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To Charles Lyell   14 January [1860]

Summary

Review of Origin in Gardeners’ Chronicle [31 Dec 1859].

Criticises views of J. G. Jeffreys on non-migration of shells. Cites case of Galapagos shells.

Mentions Edward Forbes’s theory of submerged continental extensions. Cites Hooker’s [introductory] essay [in Flora Tasmaniae (1860)] for evidence against any recent connection between Australia and New Zealand.

Discusses Huxley’s views of hybrid sterility.

Questions whether Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire believed in species change. Mentions views of Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

The distribution of cave insects.

CD’s study of man.

The problems of locating French and German translators.

Huxley’s criticism of Owen’s views on human classification.

The sale of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.192)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2650

Matches: 10 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.192) Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 Jan [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … 1856 . There is an annotated offprint in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. In his paper, …
  • … point in his copy of Jeffreys’s paper (Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL). However, Jeffreys …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Saint-Hilaire 1851 , a copy of which is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. For the …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …
  • … both countries? — Goodnight— | Yours affect | C.  Darwin What a grand, immense benefit you …
  • … 1856] ). Hooker 1859, p.  lxxxvii. In his copy (Darwin Library–CUL), CD noted next to this …

To Charles Lyell   4 February [1860]

Summary

Suggests references in Journal of researches 2d ed. in response to a query about the antiquity of man. Perplexed about S. S. Haldeman and Haldeman 1843–4. Glad to hear about A. C. Ramsay. Has received letter from H. G. Bronn.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146: 229
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2687F

Matches: 5 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … DAR 146: 229 Charles Robert Darwin 4 Feb [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st baronet …
  • … Bronn 1860b. There is an annotated copy in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. See n.   8, …
  • … if I had never written it. Yours— | C Darwin. P.  S.  Very many thanks for your pleasant …
  • … asking him to return it to Erasmus Alvey Darwin’s house in London (see Correspondence …

To Charles Lyell   12 [February 1860]

Summary

Encloses letters from H. G. Bronn, Asa Gray, and C. J. F. Bunbury, concerning the Origin.

Will send review by Gray and a notice by Bronn.

Says Bronn will superintend the German translation.

Comments on lecture by Huxley [at Royal Institution, 10 Feb 1860, Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 3 (1858–62): 195–200]. Has remonstrated with him for saying sterility is "a universal and infallible criterion of species".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 [Feb 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.196)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2693

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.196) Charles Robert Darwin Down 12 [Feb 1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … then discuss man well Ever yours | C.  Darwin How much I owe to you & Hooker; I do not …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … of their origin. The Lyells visited Down from 9 to 12 March 1860 (Emma Darwin’s diary). …
  • … Arts . There is a copy of the review in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. Bronn 1860a. …
  • … H.  G.  Bronn, 14 February [1860] . Emma Darwin’s diary records that CD went to London on …
  • … at the house of his brother Erasmus Alvey Darwin. Thomas Henry Huxley delivered a Friday …

To Charles Lyell   15 and 16 [February 1860]

Summary

Auguste Bravard’s discoveries magnificent.

Bravard has sent pamphlets [Observaciones geológicas (1857) and Monografia de los terrenos marinos terciarios (1858)] with strange doctrine that Pampean deposit is subaerial.

Review of Origin by Wollaston [Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. 5 (1860): 132–43] clever and misinterprets CD only in a few places.

Wallace’s MS ["Zoological geography of the Malay Archipelago", J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 4 (1860): 172–84] admirably good.

Henslow "will go very little way with us". "He, also, shudders at the eye!"

Baden Powell says CD’s statement about eye is conclusive.

Leonard Jenyns cannot go as far as CD, yet cannot give good reason.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  15 and 16 Feb 1860
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.198), Kinnordy MS
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2700

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Mss.B.D25.198), Kinnordy MS Charles Robert Darwin Down 15 [Feb 1860] 16 [Feb 1860] Charles …
  • … 9. Autobiography : The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882. With original omissions …
  • … 1857  and 1858. Both works are in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL; they were signed and …
  • … to believe all. — Ever yours affect | C.  Darwin I hope you will succeed in finding out …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. South America : …
  • … the years 1832 to 1836. By Charles Darwin. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1846. Wallace, …
  • … Down from 14 to 16 February 1860 (Emma Darwin’s diary). For Charles James Fox Bunbury’s …

To Charles Lyell   18 [and 19 February 1860]

Summary

Encloses reviews by Asa Gray and Bronn. Comments on Bronn review. Mentions review by Wollaston.

Comments on paper by W. H. Harvey in Gardeners’ Chronicle [(1860): 145–6]. Discusses Harvey’s belief in the permanence of monsters.

Discusses CL’s objection that still-living primitive forms failed to develop.

The survival of Lepidosiren and other primitive types of fish and mammals.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 and 19 Feb 1860
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.199)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2703

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.199) Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 [Feb 1860] [19 Feb 1860] Charles …
  • … plants of Europe. — With hearty thanks for all your kindness— Yours affect y | C.  Darwin
  • … Bibliography Hull, David L. 1973. Darwin and his critics: …
  • … the reception of Darwin’s theory of evolution by the scientific community. Cambridge, …
  • … University Press. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second …
  • … with additions and corrections. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1861. Origin : On …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Pouchet, Félix …
  • … side with me. — Ever yours affec ly | C.  Darwin P.S. | Sunday afternoon | I have kept …
  • … of Bronn 1860a, p.  114, which is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. For a translation …
  • … Überraschung fanden, dass er die Darwin’sche Schrift denjenigen Geologen entgegenhält, …
  • … have recently found that he contrasts Darwin’s writing with those geologists who believe …

To Charles Lyell   23 February [1860]

Summary

Gradation in the eye.

Hooker intends to reply [to W. H. Harvey’s article in Gard. Chron. (1860): 145–6].

Discusses Aspicarpa with respect to correlation.

Comments on monstrous animals.

Discusses objections of Bronn and Asa Gray to natural selection. Cites parallel between natural selection and Newton’s concept of gravitation.

Mentions German experiments on spontaneous generation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  23 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.200)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2707

Matches: 9 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.200) Charles Robert Darwin Down 23 Feb [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … refers to Jordan 1852 , a copy of which is in the Darwin Library–CUL. [Wollaston] 1860 . …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … most pleasant letter | Yours affet | C.  Darwin I send a letter by Herbert Spencer which …
  • … The initial reactions of French biologists to Darwin’s Origin of Species. Journal of the …
  • … 2: 65–161. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second part …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Pouchet, Félix …
  • … 1860. Dana 1857 . There is a copy in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL.  For CD’s poor …

To Charles Lyell   25 February [1860]

Summary

Comments on CL’s reaction to the Origin. Mentions reactions of other scientists.

Discusses fertility of Aspicarpa.

Criticises Herbert Spencer’s views on population.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  25 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.201)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2714

Matches: 10 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … rubbish on the nature of reproduction. My dear Lyell | Yours ever gratefully | C.  Darwin
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.201) Charles Robert Darwin Down 25 Feb [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … 1985–. Gregory, J. W. 1916. Henry Darwin Rogers: an address to the Glasgow University …
  • … Sons. LL : The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. …
  • … Edited by Francis Darwin. 3 vols. London: John Murray. 1887–8. Origin : …
  • … pits’) until needed. According to Francis Darwin, CD periodically burnt the accumulated …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … the one dated 21 February 1860. Henry Darwin Rogers, the American geologist, was professor …

To Charles Lyell   12 [March 1860]

Summary

Discusses the intellectual development of the ancient Greeks as an objection to evolution and gives his reply.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 [Mar 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.203)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5032

Matches: 6 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.203) Charles Robert Darwin Down 12 [Mar 1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … your & Lady Lyell’s visit— Good Night | C.  Darwin By an odd chance (for I had not alluded …
  • … Lyell had visited Down from 9 to 12 March 1860 (Emma Darwin’s diary). Probably a reference …
  • … Harriet Tollet, childhood friends of Emma Darwin. Emma recorded in her diary on 10 March  …
  • … stayed until 14 March. CD’s sister Emily Catherine Darwin was also visiting at the time. …

To Charles Lyell   [24 March – 3 April 1860]

Summary

Discusses letter of recommendation for Edward Blyth.

Sedgwick’s review of the Origin in the Spectator [24 Mar 1860].

Mentions breaks between geological formations.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [24 Mar – 3 Apr 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.204)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2734

Matches: 5 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.204) Charles Robert Darwin Down [24 Mar – 3 Apr 1860] Charles Lyell, …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. [ …
  • … Sedgwick, Adam. ] 1860. Objections to Mr Darwin’s theory of the origin of species. …

To Charles Lyell   10 April [1860]

Summary

W. B. Carpenter’s review of Origin [in Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 25 (1860): 367–404] "very good and well balanced, but not brilliant".

"There is a brilliant review by Huxley" [Westminster Rev. 17 (1860): 541–70].

Asa Gray sends good case of selection producing black pigs in Virginia.

Great blow to CD that CL cannot admit potency of natural selection.

Owen’s review in Edinburgh Review [111 (1860): 487–532] "extremely malignant, clever".

Patrick Matthew has published extract in Gardeners’ Chronicle [7 Apr 1860] from his Naval timber and arboriculture [1831], a complete but not developed anticipation of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  10 Apr [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.206)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2754

Matches: 7 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.206) Charles Robert Darwin Down 10 Apr [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … the weekend of 7 and 8 April 1860 (Emma Darwin’s diary). The Future was a London journal …
  • … review of Origin . There is a copy in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. [Carpenter] …
  • … Farewell my dear Lyell | Yours affect | C.  Darwin How hard it is to please everyone. I …
  • … inscribed ‘Ap.  13 th 1860’, is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Brixham Cave, near Torquay, was …

To Charles Lyell   15 April [1860]

Summary

Has resolved not to correct Owen’s misrepresentations in his review of Origin.

Discusses at length the theological implications of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  15 Apr [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.208)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2761

Matches: 4 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.208) Charles Robert Darwin Down 15 Apr [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … gradations are not known. — Ever yours | C.  Darwin The conclusion at which I have come, …
  • … date: Saturday was 21 April 1860. Emma Darwin’s diary records that CD went to London on …

To Charles Lyell   27 and 28 April [1860]

Summary

Thanks CL for loan of paper by J. S. Newberry ["Notes on the ancient vegetation of N. America", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 208–18].

Mentions reviews of the Origin.

Discusses evolution of the domestic dog, especially with respect to the views of Owen, Pallas, and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

Mentions W. B. Carpenter’s views on taxonomy.

Discusses hybridisation of plants and animals.

Comments on progress in human evolution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  27 and 28 Apr 1860
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.209)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2771

Matches: 11 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.209) Charles Robert Darwin Down 27 Apr [1860] 28 Apr [1860] Charles …
  • … of Gärtner 1844  and 1849 are in the Darwin Library–CUL.  His abstracts of Kölreuter’s …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … copy of Newberry 1860  is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL.  It is inscribed: ‘Sir …
  • … 26: 644–71. Natural selection : Charles Darwin’s Natural selection: being the second part …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Pallas, Pyotr …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …
  • … My dear Lyell | Yours very sincerely | C.  Darwin Please return the 3 Reviews whenever you …
  • … 25 April 1860 that is headed ‘With Darwin’ (Wilson ed.  1970, pp.  372–3). CD visited …
  • … CD’s annotated copy of the work is in the Darwin Library–CUL. Karl Friedrich von Gärtner …

To Charles Lyell   4 May [1860]

Summary

Is sending CL an arrow-head. Says John Lubbock tells of vast numbers of flint tools in peat in France. Urges CL to conduct further research on the subject.

Comments on paper by J. S. Newberry concerning palaeozoic deposits in America [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 29 (1860): 208–18]

and on A. von Keyserling’s view of species change.

Mentions J. W. Salter’s chart arranging Spirifer.

Comments on Andrew Murray’s paper on the Origin ["On Mr Darwin’s theory of the origin of species", Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 4 (1860): 274–91].

A Manchester newspaper article says CD has proved "might is right".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.210)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2782

Matches: 8 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.210) Charles Robert Darwin Down 4 May [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st baronet …
  • … for your last note— Yours affect ly | C.  Darwin I have received in a Manchester Newspaper …
  • … Murray’s paper on the Origin ["On Mr Darwin’s theory of the origin of species", Proc. R. …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … 1985–. LL : The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. …
  • … Edited by Francis Darwin. 3 vols. London: John Murray. 1887–8. Newberry, John Strong. …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …

To Charles Lyell   8 [May 1860]

Summary

Did not know about separation between Silurian and Cambrian.

Cannot attend Geological Society meeting.

Etty [Henrietta Darwin] ill.

Sedgwick in his attack at Cambridge Philosophical Society states "there must be [on CD’s theory] large genera not varying".

Discusses migration of plants and animals from Old World to New.

Views of Asa Gray on Aster.

Mentions flora of coal period.

Has been elected to Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  8 [May 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.211)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2788

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.211) Charles Robert Darwin Down 8 [May 1860] Charles Lyell, 1st baronet …
  • … Society meeting. Etty [Henrietta Darwin] ill. Sedgwick in his attack at Cambridge …
  • … My dear Lyell | Yours gratefully | C.  Darwin What a grand fact about extinct Stags horn …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Lubbock was also deeply interested in the topic. An entry in Emma Darwin’s diary on 7 May  …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …
  • … 1860 records that Henrietta Emma Darwin was suffering from ‘cold & fever’. …
  • … She had fallen ill on 28 April 1860 (Emma Darwin’s diary). …
  • … A review entitled ‘Darwin on the origin of species by means of natural selection’, …
  • … the journal. CD’s copy of the article (Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL) identifies Dawson …

To Charles Lyell   18 May [1860]

Summary

Comments on enclosed letters from Asa Gray and Wallace [missing].

Discusses hybrid fertility in rabbits and hares, and pheasants and fowls.

Asks about paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen ["Über Beständigkeit u. Umwandlung der Arten", Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande 10 (1853): 420–51].

Mentions criticism by Sedgwick and William Clark at Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Notes importance of CL and Hooker in defending Origin.

Comments on papers by D. A. Godron ["Considérations sur les migrations des végétaux", Acad. Stanislas Mem. Soc. Sci. Nancy (1853): 329–67].

Mentions receiving anonymous verses.

A Manchester newspaper lampoon shows CD has proved "might makes right" to be a universal law.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  18 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.212)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2806

Matches: 10 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.212) Charles Robert Darwin Down 18 May [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … and plants under domestication. By Charles Darwin. 2 vols. London: John Murray. 1868. …
  • … 28  April 1860 that Henrietta Emma Darwin was ‘poorly’. Her fever had been diagnosed as a …
  • … is an annotated copy of the book in the Darwin Library–CUL. Godron  1853. The verses have …
  • … My dear Lyell | Yours affect | C.  Darwin I have read some of Godron. — He strikes me as …
  • … 1853 . There is an annotated copy in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL.  Bound with the …
  • … 423–4), possibly prepared for CD by the Darwins‘ governess, Camilla Ludwig. Dawson 1860b. …
  • … Phillips 1860 . See preceding letter and n.  13. Emma Darwin recorded in her diary on …

To Charles Lyell   22 May [1860]

Summary

Mentions American edition of Origin.

A "savage" review [by John Duns] in North British Review [32 (1860): 455–68].

Comments on views of G. H. K. Thwaites on the survival of simple forms as a problem in his theory.

Mentions imperfection of geological record.

Marine origin of coal.

Illness of Etty.

Encloses article by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire on hare–rabbit crosses [Histoire naturelle générale (1854–62) 3: 222].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  22 May [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.213)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2812

Matches: 7 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.213) Charles Robert Darwin Down 22 May [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … write, so goodBye | Yours affect. | C.  Darwin What a fact about the Coal Land Shells!!! …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … 3: 222. CD’s annotated copy is in the Darwin Library–CUL.  See letter to Charles Lyell, …
  • … There is a copy of the review in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. [Carpenter] 1860b was …
  • … of favoured races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. …

To Charles Lyell   1 [June 1860]

Summary

Comments on review of Origin by Andrew Murray [Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 4 (1860): 274–91] and views of William Hopkins on Origin ["Physical theories and the phenomena of life" Fraser’s Mag. 61 (1860): 739–52; 62 (1860): 74–90]. The attacks will tell heavily.

Mentions Blyth’s failure to receive appointment as naturalist to China expedition of 1860.

Encloses letter from Asa Gray.

Discusses gestation period in domesticated dogs.

Comments on hybrid fertility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.214)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2820

Matches: 8 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.214) Charles Robert Darwin Down 1 [June 1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … general laws in these respects with animals. — My dear Lyell | Ever yours | C.  Darwin
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … a distant relative of both CD and Emma Darwin, was a physician in ordinary to Queen …
  • … severe (see Correspondence vol.  4). The Darwins’ local doctor had diagnosed her illness …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Phillips, John. …
  • … 10–16. A copy of the review is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL.  A second article …

To Charles Lyell   6 June [1860]

Summary

Mentions Etty’s illness.

A "coarsely contemptuous" review of Origin by Samuel Haughton ["On the form of the cells made by various wasps and by the honey bee; with an appendix on the origin of species", Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Dublin 3 (1860): 128–40].

Comments on reception of Malthus’ ideas.

Says William Hopkins does not understand him.

Discusses problem of term "natural selection".

J. A. Lowell’s review of Origin [Christian Examiner (1860): 449–64].

Relationship between instinct and structure.

Discusses blindness of cave animals.

The fallacy of Andrew Murray and others; the slight importance of climate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  6 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.215)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2822

Matches: 10 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Oxford? If Etty gets quite well; perhaps I shall go there. —   Yours affect | C.  Darwin
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.215) Charles Robert Darwin Down 6 June [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Sciences . Copies of these reviews are in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. The author …
  • … 62: 74–90. [Lowell, John Amory]. 1860. Darwin’s Origin of species. Christian Examiner and …
  • … in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Schaaffhausen, …
  • … case in point. On his copy of the article (Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL), CD attributed …
  • … of this review ([Bowen] 1860a) in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL.  In another article …
  • … an annotated copy of Bowen 1860b in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL.  Both Lowell and …

To Charles Lyell   14 [June 1860]

Summary

Mentions letters from Edward Blyth and William Hopkins.

Sees little in review of Origin by J. A. Lowell [Christian Examiner (1860): 449–64].

Sees only one sentence approaching natural selection in paper by Hermann Schaaffhausen. Emphasises importance of natural selection.

Comments on Agassiz’s view of species.

Cites account of flint tools in travel book by F. P. Wrangell [Narrative of an expedition to the Polar Sea (1840)]. Mentions Eskimo tools.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 [June 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.216)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2832

Matches: 10 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.216) Charles Robert Darwin Down 14 [June 1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Henrietta Emma Darwin. Edward Blyth’s letter has not been found, but see the letter to …
  • … 62: 74–90. [Lowell, John Amory]. 1860. Darwin’s Origin of species. Christian Examiner and …
  • … races in the struggle for life. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1859. Richardson, …
  • … subject. — My dear Lyell | Yours affect. | C.  Darwin Blyth says in Sabines Translation of …
  • … s copy of Schaaffhausen 1853  is in the Darwin Pamphlet Collection–CUL. Bound with it is a …
  • … in the hand of Camilla Ludwig, the Darwins’ governess. CD marked on the translation the …
  • … p.  290): The distinctive character of Mr Darwin’s theory is not development ex ovo ; that …

To Charles Lyell   17 June [1860]

Summary

Discusses relationship between natural selection and more general laws. Law of gravity is not seen as requiring design. Mentions mathematicians’ judgment of probability.

Notes gestation periods for hounds.

Etty is somewhat better.

Mentions his paper on fertilisation of orchids by insects [Collected papers 2: 32–5].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  17 June [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.217)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2833

Matches: 6 hits

  • Darwin, C. R. Lyell, Charles …
  • … Society (Mss.B.D25.217) Charles Robert Darwin Down 17 June [1860] Charles Lyell, 1st …
  • … papers : The collected papers of Charles Darwin. Edited by Paul H. Barrett. 2 vols. …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … 1860] and 25 [June 1860]. Henrietta Emma Darwin. See letter to Gardeners’ Chronicle , [4– …
  • … makes 7 weeks in bed! Yours affect | C.  Darwin I was thinking of sending G.  Chronicle to …
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Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig …
  • … as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified …
  • … correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring …
  • … Actor 1 – Asa Gray Actor 2 – Charles Darwin Actor 3 – In the dress of a modern day …
  • … Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwin… and acts as a sort …
  • … the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and …
  • … this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa …
  • … friends in England, copies of his ‘Review of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it …
  • … Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwin… made his home on the border of the little …
  • … are kept in check by a constitutional weakness. DARWIN: A plain but comfortable brick …
  • … by every blessing except that of vigorous health… DARWIN:  4   My confounded stomach …
  • … pursuits and the simplicity of his character. DARWIN:   5   I am allowed to work now …
  • … own house, where he was the most charming of hosts. DARWIN:   6   My life goes on …
  • … being a part of [an unpublished] manuscript. Darwin settles down to write. His tone is …
  • … THE CONCURRENCE OF BOTANISTS: 1855 In which Darwin initiates a long-running correspondence …
  • … gossip about difficult colleagues (Agassiz). Gray realizes Darwin is not revealing all of his …
  • … man, more formally attired and lighter on his feet than Darwin. He has many more demands on his time …
  • … catches his attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN:  8   April 25 th 1855. My …
  • … filled up the paper you sent me as well as I could. DARWIN:  10   My dear Dr Gray. I …
  • … is condensed in that little sheet of note-paper! DARWIN:  11   My dear Hooker… What …
  • … surprising good. GRAY:   12   My dear Mr Darwin, I rejoice in furnishing facts to …
  • … of the sort to the advancement of science… DARWIN:  13   I hope… before [the] end of …
  • … reasonably expect… Yours most sincerely Asa Gray. DARWIN:  16   My dear Gray… Your …
  • … Journal, as a nut for [Professor] Agassiz to crack. Darwin and Gray share a joke at the …
  • … will turn up that he cannot explain away… DARWIN:  22   Hurrah I got yesterday my …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women …
  • … Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • … peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October …
  • … garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwin’s …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber …
  • … Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • … observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - …
  • … and offers to observe birds, insects or plants on Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - …
  • … ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen Lubbock, …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the …
  • … he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwin’s correspondence reveals the scope …
  • … he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346: Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb 1837 …
  • … one stock.” Letter 2070: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [before 29 Sept 1857] …
  • … down of former continents.” Letter 3054: Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] …
  • … that languages, like species, were separately created. Darwin writes to the geologist Charles Lyell …
  • … I tell him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug …
  • … loud noise?” Letter 7040: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [1868-70?] As …
  • … gradually growing to such a stage” Letter 8367: Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June …
  • … unconsciously altering the breed. Letter 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 …
  • … Letter 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and …
  • … Language […]” Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The …
  • … of race […]” Letter 11074: Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwin’s …
  • … and comparative philologist Archibald Sayce wrote to Darwin with a series of detailed questions …
  • … how a child first uttered the word ‘mum’. In his reply, Darwin told Sayce “that ‘mum’ arose from …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … it had been proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • … impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September …
  • … content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [16 May 1872] Reade …
  • … of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [20 May 1872] Reade …
  • … women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … Cupples got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • … about Hooker’s thoughts. Letter 729 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • … is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844 …
  • … of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 …
  • … of the species. Letter 1685 — Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray …
  • … of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] …
  • … have in simple truth been of the utmost value to me.” Darwin believes species have arisen, like …
  • … or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants. Darwin discusses fertilisation in the bud …
  • … exchange This collection of letters between Darwin and Hooker, while Darwin was writing his …
  • … to information exchange. Letter 1202 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • … followed automatically. On the issue of nomenclature reform, Darwin opposes appending first …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of …
  • … portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that Darwin undertook throughout his lifetime …
  • … was jokingly lamenting his role as an intermediary for Darwin and his correspondents from around the …
  • … of friends and relatives was not a pursuit unique to Darwin (the exchange of photographic images was …
  • … reinforced his experimental and scientific network. Darwin’s Portraits Darwin sat for …
  • … famous photographers to studio portraitists looking to sell Darwin’s image to the masses. Between …
  • … in nineteenth-century photography. Darwin’s first photo-chemical experience …
  • … This particular daguerreotype is unique in terms of Darwin’s collection of photographs – it is the …
  • … exchanged, but rather was an object of display placed on a Darwin family mantlepiece. The image …
  • … in London and made at least four different exposures of Darwin between 1853 and 1857. They …
  • … While this image is notable as the first popular image of Darwin, the extent to which Darwin
  • … me look atrociously wicked.” Image: Charles Darwin, by Maull & Polyblank, albumen …
  • … Portrait Gallery, London (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) Darwin’s next experience with the …
  • … with the results. In 1860-61 and again in 1864 Charles Darwin sat for his eldest son, William Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1876 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 24 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wife … poor creature, has won …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11 …
  • … once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his …
  • … and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and …
  • … had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his …
  • … When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwin’s three volumes of the geology of …
  • … single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at …
  • … volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was nevertheless ‘firmly resolved not …
  • … meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the …
  • … to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second …
  • … concentrated on the ‘means of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self …
  • … return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in his ‘little Autobiography’ ( …
  • … holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a …
  • … for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August …
  • … dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 418–19). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to …
  • … ever return to the consideration of man.’ In particular, Darwin seemed eager to avoid issues that …
  • … wrote with the good news that he could restore Darwin to a religious life. This transformation would …
  • … that used to be called transmigration, Nemo pointed out to Darwin, adding, ‘the term nowadays is …
  • … enemies... Views such as these were easy enough for Darwin to dismiss, but it was more …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] …
  • … a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] …
  • … experiment about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] …
  • … some questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] …
  • … of each fragment at the base of my precipice”. Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 …
  • … of natural selection. He worries about the accusation in Darwin & his teachings “ Natural …
  • … fittest” instead of “Natural Selection”. Wallace urges Darwin to stress frequency of variations. …
  • … Personal Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive …
  • … own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov 1838] In this …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick

Summary

Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … the interview.     1. According to Darwin, how did language begin? …
  • … a bit more about that? 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … is the power of language. And the most important element in Darwin’s account of the origin of …
  • … the world or standing for feelings, begin to accumulate, and Darwin says these signs gave advantages …
  • … predators that might attack them, whatever it might be, Darwin thinks had an advantage in the …
  • … So language begins to accumulate like that. Likewise, Darwin thinks, in the courtship competition …
  • … better functioning brains. And a very important part of Darwin’s account of the origin of language …
  • … become more intelligent. And with larger intelligence comes, Darwin thinks, so many things—the …
  • … and so forth. 2. Was this an important topic for Darwin? And if so, why? It was hugely …
  • … systems of nonhuman animals, and human language.  And so Darwin saw himself as trying to combat that …
  • … Darwinian account of the origin of language. 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …
  • … that? Well, there’s a famous passage at the end of Darwin’s discussion of the evolutionary …
  • … ten of these. And a question has arisen, quite what was Darwin getting up to in pointing out these …
  • … debate, and on the one side are people who say that Darwin couldn’t resist an opportunity to review …
  • … but I also think something more is going on there. Darwin was very concerned to defend his position …
  • … the languages still show the formerly high state. So Darwin’s concerned, in my view, to …
  • … people who like to think of themselves as fans of Charles Darwin because, of course, we don’t …
  • … that, equality of languages. But that wasn’t the case for Darwin, that wasn’t how he understood his …
  • … him and us, however uncomfortable. 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … topics, I learned that there was a story around about how Darwin, very late in life, had changed his …
  • … of study of all this, and it turns out that from the time of Darwin’s death through till now, …
  • … not quite at the deathbed, but in 1881, a letter in which Darwin wrote to a friend of his that he …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Disagreement & Respect | Conduct of Debate | Darwin & Wallace The best-known …
  • … the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of …
  • … was itself an important arena of debate, one that Darwin greatly preferred to the public sphere. …
  • … and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help …
  • … Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged …
  • … Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement …
  • … were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter …
  • … of respect. Letter 2548 — Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859 Adam …
  • … which can neither be proved nor disproved”. He says that Darwin’s “grand principle natural …
  • … and as his true-hearted friend. Letter 2555 — Darwin, C. R. to Sedgwick, Adam, 26 Nov …
  • … have influenced the conclusions at which he has arrived. Darwin does not think the book will be …
  • … and incoming of living species” and so could not regard Darwin’s attempt to demonstrate the nature …
  • … at length a conversation with Owen concerning Origin . Darwin notes “that at bottom he goes …
  • … he thinks a sort of Bear was the grandpapa of Whales!” Darwin has heard Herschel considered his book …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 26 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). Having …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had …
  • … ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my …
  • … 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular reports about their …
  • … to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later …
  • … not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). It is …
  • … had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats …
  • … we must have’, Francis wrote ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 17 July 1878] ), ‘a strong …
  • … me to jump to conclusions rather’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 3 August 1878] ). One day …
  • … day & never the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s …
  • … Cieselski & read him,’ he reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [22 June 1878] ). ‘Sachs …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from 1875 on this website.  The full texts of the …
  • … 23 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and …
  • … his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend …
  • … way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving …
  • … bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript …
  • … coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of …
  • … zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated …
  • … chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous …
  • … on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair …
  • … Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of …
  • … pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also …
  • … in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up …
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • … in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the …
  • … to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial …
  • … Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral …
  • … could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory …
  • … memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • … medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It …
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony …
  • … agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein …
  • … am astounded & disgusted at what you say about Klein,’ Darwin replied to Huxley on 1 November …
  • … the man.’   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwin’s keen interest in the progress of …
  • … leading physiologists. Indeed, some of the experiments that Darwin performed on plants, such as the …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1877 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 25 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The …
  • … of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwin’s botany was increasingly a …
  • … assisted his father’s research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his son’s own …
  • … The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums …
  • … from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of …
  • … sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • … no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of …
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of …
  • … and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term …
  • … as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton …
  • … measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual …
  • … primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other …
  • … dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March …
  • … which include heterstyled species. This pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small …
  • … separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance more speculative views …
  • … both pollen and seeds’ ( Forms of flowers , p. 344). Darwin was typically pessimistic about the …
  • … be sold’. His publisher knew from previous experience that Darwin was a poor judge of sales, and …
  • … after completing his manuscript of Forms of flowers , Darwin took up the problem of ‘bloom’ in …
  • … characteristic whose purpose was little understood. Darwin had begun studying bloom in August 1873, …
  • … exchanged between Down and Kew over the next six months. Darwin corresponded most often with the …
  • … been for your kindness, we sh d . have broken down’, Darwin wrote back on 5 September . ‘As it …
  • … injury from pure water resting on leaves’. In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but …
  • … on leaves and the distribution of the stomata’ (F. Darwin 1886). Alongside his work on bloom, …
  • … closely to the leaves and required a tolerable shake’. Darwin gained another valuable observer in …
  • … T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and Francis devised a method of …
  • … the phenomenon in a Euphorbia (spurge) plant at Kew. Darwin then asked him to disturb the plant …
  • … card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed working with …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working …
  • … dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwin’s son George dominated the second …
  • … and traveller Alexander von Humboldt’s 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt …
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwin’s cousin, William Darwin Fox, to …
  • … from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one …
  • … I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a week’s visit to …
  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in …
  • … 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of …
  • … by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too …
  • … the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwin’s cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those …
  • … imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all imposture’ …
  • … stop word getting to America of the ‘strange news’ that Darwin had allowed ‘a spirit séance’ at his …
  • … the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwin’s enterprises in the 1870s, were family …
  • … 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in …
  • … and letter to Charles Lyell, [13 January 1874] ). Darwin blamed his illness for the …
  • … . In his preface ( Coral reefs  2d ed., pp. v–vii), Darwin reasserted the priority of his work. …
  • … for the absence of coral-reefs in certain locations. Darwin countered with the facts that low …
  • … whole coastline of a large island. Dana also thought that Darwin had seen fringing reefs as proof of …
  • … presentation copy, Dana sent an apology for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D …
  • … Alongside his revision of  Coral reefs,  Darwin went to work on a new edition of  Descent . In …
  • … George Cupples, a Scottish deerhound expert who forwarded Darwin’s queries about the numbers of …
  • … had raged between himself and Richard Owen since the 1860s. Darwin had omitted this controversial …
  • … elements of geology , and with the cheaper sixth edition of Darwin’s own  Origin . (The first …
  • … Murray’s partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the lower price would bring the profits …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific …
  • … admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of Darwin’s life in 1860, in the immediate …
  • … of publication of Descent of Man in 1871. In this period Darwin became a public figure, and the …
  • … increased accordingly. Letters conveyed public reaction to Darwin, as people who were often complete …
  • … worked up, or their religious doubts and concerns for Darwin’s own soul. Darwin himself used letters …
  • … world a questionnaire on the expression of the emotions. Darwin also continued to confide in his …
  • … yet been pointed out to me. No doubt many will be. Darwin to Huxley, 1860. …
  • … have been miserably uncomfortable. Emma to Charles Darwin, 1861. I am …
  • … gravitating towards your doctrines … Huxley to Darwin, 1862. I cannot bear …
  • … what you think about the derivation of Species … Darwin to Charles Lyell, 1863. …
  • … fairly settled & succeeding in India. John Scott to Darwin, 1864. I …
  • … was quite out of balance once during our voyage … Darwin to Hooker (on hearing of Robert …
  • … that the necks of your horses are badly galled … Darwin to a local landowner, 1866. …
  • … should be still very far off. Mary Boole to Darwin, 1866. Never, for God’s …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now …
  • … and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwin’s neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In …
  • … all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • … hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwin’s theory of transmutation …
  • … alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwin’s American publisher for a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwin’s work was given by Hooker in an …
  • … frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwin’s sisters died, Emily Catherine …
  • … from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwin’s first letters in the new year …
  • … every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July …
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4 …
  • … day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwin’s being teased by his neighbour, John …
  • … John Lubbock, 4 August 1866 ). More predictably, however, Darwin immediately converted his renewed …
  • … Since the publication of  Origin  in November 1859, Darwin had continued gathering and organising …
  • … by natural selection was based. The work relied heavily on Darwin’s extensive correspondence over …
  • … and poultry expert William Bernhard Tegetmeier. In January, Darwin wrote to Tegetmeier that he was …
  • … ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 16 January [1866] ). Darwin found the evidence of variation in …
  • … varieties from  Columbia livia , the rock pigeon. Darwin on heredity: the 'provisional …
  • … chapter headed ‘Provisional hypothesis of pangenesis’, Darwin proposed that the various phenomena of …
  • … example, the reproductive organs, or the tissues of a bud. Darwin had submitted a preliminary sketch …
  • … & brimful of my dear little mysterious gemmules.’ Darwin collected information on …
  • … Thomas Rivers, and the German botanist Robert Caspary. Darwin was particularly interested in recent …
  • … the scion apparently produced buds with blended characters; Darwin had tried to propagate the …

Early Days

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment The young Charles Darwin From an early age, Darwin exhibited a keen interest in the natural world. His boyish fascination with naturalist pursuits deepened as he entered college and started to interact with…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Questions | Experiment The young Charles Darwin From an early age, Darwin
  • … started to interact with fellow natural history enthusiasts. Darwin's correspondence from this …
  • … Under the mentorship of Robert Grant at Edinburgh, Darwin undertook original research about the …
  • … of bryazoan. In correspondence from his student days, Darwin negotiates complicated relationships …
  • … SOURCES Books Browne, Janet. Darwin's Origin of Species: A Biography. (2008 …
  • … so pleasant receiving letters.” Letter 68 —Darwin to William Darwin Fox [15 July 1829] …
  • … must take to complete his degree. Letter 78 —Darwin to William Darwin Fox [25 Mar 1830] …
  • … visit beetling in Cambridgeshire. Letter 98 —Darwin to Caroline Darwin [28 Apr 1831] …
  • … DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Do you think Darwin resented that his work was published under …
  • … letters to his brother Erasmus? 4. Why do you think Darwin was unable to take courses in …
  • … EXPERIMENT In order to experience some of Darwin's observations and experiments with …

Darwin's health

Summary

On 28 March 1849, ten years before Origin was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, where Dr James Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … March 1849, ten years before  Origin  was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker …
  • … Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to …
  • … See the letter At various periods in his life Darwin suffered from gastrointestinal …
  • … fatigue, trembling, faintness, and dizziness. In 1849, Darwin’s symptoms became so severe that he …
  • … for three months while he took Dr Gully’s water cure. In Darwin’s letter to Hooker, he described Dr …
  • … See the letter After returning from Malvern, Darwin continued his hydropathic …
  • … 1863. In a letter to Hooker in April of 1861, for example, Darwin used his delicate physiology to …
  • … Edward Wickstead Lane, and at Ilkley with Dr Edmund Smith, Darwin sought advice from his consulting …
  • … of a fashionable spinal ice treatment. In April 1864, Darwin attributed his improved health to Dr …
  • … to J. D. Hooker, 13 April [1864] ) Why was Darwin’s so ill? Historians and others have …
  • … that there were psychological or psychosomatic dimensions to Darwin’s most severe periods of crisis. …
  • … letter to F. T. Buckland, 15 December [1864] ). On Darwin’s early stomach troubles, see …
  • … , and letter to Robert FitzRoy, [20 February 1840] . Darwin’s health diary (Down House MS), which …
  • … occurrences of flatulence (see Colp 1977, pp. 46-7). Darwin first mentioned attacks of …
  • … daily (see Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6 May 1864] ). …
  • … up food.  In his letter to Chapman of 16 May [1865] , Darwin stated that his sickness was ‘always …
  • … 64). Fainting and ‘rocking’ had been recorded in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) on several occasions …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication …
  • … throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • … anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November …
  • … Nevill is referenced by name for her “kindness” in Darwin’s Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • … critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] Darwin
  • … as “friends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • … B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwin’s …
  • … in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • … in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868 …
  • … baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May …
  • … at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwin’s …
  • … I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] …
  • … contribution to the same work was carefully referenced , Darwin made no mention of Henrietta’s …
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