … it had been proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • … impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September …
  • … content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [16 May 1872] Reade …
  • … of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [20 May 1872] Reade …
  • … women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … Cupples got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • … about Hooker’s thoughts. Letter 729 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • … is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844 …
  • … of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 …
  • … of the species. Letter 1685 — Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray …
  • … of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] …
  • … have in simple truth been of the utmost value to me.” Darwin believes species have arisen, like …
  • … or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants. Darwin discusses fertilisation in the bud …
  • … exchange This collection of letters between Darwin and Hooker, while Darwin was writing his …
  • … to information exchange. Letter 1202 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • … followed automatically. On the issue of nomenclature reform, Darwin opposes appending first …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of …
  • … portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that Darwin undertook throughout his lifetime …
  • … was jokingly lamenting his role as an intermediary for Darwin and his correspondents from around the …
  • … of friends and relatives was not a pursuit unique to Darwin (the exchange of photographic images was …
  • … reinforced his experimental and scientific network. Darwin’s Portraits Darwin sat for …
  • … famous photographers to studio portraitists looking to sell Darwin’s image to the masses. Between …
  • … in nineteenth-century photography. Darwin’s first photo-chemical experience …
  • … This particular daguerreotype is unique in terms of Darwin’s collection of photographs – it is the …
  • … exchanged, but rather was an object of display placed on a Darwin family mantlepiece. The image …
  • … in London and made at least four different exposures of Darwin between 1853 and 1857. They …
  • … While this image is notable as the first popular image of Darwin, the extent to which Darwin
  • … me look atrociously wicked.” Image: Charles Darwin, by Maull & Polyblank, albumen …
  • … Portrait Gallery, London (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) Darwin’s next experience with the …
  • … with the results. In 1860-61 and again in 1864 Charles Darwin sat for his eldest son, William Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1876 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 24 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wife … poor creature, has won …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11 …
  • … once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his …
  • … and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and …
  • … had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his …
  • … When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwin’s three volumes of the geology of …
  • … single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at …
  • … volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was nevertheless ‘firmly resolved not …
  • … meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the …
  • … to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second …
  • … concentrated on the ‘means of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self …
  • … return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in his ‘little Autobiography’ ( …
  • … holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a …
  • … for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August …
  • … dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 418–19). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to …
  • … ever return to the consideration of man.’ In particular, Darwin seemed eager to avoid issues that …
  • … wrote with the good news that he could restore Darwin to a religious life. This transformation would …
  • … that used to be called transmigration, Nemo pointed out to Darwin, adding, ‘the term nowadays is …
  • … enemies... Views such as these were easy enough for Darwin to dismiss, but it was more …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] …
  • … a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] …
  • … experiment about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] …
  • … some questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] …
  • … of each fragment at the base of my precipice”. Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 …
  • … of natural selection. He worries about the accusation in Darwin & his teachings “ Natural …
  • … fittest” instead of “Natural Selection”. Wallace urges Darwin to stress frequency of variations. …
  • … Personal Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive …
  • … own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov 1838] In this …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick

Summary

Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … the interview.     1. According to Darwin, how did language begin? …
  • … a bit more about that? 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … is the power of language. And the most important element in Darwin’s account of the origin of …
  • … the world or standing for feelings, begin to accumulate, and Darwin says these signs gave advantages …
  • … predators that might attack them, whatever it might be, Darwin thinks had an advantage in the …
  • … So language begins to accumulate like that. Likewise, Darwin thinks, in the courtship competition …
  • … better functioning brains. And a very important part of Darwin’s account of the origin of language …
  • … become more intelligent. And with larger intelligence comes, Darwin thinks, so many things—the …
  • … and so forth. 2. Was this an important topic for Darwin? And if so, why? It was hugely …
  • … systems of nonhuman animals, and human language.  And so Darwin saw himself as trying to combat that …
  • … Darwinian account of the origin of language. 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …
  • … that? Well, there’s a famous passage at the end of Darwin’s discussion of the evolutionary …
  • … ten of these. And a question has arisen, quite what was Darwin getting up to in pointing out these …
  • … debate, and on the one side are people who say that Darwin couldn’t resist an opportunity to review …
  • … but I also think something more is going on there. Darwin was very concerned to defend his position …
  • … the languages still show the formerly high state. So Darwin’s concerned, in my view, to …
  • … people who like to think of themselves as fans of Charles Darwin because, of course, we don’t …
  • … that, equality of languages. But that wasn’t the case for Darwin, that wasn’t how he understood his …
  • … him and us, however uncomfortable. 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … topics, I learned that there was a story around about how Darwin, very late in life, had changed his …
  • … of study of all this, and it turns out that from the time of Darwin’s death through till now, …
  • … not quite at the deathbed, but in 1881, a letter in which Darwin wrote to a friend of his that he …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Disagreement & Respect | Conduct of Debate | Darwin & Wallace The best-known …
  • … the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of …
  • … was itself an important arena of debate, one that Darwin greatly preferred to the public sphere. …
  • … and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help …
  • … Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged …
  • … Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement …
  • … were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter …
  • … of respect. Letter 2548 — Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859 Adam …
  • … which can neither be proved nor disproved”. He says that Darwin’s “grand principle natural …
  • … and as his true-hearted friend. Letter 2555 — Darwin, C. R. to Sedgwick, Adam, 26 Nov …
  • … have influenced the conclusions at which he has arrived. Darwin does not think the book will be …
  • … and incoming of living species” and so could not regard Darwin’s attempt to demonstrate the nature …
  • … at length a conversation with Owen concerning Origin . Darwin notes “that at bottom he goes …
  • … he thinks a sort of Bear was the grandpapa of Whales!” Darwin has heard Herschel considered his book …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 26 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). Having …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had …
  • … ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my …
  • … 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular reports about their …
  • … to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later …
  • … not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). It is …
  • … had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats …
  • … we must have’, Francis wrote ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 17 July 1878] ), ‘a strong …
  • … me to jump to conclusions rather’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 3 August 1878] ). One day …
  • … day & never the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s …
  • … Cieselski & read him,’ he reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [22 June 1878] ). ‘Sachs …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1877 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 25 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The …
  • … of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwin’s botany was increasingly a …
  • … assisted his father’s research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his son’s own …
  • … The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums …
  • … from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of …
  • … sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • … no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of …
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of …
  • … and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term …
  • … as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton …
  • … measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual …
  • … primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other …
  • … dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March …
  • … which include heterstyled species. This pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small …
  • … separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance more speculative views …
  • … both pollen and seeds’ ( Forms of flowers , p. 344). Darwin was typically pessimistic about the …
  • … be sold’. His publisher knew from previous experience that Darwin was a poor judge of sales, and …
  • … after completing his manuscript of Forms of flowers , Darwin took up the problem of ‘bloom’ in …
  • … characteristic whose purpose was little understood. Darwin had begun studying bloom in August 1873, …
  • … exchanged between Down and Kew over the next six months. Darwin corresponded most often with the …
  • … been for your kindness, we sh d . have broken down’, Darwin wrote back on 5 September . ‘As it …
  • … injury from pure water resting on leaves’. In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but …
  • … on leaves and the distribution of the stomata’ (F. Darwin 1886). Alongside his work on bloom, …
  • … closely to the leaves and required a tolerable shake’. Darwin gained another valuable observer in …
  • … T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and Francis devised a method of …
  • … the phenomenon in a Euphorbia (spurge) plant at Kew. Darwin then asked him to disturb the plant …
  • … card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed working with …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working …
  • … dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwin’s son George dominated the second …
  • … and traveller Alexander von Humboldt’s 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt …
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwin’s cousin, William Darwin Fox, to …
  • … from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one …
  • … I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a week’s visit to …
  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in …
  • … 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of …
  • … by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too …
  • … the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwin’s cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those …
  • … imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all imposture’ …
  • … stop word getting to America of the ‘strange news’ that Darwin had allowed ‘a spirit séance’ at his …
  • … the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwin’s enterprises in the 1870s, were family …
  • … 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in …
  • … and letter to Charles Lyell, [13 January 1874] ). Darwin blamed his illness for the …
  • … . In his preface ( Coral reefs  2d ed., pp. v–vii), Darwin reasserted the priority of his work. …
  • … for the absence of coral-reefs in certain locations. Darwin countered with the facts that low …
  • … whole coastline of a large island. Dana also thought that Darwin had seen fringing reefs as proof of …
  • … presentation copy, Dana sent an apology for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D …
  • … Alongside his revision of  Coral reefs,  Darwin went to work on a new edition of  Descent . In …
  • … George Cupples, a Scottish deerhound expert who forwarded Darwin’s queries about the numbers of …
  • … had raged between himself and Richard Owen since the 1860s. Darwin had omitted this controversial …
  • … elements of geology , and with the cheaper sixth edition of Darwin’s own  Origin . (The first …
  • … Murray’s partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the lower price would bring the profits …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific …
  • … admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of Darwin’s life in 1860, in the immediate …
  • … of publication of Descent of Man in 1871. In this period Darwin became a public figure, and the …
  • … increased accordingly. Letters conveyed public reaction to Darwin, as people who were often complete …
  • … worked up, or their religious doubts and concerns for Darwin’s own soul. Darwin himself used letters …
  • … world a questionnaire on the expression of the emotions. Darwin also continued to confide in his …
  • … yet been pointed out to me. No doubt many will be. Darwin to Huxley, 1860. …
  • … have been miserably uncomfortable. Emma to Charles Darwin, 1861. I am …
  • … gravitating towards your doctrines … Huxley to Darwin, 1862. I cannot bear …
  • … what you think about the derivation of Species … Darwin to Charles Lyell, 1863. …
  • … fairly settled & succeeding in India. John Scott to Darwin, 1864. I …
  • … was quite out of balance once during our voyage … Darwin to Hooker (on hearing of Robert …
  • … that the necks of your horses are badly galled … Darwin to a local landowner, 1866. …
  • … should be still very far off. Mary Boole to Darwin, 1866. Never, for God’s …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and …
  • … his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend …
  • … way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving …
  • … bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript …
  • … coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of …
  • … zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated …
  • … chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous …
  • … on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair …
  • … Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of …
  • … pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also …
  • … in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up …
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • … in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the …
  • … to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial …
  • … Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral …
  • … could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory …
  • … memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • … medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It …
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony …
  • … agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein …
  • … am astounded & disgusted at what you say about Klein,’ Darwin replied to Huxley on 1 November …
  • … the man.’   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwin’s keen interest in the progress of …
  • … leading physiologists. Indeed, some of the experiments that Darwin performed on plants, such as the …
  • … Vallisneria (tape grass). Fayrer had previously supplied Darwin with a quantity of the dried …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now …
  • … and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwin’s neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In …
  • … all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • … hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwin’s theory of transmutation …
  • … alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwin’s American publisher for a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwin’s work was given by Hooker in an …
  • … frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwin’s sisters died, Emily Catherine …
  • … from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwin’s first letters in the new year …
  • … every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July …
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4 …
  • … day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwin’s being teased by his neighbour, John …
  • … John Lubbock, 4 August 1866 ). More predictably, however, Darwin immediately converted his renewed …
  • … Since the publication of  Origin  in November 1859, Darwin had continued gathering and organising …
  • … by natural selection was based. The work relied heavily on Darwin’s extensive correspondence over …
  • … and poultry expert William Bernhard Tegetmeier. In January, Darwin wrote to Tegetmeier that he was …
  • … ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 16 January [1866] ). Darwin found the evidence of variation in …
  • … varieties from  Columbia livia , the rock pigeon. Darwin on heredity: the 'provisional …
  • … chapter headed ‘Provisional hypothesis of pangenesis’, Darwin proposed that the various phenomena of …
  • … example, the reproductive organs, or the tissues of a bud. Darwin had submitted a preliminary sketch …
  • … & brimful of my dear little mysterious gemmules.’ Darwin collected information on …
  • … Thomas Rivers, and the German botanist Robert Caspary. Darwin was particularly interested in recent …
  • … the scion apparently produced buds with blended characters; Darwin had tried to propagate the …

Early Days

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment The young Charles Darwin From an early age, Darwin exhibited a keen interest in the natural world. His boyish fascination with naturalist pursuits deepened as he entered college and started to interact with…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Questions | Experiment The young Charles Darwin From an early age, Darwin
  • … started to interact with fellow natural history enthusiasts. Darwin's correspondence from this …
  • … Under the mentorship of Robert Grant at Edinburgh, Darwin undertook original research about the …
  • … of bryazoan. In correspondence from his student days, Darwin negotiates complicated relationships …
  • … SOURCES Books Browne, Janet. Darwin's Origin of Species: A Biography. (2008 …
  • … so pleasant receiving letters.” Letter 68 —Darwin to William Darwin Fox [15 July 1829] …
  • … must take to complete his degree. Letter 78 —Darwin to William Darwin Fox [25 Mar 1830] …
  • … visit beetling in Cambridgeshire. Letter 98 —Darwin to Caroline Darwin [28 Apr 1831] …
  • … DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Do you think Darwin resented that his work was published under …
  • … letters to his brother Erasmus? 4. Why do you think Darwin was unable to take courses in …
  • … EXPERIMENT In order to experience some of Darwin's observations and experiments with …

Darwin's health

Summary

On 28 March 1849, ten years before Origin was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, where Dr James Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … March 1849, ten years before  Origin  was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker …
  • … Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to …
  • … See the letter At various periods in his life Darwin suffered from gastrointestinal …
  • … fatigue, trembling, faintness, and dizziness. In 1849, Darwin’s symptoms became so severe that he …
  • … for three months while he took Dr Gully’s water cure. In Darwin’s letter to Hooker, he described Dr …
  • … See the letter After returning from Malvern, Darwin continued his hydropathic …
  • … 1863. In a letter to Hooker in April of 1861, for example, Darwin used his delicate physiology to …
  • … Edward Wickstead Lane, and at Ilkley with Dr Edmund Smith, Darwin sought advice from his consulting …
  • … of a fashionable spinal ice treatment. In April 1864, Darwin attributed his improved health to Dr …
  • … to J. D. Hooker, 13 April [1864] ) Why was Darwin’s so ill? Historians and others have …
  • … that there were psychological or psychosomatic dimensions to Darwin’s most severe periods of crisis. …
  • … letter to F. T. Buckland, 15 December [1864] ). On Darwin’s early stomach troubles, see …
  • … , and letter to Robert FitzRoy, [20 February 1840] . Darwin’s health diary (Down House MS), which …
  • … occurrences of flatulence (see Colp 1977, pp. 46-7). Darwin first mentioned attacks of …
  • … daily (see Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6 May 1864] ). …
  • … up food.  In his letter to Chapman of 16 May [1865] , Darwin stated that his sickness was ‘always …
  • … 64). Fainting and ‘rocking’ had been recorded in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) on several occasions …
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