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Wedgwood, Emma (1808–96)

Matches: 23 hits

  • … Emma Wedgwood Darwin 1808–96 Youngest daughter of Josiah Wedgwood II. …
  • … in 1839. Further Information: Emma Darwin née Wedgwood (1808-1896) was the youngest …
  • … of Josiah Wedgwood II. In January 1839 she married her first cousin, Charles Darwin. …
  • … She and Darwin had 10 children. Emma was religious: she had been baptised in the …
  • … beliefs. Early in her relationship with Darwin, Emma expressed concern about his religious …
  • … salvation. In spite of her concerns over Darwin’s religious beliefs, Emma remained …
  • … husband’s work throughout his life. Indeed, Darwin entrusted Emma with ensuring that his …
  • … even if he died suddenly. Emma often took over Darwin’s correspondence when he was feeling …
  • … unwell. Darwin recognised the critical role Emma played in helping to manage his …
  • … scientific work - she passed scientific requests from Darwin along to her correspondents. …
  • Darwin saw Emma as an exemplary wife. Relevant Gender Resources: http:// …
  • … scientists-wives Primary Sources: Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-441 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-542 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-761 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-4498f Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-7922 Darwin Correspondence Database, https:// …
  • … Desmond and James Moore and Janet Browne, ‘Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–1882)’, Oxford …
  • … www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/7176, accessed 20 Feb 2013] Emma Darwin (1904) and (1915). …
  • … Bibliography Emma Darwin (1904): …
  • … Emma Darwin, wife …
  • … of Charles Darwin. A century of family letters. Edited by Henrietta Litchfield. 2 vols. …
  • … WSL,26,27,28,29,30 Wedgwood, Josiah II Darwin, C. R. …

To G. H. Darwin   15 May [1879]

Summary

Sends some queries connected with his writing of the biographical preface to Erasmus Darwin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  15 May [1879]
Classmark:  DAR 210.1: 82
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12054

Matches: 18 hits

  • … To G.  H.  Darwin   15 May [1879] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, G. H. …
  • … DAR 210.1: 82 Charles Robert Darwin Bassett 15 May [ …
  • … 1879] George Howard Darwin
  • … some queries connected with his writing of the biographical preface to Erasmus Darwin . …
  • … I shall be very curious to hear about your Glasgow visit. Yours affect | C.  Darwin
  • … in 1806 ( E. Darwin 1806 ). Neither work was in the University Library. George was …
  • … to visit William Thomson in Glasgow (see letter from G. H. Darwin, 10 May 1879 and n. 5). …
  • … Bibliography Darwin, Erasmus. 1799. The botanic garden, a poem . Pt 1. The economy of …
  • … plants . With philosophical notes. 4th edition. London: J. Johnson. Darwin, Erasmus. 1806. …
  • … The poetical works of Erasmus Darwin … containing The botanic garden … and The temple of …
  • … between this letter and the letter from G. H. Darwin, 10 May 1879 (see n. 5, below). John …
  • … Bickersteth Mayor (see letter from G. H. Darwin, 10 May 1879 and n. 2). The enclosure has …
  • … copied out Mathias’s parody of Erasmus Darwin’s poetry, including the lines: ‘In sweet …
  • … University Library (see letter to G. H. Darwin, 5 May [1879] and n. 2). The fourth edition …
  • … garden was published in a cheaper octavo format in 1799 ( E. Darwin 1799 ); The poetical …
  • … works of Erasmus Darwin was published in octavo in three volumes …

From E. A. Darwin   11 October [1866]

Summary

Disposal of Susan’s effects. Legacies to CD’s children. EAD has taken the letters and papers and asked Henry [Parker] to forward the George Richmond pictures of CD and Emma.

Caroline looks "miserably ill".

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Oct [1866]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B48–51
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5238

Matches: 24 hits

  • Darwin, E. …
  • … A. Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From E.  A.  Darwin   11 October [1866] …
  • … DAR 105: B48–51 Erasmus Alvey Darwin London, Queen Anne St …
  • … 11 Oct [1866] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … year is established by the reference to Susan Elizabeth Darwin and her estate (see n.   …
  • … 2, below). Susan Darwin had died on 3 October 1866 ( letter to J.  D.  Hooker, [4 October  …
  • … been sent to CD (see letter from E.  A.  Darwin, 7 October [1866] ). In a codicil to her …
  • … Catherine Langton (see letter from E.  A.  Darwin, 19 February [1866] and n.  6). The …
  • … George Richmond made portraits of CD in 1839 and 1840, of Emma Darwin in 1840 and 1842, …
  • … and of Erasmus Alvey Darwin in 1850 ( Lister 1981 , p.  156; see also frontispieces to …
  • … tureen is mentioned in the will (will of Susan Elizabeth Darwin, Probate Registry, York). …
  • … William Erasmus Darwin, CD’s eldest son, inherited the farm at Claythorpe, Lincolnshire. …
  • … property from her father, Robert Waring Darwin, who had purchased another farm, for CD, at …
  • … of Susan’s estate (see letter from E.  A.  Darwin, 7 October [1866] and n.   5). ‘ …
  • … D r D’ is probably a reference to Erasmus Darwin, but may refer …
  • … to Robert Waring Darwin. …
  • … CD and Erasmus Alvey Darwin were the executors …
  • … of Robert Waring Darwin’s will (will …
  • … of Robert Waring Darwin, Department of Manuscripts and Records, National Library of Wales, …
  • … Aberystwyth). CD’s son George Howard Darwin was interested in genealogy and collected …
  • … on the family. See letter from E.  A.  Darwin, [before 20 February 1866] and n.  2. …
  • … are to Henrietta Emma and Elizabeth Darwin. Erasmus probably meant to write ‘Henry’ …

To Francis Darwin   [2 August 1879]

Summary

Tells arrangements for their journey to Coniston.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  [2 Aug 1879]
Classmark:  DAR 211: 63
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12179

Matches: 16 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, Francis …
  • … To Francis Darwin   [2 August 1879] …
  • … DAR 211: 63 Charles Robert Darwin London, Queen Anne St, …
  • … 6 [2 Aug 1879] Francis Darwin
  • … We are all in good heart for our tremendous journey. yours affect | C.  Darwin D r F. …
  • Darwin
  • … way through London ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 31 July 1879] ). Francis referred …
  • … word for unresolved work-related issues) in his letter to Emma Darwin of 30 June 1879 . …
  • … Francis’s son, Bernard Darwin . …
  • … have looked to the French life of D r . Darwin. It will be very nice to see you & to hear …
  • … The date is established by the address. The Darwins stayed at the home of …
  • … CD’s brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin , on 1 August 1879, …
  • … before travelling to Coniston (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)); 2 August 1879 was a …
  • … July 1879] , Francis had asked how to get to Coniston to join the Darwins on holiday. CD …
  • … evidently looked at the biography of Erasmus Darwin published in Biographie médicale 3: …

From G. H. Darwin   13 July 1879

Summary

Sorry to hear Henrietta’s opinion of the [Erasmus Darwin] proofs. GHD did not think it dull. He makes some suggestions.

Author:  George Howard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 July 1879
Classmark:  DAR 210.2: 80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12154

Matches: 22 hits

  • … From G.  H.  Darwin   13 July 1879 …
  • Darwin, G. …
  • … H. Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 210.2: 80 George Howard Darwin Trinity College, Cambridge 13 …
  • … July 1879 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … hear Henrietta’s opinion of the [ Erasmus Darwin ] proofs. GHD did not think it dull. He …
  • … Briffa et al . 2009 , p. 1897). Francis Darwin was spending a second summer working in the …
  • … hope of decent weather yet. When does Frank return? Your affectionate Son | G H Darwin
  • … s letter of 11 July 1879 with his letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 . The deeds related …
  • … in north Lincolnshire, the former home of William Darwin (1681–1760) (see letter from C. …
  • … M. C. Darwin, 16 April [1879] ). Henrietta Emma Litchfield ; see letter …
  • … to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 and n. 3. …
  • … Journal of Climatology 29: 1894–1905. Darwin, George Howard. 1878d. On the precession of a …
  • … Society of London 170 (1879): 447–538. Darwin, George Howard. 1879a. The determination of …
  • … of tidal friction by a graphical method’ ( G. H. Darwin 1879 ), which was published in the …
  • … in relation to the orbit of the earth. Horace Darwin and Albert George Dew-Smith . Michael …
  • … Royal Society of London 29: 168–81. King-Hele, Desmond, ed. 2003. Charles Darwin’s ‘The …
  • … Life of Erasmus Darwin’. First unabridged edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. …
  • … CD had been advised by Leonard Darwin not to publish some of the early family-history …
  • … intended for family members (see letter from Leonard Darwin, [before 12 July] 1879 ). The …
  • … Erasmus’s elder brother, Robert Waring Darwin , was not included in the published version; …
  • … and on the remote history of the earth’ ( G. H. Darwin 1878 ), which was published in the …

From Leonard Darwin   [before 12 July] 1879

Summary

Suggests revisions in proofs of Erasmus Darwin.

[Letter wrongly dated Nov by LD.]

Author:  Leonard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 12 July] 1879
Classmark:  DAR 92: B7–10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12160

Matches: 22 hits

  • Darwin, …
  • … Leonard Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Leonard Darwin   [before 12 July] 1879 …
  • … DAR 92: B7–10 Leonard Darwin Brompton Barracks, Chatham [before …
  • … 12 July] 1879 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … Suggests revisions in proofs of Erasmus Darwin . [Letter wrongly dated Nov by LD. ] …
  • … Bibliography Erasmus Darwin. By Ernst Krause. Translated from the German by …
  • … W. S. Dallas, with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1879. …
  • … Freeman, Richard Broke. 1978. Charles Darwin: a companion. Folkestone, Kent: William …
  • … H. Darwin, 24 June 1879 ). For the omitted sections in the published version, see King- …
  • … Archon Books, Shoe String Press. King-Hele, Desmond, ed. 2003. Charles Darwin’s ‘The …
  • … Life of Erasmus Darwin’. First unabridged edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. …
  • … this letter and the letter to Leonard Darwin, 12 July [1879] . The date written by Leonard …
  • … proof-sheets of CD’s essay for Erasmus Darwin . Ernst Krause had suggested lengthening his …
  • … Correspondence vol. 19, letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 , and Correspondence vol. …
  • … to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The Darwins were planning a vacation in the Lake …
  • … John Murray was CD’s publisher. CD had asked George Howard Darwin to investigate some …
  • … of the early Darwin ancestors (see letter from G. …
  • … page something like the following printed. — Notes on the Life of D r . Erasmus Darwin by …
  • … Charles Darwin FRS &c. Uncorrected Copy Only printed for circulation amonst Relatives. We …
  • … out of a 100. This will cut out the early Darwins who were not after all much above the …
  • … me where to send them. Your affec son | L Darwin. P.S I have had an estimate made and the …

From H. E. Darwin to W. E. Darwin   [18 May 1864]

Summary

CD would like to see Rhamnus, as an American species is dimorphic.

Sends red cowslip pollen to be measured.

Author:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [18 May 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 118
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4442

Matches: 22 hits

  • Darwin, H. E. …
  • … Litchfield, H. E. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … From H.  E.  Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin   [18 May 1864] …
  • … DAR 210.6: 118 Henrietta Emma Darwin/Henrietta Emma Litchfield Down [ …
  • … 18 May 1864] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … E.  Darwin, [16 March 1864], n.   …
  • … 3). Emma Darwin recorded in her diary (DAR 242) for Saturday 21 May 1864: ‘Boys from …
  • … school’. James Mackintosh Wedgwood. See letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [17 May 1864] and n.  6. …
  • … calendar of the correspondence of Charles Darwin, 1821–1882. With supplement. 2d edition. …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … of flowers on plants of the same species. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. …
  • … to Menyanthes and the red cowslip in this letter, the letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [17 May 1864] , and the letters from W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, 18 May [1864] and [19 May 1864] . …
  • … For CD’s query regarding Menyanthes , see the letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [17 May 1864] . No recent reference to Rhamnus , the buckthorn, has been found …
  • … DAR 109: A41–3, 50, and DAR 111. See letter to W.  E.  Darwin, [14–17 May 1864] and n.   …
  • … 2. George Howard, Francis, and Leonard Darwin were pupils at Clapham Grammar School in …
  • … South London in May 1864 (see letter from H.  E.  Darwin to W.   …
  • … 1866 (see, for example, letter to W.  E.  Darwin, 20 June [1866] ( Calendar no.  5128), …

From W. D. Fox to G. H. Darwin   15 April [1879]

Summary

Fears he cannot give much information for CD’s book [Erasmus Darwin]. Recounts how his mother’s health was improved by Erasmus Darwin’s treatment. Remembers being attacked as a boy by an angry lady whose beautiful teeth were extracted by Dr Darwin "to cure some nervous spasms".

Author:  William Darwin Fox
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  15 Apr [1879]
Classmark:  DAR 99: 175–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11995

Matches: 23 hits

  • … Fox, W. D. Darwin, G. H. …
  • … From W.  D.  Fox to G.  H.  Darwin   15 April [1879] …
  • … DAR 99: 175–6 William Darwin Fox Sandown 15 …
  • … Apr [1879] George Howard Darwin
  • … Fears he cannot give much information for CD’s book [ Erasmus Darwin ]. Recounts how …
  • … mother’s health was improved by Erasmus Darwin’s treatment. Remembers being attacked as a …
  • … lady whose beautiful teeth were extracted by Dr Darwin "to cure some nervous spasms". …
  • … was Jane Darwin (1746–1835) . …
  • … Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood I were close friends for …
  • … years, and Erasmus’s son Robert Waring Darwin (1766–1848) married Wedgwood’s daughter …
  • … Bibliography Erasmus Darwin. By Ernst Krause. Translated from the German by …
  • … W. S. Dallas, with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1879. …
  • … King-Hele, Desmond. 1999. Erasmus Darwin. A life of unequalled achievement. London: Giles …
  • … fellow passenger—found out my name was Darwin. She attacked me with great vehemence asking …
  • … The year is established by the references to collecting materials for Erasmus Darwin . …
  • … George Howard Darwin was helping CD with with this research (see letter to G. …
  • … H. Darwin, 19 April [1879] ). Fox’s father, Samuel Fox ( …
  • … of the Derby Philosophical Society, formed by Erasmus Darwin in 1783 (Larkum 2009, p. …
  • … 4). He married Ann Darwin (1777–1859) , a …
  • … niece of Erasmus Darwin, in 1799 ( ibid . , p. …
  • … 503). Ann Darwin’s mother …
  • … Broadlands | Sandown | I.  W April 15 My dear Darwin I fear I cannot give …
  • … any information of D r Darwin. I am a generation too late. My Father and Mother abounded …

From E. A. Darwin, Charles Darwin, and W. E. Darwin to Thomas Salt   12 April 1864

Summary

Instructions concerning the payment of the principal and interest of the mortgage to Mr Childe.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin; Erasmus Alvey Darwin; Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  12 Apr 1864
Classmark:  Rachel Salt (private collection); sold at Spink’s (dealers), July 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4460F

Matches: 14 hits

  • … E. Darwin Thomas Salt Esq re | Belmont | Shrewsbury …
  • Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, E. …
  • … A. Darwin, C. R. Salt, Thomas …
  • … From E. A. Darwin, …
  • … Charles Darwin, and W. …
  • … E. Darwin to Thomas Salt   12 April 1864 …
  • … private collection); sold at Spink’s (dealers), July 2018 William Erasmus Darwin Erasmus …
  • … Alvey Darwin Charles …
  • … Robert Darwin 12 Apr 1864 Thomas Salt …
  • … from CD’s father, Robert Waring Darwin (Shropshire Archives, SA D3651/B/47/1/1/1/1/6). …
  • … Robert Waring Darwin’s children had inherited the loans. Charles Langton was married to …
  • … principal to the account of the Re vd Charles Langton at the same Bank. E A Darwin | Ch. …
  • … R. Darwin | W. …

From V. H. Darwin   5 June [1879]

Summary

Sends her drawing of Elston Hall as it was in 1754.

Author:  Violetta Harriot Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 June [1879]
Classmark:  DAR 99: 171
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12085

Matches: 19 hits

  • … From V.  H.  Darwin   5 June [1879] …
  • Darwin, V. …
  • … H. Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 99: 171 Violetta Harriot Darwin Derby 5 June [ …
  • … 1879] Charles Robert Darwin
  • … and two recent views (see letter from V. H. Darwin, 30 [May 1879] ). The coigns (coins or …
  • … stones) are clearly visible in the drawing that appears in print ( Erasmus Darwin , p. 3). …
  • … William Brown Darwin inherited Elston Hall in 1816 and made an addition …
  • … the building in 1837 ( Burke’s landed gentry , Darwin pedigree , Pevsner 1979 , p. 122). …
  • … the modern drawing I have—and M r . W m . Darwin could not have put them in, when he did …
  • … improved away by the wood Engraver— Believe me | yours very affect ly . | V.  H.  Darwin
  • … printed. 1888. [Reprinted in facsimile in Darwin pedigrees , by Richard Broke Freeman. …
  • … printed for the author. 1984. ] Erasmus Darwin. By Ernst Krause. Translated from the …
  • … with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1879. Pevsner, Nikolaus. …
  • … by the relationship between this letter and the letter from V. H. Darwin, 30 [May 1879] . …
  • … Charlotte Maria Cooper Darwin had sent CD two more recent photographs of Elston Hall with …
  • … altered around 1750 (see letter to C. M. C. Darwin, 6 April 1879 ). Violetta’s drawing of …
  • … 18th edition. London: Henry Colburn [and others]. 1833–1969. Darwin pedigree : Pedigree of …
  • … the family of Darwin. Compiled by H. Farnham Burke. N.p. : …

To W. E. Darwin   26 April [1862]

Summary

Thanks WED for eyeglass.

Reports on health of Horace and family matters.

Has finished Orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  26 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3520

Matches: 26 hits

  • … To W.  E.  Darwin   26 April [1862] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … when Joseph Dalton Hooker was also visiting Down House (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). …
  • … DAR 210.6: 96 Charles Robert Darwin Down 26 Apr [ …
  • … 1862] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … you saw Hooker work on plant. — Farewell, dear old fellow | Yours affect y . | C.  Darwin
  • … proofs of Orchids (see n.  6, below). Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) records that the ‘Boys …
  • … went to school’ on Monday 28 April 1862. George Howard Darwin and …
  • … Francis Darwin both attended Clapham Grammar School in south-west …
  • … London (see DNB s.v. Darwin, G.  H. , …
  • … and F.  Darwin 1920, p.   …
  • … 63). Leonard Darwin had been tutored privately by George Varenne Reed since summer 1859 ( …
  • … and on the good effects of intercrossing. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1862. …
  • … Wedgwood. There is an entry in Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242) on 25 April 1862 that …
  • … half-yearly payment to Clapham Grammar School. See also letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [3 February 1862] (DAR 219.1: 48). Leonard was sent home from Clapham with …
  • … see CD’s Classed account book (Down House MS), letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [13 December 1862] (DAR 219.1: 69), and Correspondence vol.  11, letter to …
  • … G.  V.  Reed, 12 January 1863). Emma Darwin wrote in her diary (DAR 242) that she ‘Went to …
  • … was a family nickname for George (see, for example, the letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E. Darwin, [26 March 1858] (DAR 219.1: 33), which begins ‘My dear Georgy’, but later …
  • … write to & not Gingo’). CD refers to Horace Darwin who had been ill since the beginning of …
  • … the year. According to Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242), Camilla Ludwig, …
  • … governess at Down House, accompanied Horace Darwin to the home of his aunt Sarah Elizabeth …

To George Howard Darwin and W. E. Darwin   13 [November 1856]

Summary

Describes the funeral of Aunt Sarah [Elizabeth Wedgwood].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin; George Howard Darwin
Date:  13 [Nov 1856]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1987

Matches: 20 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. …
  • … E. Darwin, G. H. …
  • … To George Howard Darwin and W.   …
  • … E. Darwin    13 [November 1856] …
  • … DAR 210.6: 10 Charles Robert Darwin Down 13 [Nov …
  • … 1856] William Erasmus Darwin George …
  • … Howard Darwin
  • … she has left them a little money. — My very dear Boys, Your affect. Father | C.  Darwin
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … al. 27 vols to date. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Emma Darwin (1915): …
  • … Emma Darwin: a century of family letters, 1792–1896. Edited by Henrietta Litchfield. 2 …
  • … The letter indicates that CD sent it first to George Darwin, at school in Clapham, who was …
  • … instructed to forward it to William Darwin, then at Rugby School. Dated by the reference …
  • … in Down village, in 1847 (see Correspondence vol.  3, letter to Emma Darwin, [24 June …
  • … 1846] and Emma Darwin (1915) 2: 105). The …
  • … taken place on 12 November 1856 ( Emma Darwin’s diary). These uncles were Emma’s brothers …
  • … of Down. Sarah Wedgwood’s servants, of whom the Darwin children were very fond. Henrietta …
  • … only gained by repetition. ’ ( Emma Darwin (1915) 2: 106). Henrietta Litchfield later …
  • … ever visited in the village. ’ ( Emma Darwin (1915) 2: 105). Although CD had told Joseph …

To Francis Darwin   16 May [1871]

Summary

George [Darwin] plans a trip to America and would like FD to go [see 7757]. CD will gladly pay whole cost if the trip will not interfere with FD’s medical work.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Darwin
Date:  16 May [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 271.3: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-7761

Matches: 13 hits

  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, Francis …
  • … To Francis Darwin   16 May [1871] …
  • … DAR 271.3: 3 Charles Robert Darwin Bassett 16 …
  • … May [1871] Francis Darwin
  • … appeared in the 22 May 1871 issue of the Cambridge Tatler ( [Darwin] 1871 ); see first …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, [after 22 May 1871] and n.  6. …
  • … Bibliography [Darwin, Francis]. 1871. Letter on the melancholy of Bachelors. Cambridge …
  • … George [Darwin] plans a trip to America and would like FD to go [see 7757 ]. CD will …
  • … article. — Yours very affectionately | Ch Darwin Mamma, & be hanged to her, is of course …
  • … trip to the United States; see letter from G.  H.  Darwin, [14 May 1871] and n.  1. …
  • … See letter from G.  H.  Darwin, [14 May 1871] . The reference is to Marlborough Robert …
  • … studying medicine at St George’s Hospital in London (Darwin 1920, p.  67). Francis wrote …

From Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin   [20 May 1864]

Summary

CD much obliged for specimen and drawings.

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin; Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  [20 May 1864]
Classmark:  DAR 97: A7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3366

Matches: 19 hits

  • … Wedgwood, Emma Darwin, …
  • … Emma Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … From Emma and Charles Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin   [20 May 1864] …
  • … DAR 97: A7 Emma Wedgwood/Emma Darwin Charles …
  • … Robert Darwin unstated [20 May …
  • … 1864] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … of flowers on plants of the same species. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1877. …
  • … between this letter and the letter from W.  E.  Darwin, [19 May 1864] , and by …
  • … George Howard, Francis, and Leonard Darwin’s arrival at Down on 21 May 1864 (see n.  5, …
  • … lived at Maer until 1847, had recently visited Down (see letter from Emma Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [17 May 1864] and n.  4). For CD’s speculation on the …
  • … Pulmonaria angustifolia , see letter to W.  E. Darwin, 14 May [1864] and nn.  6 and 7. …
  • … p.  115). See letter from W.  E.  Darwin, [19 May 1864] and n.  8. The photographs arrived …
  • … for example, letter to Asa Gray, 28 May [1864] ). See letter from H.  E.  Darwin to W.   …
  • … E.  Darwin, [18 May 1864] and n.  4. …
  • … See letter from W.  E.  Darwin, [19 May 1864] and n.  3. CD wrote in Forms of flowers , …

From E. A. Darwin   [after 31 March 1864?]

Summary

Sends "2 pods ¼ gr each" to tide CD over.

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 31 Mar 1864?]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B18
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4364

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwin, E. …
  • … A. Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From E.  A.  Darwin   [after 31 March 1864? ] …
  • … DAR 105: B18 Erasmus Alvey Darwin unstated [after 31 Mar 1864? ] …
  • … Charles Robert Darwin
  • … at Down to be the best chemist in the world’ ( Emma Darwin (1915) 2: 118 n.  2; see …
  • … also Correspondence vol.  2, letter to Catherine Darwin, [16 September 1842] ). …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … al. 27 vols to date. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Emma Darwin (1915): …
  • … Emma Darwin: a century of family letters, 1792–1896. Edited by Henrietta Litchfield. 2 …
  • … from the relationship between this letter and the letter from E.  A.  Darwin to …
  • … Emma Darwin, 30 [March 1864? ] . …
  • … Erasmus Alvey Darwin refers to the medicine podophyllin, which CD had started taking on …
  • … 24 March 1864 (see letter from E.  A.  Darwin to …
  • … Emma Darwin, 30 [March 1864? ] and n.  4). CD’s Classed account book (Down House MS) for …

From W. D. Fox to G. H. Darwin   21 April [1879]

Summary

Has no letters or papers [of Erasmus Darwin].

Suggests CD cite some of Erasmus Darwin’s poems to answer the charge of atheism [see Erasmus Darwin, p. 44].

Recounts a story of a remarkable cure by Dr Darwin, showing his sagacity and daring.

Author:  William Darwin Fox
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  21 Apr [1879]
Classmark:  DAR 99: 177–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12006

Matches: 23 hits

  • … Fox, W. D. Darwin, G. H. …
  • … From W.  D.  Fox to G.  H.  Darwin   21 April [1879] …
  • … DAR 99: 177–8 William Darwin Fox Sandown 21 …
  • … Apr [1879] George Howard Darwin
  • … Has no letters or papers [of Erasmus Darwin]. …
  • … Suggests CD cite some of Erasmus Darwin’s poems to answer the …
  • … charge of atheism [see Erasmus Darwin , p. 44]. …
  • … Recounts a story of a remarkable cure by Dr Darwin, showing his sagacity and daring. …
  • … more on Ann and Samuel Fox’s recollections of Erasmus Darwin, see the letter from W.  D.   …
  • … Fox to G.  H.  Darwin, 15 April [1879] . Joseph Strutt lived in St Peter’s Street, Derby; …
  • … London: Houlston and Stoneman. Erasmus Darwin. By Ernst Krause. Translated from the German …
  • … with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1879. Scott, Elizabeth, …
  • … Broadlands | Sandown | I.  Wight Ap 21 My dear Darwin As I feared was the case, I have no …
  • … yr Father might like to look over. D r E Darwin has so freely been called an Atheist & c . …
  • … CD’s collecting materials for a biographical sketch of Erasmus Darwin, which was published …
  • … in 1879 ( Erasmus Darwin ). See letter from W.  D.   …
  • … Fox to G.  H.  Darwin, 15 April [1879] . …
  • … Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802) was George’s great-grandfather. …
  • … The article on Erasmus Darwin is in EB 7th ed. …
  • … Erasmus Darwin’s poem had been published in 1823 under the title ‘The folly of atheism. An …
  • … pp. 299–300). After visiting Erasmus Darwin in Derby in 1796, Samuel Taylor Coleridge …
  • … silk mills; [Joseph] Wright , the painter, and Dr Darwin, the every thing but christian! …
  • … Dr Darwin possesses, perhaps, a greater range of knowledge than any other man in Europe, …

To W. E. Darwin   22 April [1879]

Summary

Discusses his work on Dr Erasmus Darwin’s life.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  22 Apr [1879]
Classmark:  DAR 210.6: 154
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12007

Matches: 19 hits

  • … To W.  E.  Darwin   22 April [1879] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, W. E. …
  • … DAR 210.6: 154 Charles Robert Darwin Down 22 Apr [ …
  • … 1879] William Erasmus Darwin
  • … Discusses his work on Dr Erasmus Darwin’s life. …
  • … 26 May 1879; he visited William and Sara Darwin in Southampton before travelling to Leith …
  • … Bibliography Darwin, Erasmus. 1800. Phytologia, or the philosophy of agriculture and …
  • … the drill plough. London: J. Johnson. Erasmus Darwin. By Ernst Krause. Translated from the …
  • … by W. S. Dallas, with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1879. …
  • … King-Hele, Desmond. 1999. Erasmus Darwin. A life of unequalled achievement. London: Giles …
  • … written only on one side. yours affect | C.  Darwin P.S.  I am a good deal overworked & it …
  • … the references to material relating to Erasmus Darwin; CD’s biography of his grandfather …
  • … Erasmus was published in 1879 ( Erasmus Darwin ). Gulielmus: the Latin version of William. …
  • … from Phytologia, or the philosophy of agriculture and gardening ( E. Darwin 1800 ) several …
  • … times in Erasmus Darwin , pp. 111–15 and …
  • … 117–18. In Erasmus Darwin , pp. …
  • … 45–6, CD stated that Erasmus Darwin rarely mentioned politics, but held radical views in …
  • … attacked and their homes destroyed. Erasmus Darwin, on behalf of the Philosophical Society …

To G. H. Darwin   5 March [1873]

Summary

Distressed by the poor health of GHD and Horace. Asks them to come home.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  5 Mar [1873]
Classmark:  DAR 210.1: 9
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8799

Matches: 21 hits

  • … To G.  H.  Darwin   5 March [1873] …
  • Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, G. H. …
  • … DAR 210.1: 9 Charles Robert Darwin Down 5 Mar [ …
  • … 1873] George Howard Darwin
  • … better account. Your affectionate Father | Ch Darwin We were both pleased to hear about …
  • … In a letter to Emma Darwin sent from Cannes in February 1873, George recounted a meeting …
  • … Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et …
  • … Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Darwin, George Howard. 1872. Development in …
  • … the relationship between this letter and the letter to G.  H.  Darwin, 22 January 1873 . …
  • … George Howard Darwin and …
  • … Horace Darwin left home on 10 January  …
  • … 1873 to travel to Cannes (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242); letter to G.   …
  • … H.  Darwin, 22 January 1873 ). …
  • … Two of George’s letters to Emma Darwin are in DAR 210.2: 25–6. George was consulting the …
  • … doctor Philip Frank about stomach problems (letter from G.  H.  Darwin to …
  • … Emma Darwin, 27 February [1873] (DAR 210.2: 25)); he and Horace had also been abroad for …
  • … to W.  D.  Fox, 16 July [1872] and n.  3). The Darwin family stayed at 16 Montague Street, …
  • … see ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). Robert Waring Darwin had been a physician in Shrewsbury. …
  • … George Darwin’s ‘Development in dress’ had been published in Macmillan’s Magazine in …
  • … September 1872 ( G.  H.  Darwin 1872 ). …

From Francis Darwin to Emma Darwin   30 June 1879

Summary

Last night had tremendous thunderstorm. Will ask Goebel about proshelismus. Describes experiments on beans. Please send Bessy’s address. Has got to know nice Englishman named Purdy and his wife. Bathes nearly every night with the Finlander.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Date:  30 June 1879
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 49
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12128F

Matches: 28 hits

  • Darwin, Francis …
  • … Wedgwood, Emma Darwin, Emma …
  • … From Francis Darwin to …
  • … Emma Darwin   30 June 1879 …
  • … DAR 274.1: 49 Francis Darwin 30 June 1879 …
  • … Emma Wedgwood/Emma Darwin
  • … Scribner’s Sons. 2008. Insectivorous plants. By Charles Darwin. London: John Murray. 1875. …
  • … Movement in plants : The power of movement in plants. By Charles Darwin. …
  • … Assisted by Francis Darwin. London: John Murray. 1880. NDB : Neue deutsche Biographie. …
  • … The Darwins stayed at the home of Laura Mary Forster , West Hackhurst, Abinger Hammer, …
  • … s ‘Journal’ (Appendix II)). Francis and his brother George Howard Darwin visited Norway in …
  • … August 1866 (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). The American has not been identified. ‘Axles’ …
  • … Correspondence vol. 26, letter from G. H. Darwin, 7 November 1878 ). CD wanted to find …
  • … James VI and I and Charles I (see letter from G. H. Darwin, 24 June 1879 and nn. 2 and 3). …
  • … Ubbadubba was a pet name for Francis’s son, Bernard Darwin . Dor was Walter …
  • … Davenport Atkin (see letter from Francis Darwin, [after 16 June 1879] and n. 6). See n. 7, …
  • … away from the sun (see letter to Francis Darwin, 25 June [1879] and n. 6). Karl Goebel , …
  • … Vicia (vetch; see letter from Francis Darwin, [before 26 June 1879] ). He was using lunar …
  • … on Porliera (a synonym of Porlieria ), see letter to Francis Darwin, 16 June [1879] and n. …
  • … 3. See letter to Francis Darwin, 24 June [1879] . CD had asked Francis to touch a cell (of …
  • … assessment of Albert Bernhard Frank , see the letter from Francis Darwin, 29 May 1879 . …
  • … Elizabeth Darwin and Mary Elizabeth Atkin had travelled to Switzerland on 17 …
  • … returned to Down on 18 July 1879 (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). Villars-sur-Ollon is a …
  • … wife was Mary Anne Purdie . Leonard Darwin became instructor in chemistry and photography …
  • … Correspondence vol. 25, letter to Leonard Darwin, 31 March 1877 ). The Finnish botanist …
  • … student in Sachs’s laboratory (see letter from Francis Darwin, [after 2 June 1879] and n. …
  • … 3). George Howard Darwin had been …
  • … researching the Darwin family tree and discovered an ancestor had been in the service of …

From Emma and Charles Darwin   13 May 1865

Summary

CD and ED bequeath an annuity of £50 to J. Parslow [the Darwins’ butler].

Author:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin; Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  13 May 1865
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 26
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4832

Matches: 12 hits

  • … From Emma and Charles Darwin   13 May 1865 …
  • … Wedgwood, Emma Darwin, …
  • … Emma Darwin, C. …
  • … R. Darwin, C. R. …
  • … DAR 210.10: 26 Emma Wedgwood/Emma Darwin Charles …
  • … Robert Darwin Down 13 May …
  • … 1865 Charles Robert Darwin
  • … CD and ED bequeath an annuity of £50 to J. Parslow [the Darwins’ butler]. …
  • … Bibliography Browne, Janet. 1995. Charles Darwin. Voyaging. Volume I of a biography. New …
  • … Freeman, Richard Broke. 1978. Charles Darwin: a companion. Folkestone, Kent: William …
  • … annuity being paid, We desire our children to pay conjointly this annuity. — Ch. Darwin | …
  • … Emma Darwin
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Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig …
  • … as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified …
  • … correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring …
  • … Actor 1 – Asa Gray Actor 2 – Charles Darwin Actor 3 – In the dress of a modern day …
  • … Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwin… and acts as a sort …
  • … the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and …
  • … this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa …
  • … friends in England, copies of his ‘Review of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it …
  • … Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwin… made his home on the border of the little …
  • … are kept in check by a constitutional weakness. DARWIN: A plain but comfortable brick …
  • … by every blessing except that of vigorous health… DARWIN:  4   My confounded stomach …
  • … pursuits and the simplicity of his character. DARWIN:   5   I am allowed to work now …
  • … own house, where he was the most charming of hosts. DARWIN:   6   My life goes on …
  • … being a part of [an unpublished] manuscript. Darwin settles down to write. His tone is …
  • … THE CONCURRENCE OF BOTANISTS: 1855 In which Darwin initiates a long-running correspondence …
  • … gossip about difficult colleagues (Agassiz). Gray realizes Darwin is not revealing all of his …
  • … man, more formally attired and lighter on his feet than Darwin. He has many more demands on his time …
  • … catches his attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN:  8   April 25 th 1855. My …
  • … filled up the paper you sent me as well as I could. DARWIN:  10   My dear Dr Gray. I …
  • … is condensed in that little sheet of note-paper! DARWIN:  11   My dear Hooker… What …
  • … surprising good. GRAY:   12   My dear Mr Darwin, I rejoice in furnishing facts to …
  • … of the sort to the advancement of science… DARWIN:  13   I hope… before [the] end of …
  • … reasonably expect… Yours most sincerely Asa Gray. DARWIN:  16   My dear Gray… Your …
  • … Journal, as a nut for [Professor] Agassiz to crack. Darwin and Gray share a joke at the …
  • … will turn up that he cannot explain away… DARWIN:  22   Hurrah I got yesterday my …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women …
  • … Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • … peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October …
  • … garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwin’s …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber …
  • … Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • … observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - …
  • … and offers to observe birds, insects or plants on Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - …
  • … ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen Lubbock, …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an …
  • … the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his …
  • … 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography …
  • … a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwin’s spirits. ‘I wish that my …
  • … W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the …
  • … that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I …
  • … contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by …
  • … Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). Seventy years old Darwin’s seventieth birthday on 12 …
  • … the veteran of Modern Zoology’, but it was in Germany that Darwin was most fêted. A German …
  • … ). The masters of Greiz College in Thuringia venerated Darwin as ‘the deep thinker’, while …
  • … accepted in Germany. ‘On this festive day’, Haeckel told Darwin, ‘you can look back, with justified …
  • … Hermann Müller wrote on 12 February to wish Darwin a ‘long and serene evening of life’. This …
  • … on the theory of development in connection with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as …
  • … March, with encouragement from his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Darwin decided to publish an …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the …
  • … he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwin’s correspondence reveals the scope …
  • … he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346: Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb 1837 …
  • … one stock.” Letter 2070: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [before 29 Sept 1857] …
  • … down of former continents.” Letter 3054: Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] …
  • … that languages, like species, were separately created. Darwin writes to the geologist Charles Lyell …
  • … I tell him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605: Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug …
  • … loud noise?” Letter 7040: Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [1868-70?] As …
  • … gradually growing to such a stage” Letter 8367: Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June …
  • … unconsciously altering the breed. Letter 8962: Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 …
  • … Letter 10194: Max Müller, Friedrich to Darwin, C. R., 13 Oct [1875] For Müller, human and …
  • … Language […]” Letter 9887: Dawkins, W. B. to Darwin, C. R., 14 Mar 1875 The …
  • … of race […]” Letter 11074: Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwin’s …
  • … and comparative philologist Archibald Sayce wrote to Darwin with a series of detailed questions …
  • … how a child first uttered the word ‘mum’. In his reply, Darwin told Sayce “that ‘mum’ arose from …

Darwin and working from home

Summary

Ever wondered how Darwin worked? As part of our For the Curious series of simple interactives, ‘Darwin working from home’ lets you explore objects from Darwin’s study and garden at Down House to learn how he worked and what he had to say about it. And not…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … fixed on the spot where I shall end it .  Charles Darwin to Robert FitzRoy, 1 October 1846 …
  • … collaboration of his family. ►  Darwin's Study   Explore Darwin& …
  • … is the study that can be seen at Down House today. Darwin's daily routine …
  • … 6 pm Rested again in bedroom with ED [Emma Darwin] reading aloud. 7 …
  • … him. Account summarised in Charles Darwin: A Companion  by R.B. Freeman, …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … it had been proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • … impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September …
  • … content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [16 May 1872] Reade …
  • … of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, [20 May 1872] Reade …
  • … women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … Cupples got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • … about Hooker’s thoughts. Letter 729 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • … is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844 …
  • … of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 …
  • … of the species. Letter 1685 — Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray …
  • … of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] …
  • … have in simple truth been of the utmost value to me.” Darwin believes species have arisen, like …
  • … or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants. Darwin discusses fertilisation in the bud …
  • … exchange This collection of letters between Darwin and Hooker, while Darwin was writing his …
  • … to information exchange. Letter 1202 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • … followed automatically. On the issue of nomenclature reform, Darwin opposes appending first …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of …
  • … portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that Darwin undertook throughout his lifetime …
  • … was jokingly lamenting his role as an intermediary for Darwin and his correspondents from around the …
  • … of friends and relatives was not a pursuit unique to Darwin (the exchange of photographic images was …
  • … reinforced his experimental and scientific network. Darwin’s Portraits Darwin sat for …
  • … famous photographers to studio portraitists looking to sell Darwin’s image to the masses. Between …
  • … in nineteenth-century photography. Darwin’s first photo-chemical experience …
  • … This particular daguerreotype is unique in terms of Darwin’s collection of photographs – it is the …
  • … exchanged, but rather was an object of display placed on a Darwin family mantlepiece. The image …
  • … in London and made at least four different exposures of Darwin between 1853 and 1857. They …
  • … While this image is notable as the first popular image of Darwin, the extent to which Darwin
  • … me look atrociously wicked.” Image: Charles Darwin, by Maull & Polyblank, albumen …
  • … Portrait Gallery, London (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) Darwin’s next experience with the …
  • … with the results. In 1860-61 and again in 1864 Charles Darwin sat for his eldest son, William Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1880 on this website.  The full texts of the letters are not yet available online but are in volume 28 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin, published by Cambridge…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1880 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … 28 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge …
  • … to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwin’s work for the boundary between animals …
  • … studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwin’s early observations of infants, …
  • … of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight …
  • … Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension …
  • … with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • … Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwin’s grandfather’s clerical friends …
  • … divines to see a pig’s body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied, ‘& that about my …
  • … registry offices, and produced a twenty-page history of the Darwin family reaching back to the …
  • … the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwin’s sons George and Leonard also …
  • … and conciliate a few whose ancestors had not featured in Darwin’s Life . ‘In an endeavour to …
  • … think I must pay a round of visits.’ One cousin, Reginald Darwin, warmed to George: ‘he had been …
  • … an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, 22 July …
  • … whose essay on Erasmus’s scientific work complemented Darwin’s biographical piece. Krause’s essay …
  • … Kosmos in February 1879, an issue produced in honour of Darwin’s birthday. Krause enlarged and …
  • … superficial and inaccurate piece of work’, although Darwin advised him not to ‘expend much powder …
  • … in the last sentence. When Butler read Erasmus Darwin , he noted the reference to his work, and …
  • … the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old & New, and …

Home learning: 7-11 years

Summary

Do try this at home! Support your children’s learning by downloading our free and fun activities for those aged between 7-11 and 11-14 years, using Darwin’s letters.  

Matches: 7 hits

  • … for those aged between 7-11 and 11-14 years, using Darwin’s letters. Here are a few …
  • … family discussion: If you were going to interview Darwin about his life and work, what …
  • … Follow-up family discussion: Darwin sent back rocks, soils, plants and animal specimens …
  • … world without going on a voyage? More Darwin and the Beagle  Voyage activities …
  • … Follow-up family discussion: If you were Darwin how would you send back a rare …
  • … on a plant hunting trip today? More  Darwin the Collector activities …
  • … and why does it still happen today? More  Darwin and Evolution activities …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] …
  • … a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] …
  • … experiment about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] …
  • … some questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] …
  • … of each fragment at the base of my precipice”. Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 …
  • … of natural selection. He worries about the accusation in Darwin & his teachings “ Natural …
  • … fittest” instead of “Natural Selection”. Wallace urges Darwin to stress frequency of variations. …
  • … Personal Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive …
  • … own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov 1838] In this …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick

Summary

Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … the interview.     1. According to Darwin, how did language begin? …
  • … a bit more about that? 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … is the power of language. And the most important element in Darwin’s account of the origin of …
  • … the world or standing for feelings, begin to accumulate, and Darwin says these signs gave advantages …
  • … predators that might attack them, whatever it might be, Darwin thinks had an advantage in the …
  • … So language begins to accumulate like that. Likewise, Darwin thinks, in the courtship competition …
  • … better functioning brains. And a very important part of Darwin’s account of the origin of language …
  • … become more intelligent. And with larger intelligence comes, Darwin thinks, so many things—the …
  • … and so forth. 2. Was this an important topic for Darwin? And if so, why? It was hugely …
  • … systems of nonhuman animals, and human language.  And so Darwin saw himself as trying to combat that …
  • … Darwinian account of the origin of language. 3. Darwin made a famous comment about parallels …
  • … that? Well, there’s a famous passage at the end of Darwin’s discussion of the evolutionary …
  • … ten of these. And a question has arisen, quite what was Darwin getting up to in pointing out these …
  • … debate, and on the one side are people who say that Darwin couldn’t resist an opportunity to review …
  • … but I also think something more is going on there. Darwin was very concerned to defend his position …
  • … the languages still show the formerly high state. So Darwin’s concerned, in my view, to …
  • … people who like to think of themselves as fans of Charles Darwin because, of course, we don’t …
  • … that, equality of languages. But that wasn’t the case for Darwin, that wasn’t how he understood his …
  • … him and us, however uncomfortable. 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re-evaluate …
  • … topics, I learned that there was a story around about how Darwin, very late in life, had changed his …
  • … of study of all this, and it turns out that from the time of Darwin’s death through till now, …
  • … not quite at the deathbed, but in 1881, a letter in which Darwin wrote to a friend of his that he …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Disagreement & Respect | Conduct of Debate | Darwin & Wallace The best-known …
  • … the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of …
  • … was itself an important arena of debate, one that Darwin greatly preferred to the public sphere. …
  • … and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help …
  • … Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged …
  • … Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement …
  • … were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter …
  • … of respect. Letter 2548 — Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859 Adam …
  • … which can neither be proved nor disproved”. He says that Darwin’s “grand principle natural …
  • … and as his true-hearted friend. Letter 2555 — Darwin, C. R. to Sedgwick, Adam, 26 Nov …
  • … have influenced the conclusions at which he has arrived. Darwin does not think the book will be …
  • … and incoming of living species” and so could not regard Darwin’s attempt to demonstrate the nature …
  • … at length a conversation with Owen concerning Origin . Darwin notes “that at bottom he goes …
  • … he thinks a sort of Bear was the grandpapa of Whales!” Darwin has heard Herschel considered his book …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wife … poor creature, has won …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11 …
  • … once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his …
  • … and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and …
  • … had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his …
  • … When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwin’s three volumes of the geology of …
  • … single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at …
  • … volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was nevertheless ‘firmly resolved not …
  • … meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the …
  • … to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second …
  • … concentrated on the ‘means of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self …
  • … return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in his ‘little Autobiography’ ( …
  • … holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a …
  • … for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August …
  • … dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 418–19). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to …
  • … ever return to the consideration of man.’ In particular, Darwin seemed eager to avoid issues that …
  • … wrote with the good news that he could restore Darwin to a religious life. This transformation would …
  • … that used to be called transmigration, Nemo pointed out to Darwin, adding, ‘the term nowadays is …
  • … enemies... Views such as these were easy enough for Darwin to dismiss, but it was more …
  • … St George Jackson Mivart in his Lessons from nature that Darwin had ‘at first studiously …
  • … unjust, but it was also the latest attack by the one man who Darwin felt had treated him ‘basely’ …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working …
  • … dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwin’s son George dominated the second …
  • … and traveller Alexander von Humboldt’s 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt …
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwin’s cousin, William Darwin Fox, to …
  • … from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one …
  • … I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a week’s visit to …
  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in …
  • … 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of …
  • … by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too …
  • … the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwin’s cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those …
  • … imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all imposture’ …
  • … stop word getting to America of the ‘strange news’ that Darwin had allowed ‘a spirit séance’ at his …
  • … the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwin’s enterprises in the 1870s, were family …
  • … 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in …
  • … and letter to Charles Lyell, [13 January 1874] ). Darwin blamed his illness for the …
  • … . In his preface ( Coral reefs  2d ed., pp. v–vii), Darwin reasserted the priority of his work. …
  • … for the absence of coral-reefs in certain locations. Darwin countered with the facts that low …
  • … whole coastline of a large island. Dana also thought that Darwin had seen fringing reefs as proof of …
  • … presentation copy, Dana sent an apology for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D …
  • … Alongside his revision of  Coral reefs,  Darwin went to work on a new edition of  Descent . In …
  • … George Cupples, a Scottish deerhound expert who forwarded Darwin’s queries about the numbers of …
  • … had raged between himself and Richard Owen since the 1860s. Darwin had omitted this controversial …
  • … elements of geology , and with the cheaper sixth edition of Darwin’s own  Origin . (The first …
  • … Murray’s partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the lower price would bring the profits …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific …
  • … admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of Darwin’s life in 1860, in the immediate …
  • … of publication of Descent of Man in 1871. In this period Darwin became a public figure, and the …
  • … increased accordingly. Letters conveyed public reaction to Darwin, as people who were often complete …
  • … worked up, or their religious doubts and concerns for Darwin’s own soul. Darwin himself used letters …
  • … world a questionnaire on the expression of the emotions. Darwin also continued to confide in his …
  • … yet been pointed out to me. No doubt many will be. Darwin to Huxley, 1860. …
  • … have been miserably uncomfortable. Emma to Charles Darwin, 1861. I am …
  • … gravitating towards your doctrines … Huxley to Darwin, 1862. I cannot bear …
  • … what you think about the derivation of Species … Darwin to Charles Lyell, 1863. …
  • … fairly settled & succeeding in India. John Scott to Darwin, 1864. I …
  • … was quite out of balance once during our voyage … Darwin to Hooker (on hearing of Robert …
  • … that the necks of your horses are badly galled … Darwin to a local landowner, 1866. …
  • … should be still very far off. Mary Boole to Darwin, 1866. Never, for God’s …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and …
  • … his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend …
  • … way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving …
  • … bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript …
  • … coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of …
  • … zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated …
  • … chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous …
  • … on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair …
  • … Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of …
  • … pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also …
  • … in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up …
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • … in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the …
  • … to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial …
  • … Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral …
  • … could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory …
  • … memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • … medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It …
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony …
  • … agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein …
  • … am astounded & disgusted at what you say about Klein,’ Darwin replied to Huxley on 1 November …
  • … the man.’   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwin’s keen interest in the progress of …
  • … leading physiologists. Indeed, some of the experiments that Darwin performed on plants, such as the …
  • … Vallisneria (tape grass). Fayrer had previously supplied Darwin with a quantity of the dried …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now …
  • … and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwin’s neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In …
  • … all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • … hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwin’s theory of transmutation …
  • … alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwin’s American publisher for a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwin’s work was given by Hooker in an …
  • … frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwin’s sisters died, Emily Catherine …
  • … from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwin’s first letters in the new year …
  • … every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July …
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4 …
  • … day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwin’s being teased by his neighbour, John …
  • … John Lubbock, 4 August 1866 ). More predictably, however, Darwin immediately converted his renewed …
  • … Since the publication of  Origin  in November 1859, Darwin had continued gathering and organising …
  • … by natural selection was based. The work relied heavily on Darwin’s extensive correspondence over …
  • … and poultry expert William Bernhard Tegetmeier. In January, Darwin wrote to Tegetmeier that he was …
  • … ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 16 January [1866] ). Darwin found the evidence of variation in …
  • … varieties from  Columbia livia , the rock pigeon. Darwin on heredity: the 'provisional …
  • … chapter headed ‘Provisional hypothesis of pangenesis’, Darwin proposed that the various phenomena of …
  • … example, the reproductive organs, or the tissues of a bud. Darwin had submitted a preliminary sketch …
  • … & brimful of my dear little mysterious gemmules.’ Darwin collected information on …
  • … Thomas Rivers, and the German botanist Robert Caspary. Darwin was particularly interested in recent …
  • … the scion apparently produced buds with blended characters; Darwin had tried to propagate the …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). Having …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had …
  • … ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my …
  • … 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • … Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular reports about their …
  • … to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later …
  • … not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). It is …
  • … had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats …
  • … we must have’, Francis wrote ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 17 July 1878] ), ‘a strong …
  • … me to jump to conclusions rather’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 3 August 1878] ). One day …
  • … day & never the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s …
  • … Cieselski & read him,’ he reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [22 June 1878] ). ‘Sachs …
  • … de Vries and Julius Wiesner on the causes of plant movement, Darwin wrote on 25 July, ‘I am …
  • … is here the cure for all evils’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [24 and 25 July 1878] ). …
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