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From Charles Lyell to T. H. Huxley   17 June 1859

Summary

Extended discussion of their respective difficulties with the definition and status of species and with the extent to which the theory of transmutation may be applied.

Has rediscovered S. S. Haldeman’s 1844 paper defending the transmutation theory with great skill.

Asks for reference to Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire’s first enunciation of the progressive development and transmutation theory.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  17 June 1859
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 6: 20)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2469A

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Lyell, Charles Huxley, T. H. …
  • … From Charles Lyell to T. H. Huxley   17 June 1859 …
  • … T. H. Huxley 1859a. In a lecture at the Royal Institution of Great Britain on 3 June 1859, …
  • … their ancient representatives. See T. H. Huxley 1859a. For CD’s response to this point, …
  • … in Origin , p. 425. See letter to T. H. Huxley, 25 November [1859] . For Huxley’s response …

To Charles Lyell   12 [February 1860]

Summary

Encloses letters from H. G. Bronn, Asa Gray, and C. J. F. Bunbury, concerning the Origin.

Will send review by Gray and a notice by Bronn.

Says Bronn will superintend the German translation.

Comments on lecture by Huxley [at Royal Institution, 10 Feb 1860, Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 3 (1858–62): 195–200]. Has remonstrated with him for saying sterility is "a universal and infallible criterion of species".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  12 [Feb 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.196)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2693

Matches: 6 hits

  • … see the letters to T.  H.  Huxley, 2 [February 1860] , and to H.  G.  Bronn, 4 February [ …
  • … that directly relates to CD’s comment (T.  H.  Huxley 1860a, p.  195): Leaving open the …
  • … 1860, in which he addressed CD’s work on species (T.  H.  Huxley 1860a). CD attended the …
  • … lecture (see letters to T.  H.  Huxley, [26 January 1860] and 2 [ February 1860] ). The …
  • H. G. Bronn, Asa Gray, and C. J. F. Bunbury, concerning the Origin . Will send review by Gray and a notice by Bronn. Says Bronn will superintend the German translation. Comments on lecture by Huxley [ …
  • H.  G.  Bronn, 14 February [1860] . Emma Darwin’s diary records that CD went to London on 27 February 1860. He stayed at the house of his brother Erasmus Alvey Darwin. Thomas Henry Huxley

From Charles Lyell   15 March 1863

Summary

Lyell has received compliments for letting readers draw own inferences [on species question]. Now feels he earlier did Lamarck injustice. [CD’s] substitution of variety-making power for volition [as in Lamarck] in some respects only a change of names.

Thinks Huxley taking on too many responsibilities.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Mar 1863
Classmark:  K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 364–6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4041

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  8, letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 20 July [1860] ). Lyell refers to James …
  • … degradation, or retrograde movement towards a simpler structure T.  H.  Huxley 1863b. See …
  • … letter from T.  H.  Huxley, 25 February 1863  and n.   …
  • … 4, and letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 26 [February 1863] and n.  6. See also …
  • … Charles Lyell, 12–13 March [1863] . T.  H.  Huxley 1863a and 1862a. No letter from Thomas …

To Charles Lyell   11 August [1860]

Summary

Comments on his fear that "so many heavy guns fired by great men" might influence the public and scientists.

Sends CL the Owen-inspired Wilberforce review [Q. Rev. 108 (1860): 225–64].

Mentions defence of Origin by Asa Gray at American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Agassiz and Theophilus Parsons have poor criticisms ["Prof. Agassiz on the origin of species", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 30 (1860): 142–54].

Lists other negative reviews by Rudolph Wagner ["An essay on classification by Louis Agassiz", Göttingische Gelehrte Anz. (1860) pt 2: 761–800], Charles Daubeny ["Remarks on the final causes of the sexuality of plants, with particular reference to Mr Darwin’s work On the origin of species by natural selection", Rep. BAAS 30 (1860) pt 2: 109–10], and two anonymous ones (one favourable).

Huxley says K. E. von Baer "goes a long way with us".

Comments on "pipes" in chalk as evidence of geological processes still at work.

Is writing on origin of dog breeds [Variation 1: 15–43].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  11 Aug [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.223)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2895

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Hooker, 7 August [1860] , and to T.  H.  Huxley, 8 August [1860]. Agassiz 1860 . Probably …
  • … letter. Wagner 1860b. See also letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 8 August [1860] and n.  5. …
  • … See letter from T.  H.  Huxley, 6 August 1860 . Parsons 1860 . See preceding letter. The …
  • … J.  D.  Hooker, [20? July 1860] , to T.  H.  Huxley, 20 July [1860], and to Asa Gray, 22  …
  • Huxley & Asa Gray, I see, are determined to stick to the battle, & not give in. —   I am fully convinced that whenever you publish, it will produce great effect on all trimmers, & on many others. —   By way I forgot to mention Daubeny’s pamphlet— very liberal & candid; but scientifically weak. — I believe Hooker is going nowhere this summer: he is excessively busy. M rs . H.   …

To Charles Lyell   10 April [1860]

Summary

W. B. Carpenter’s review of Origin [in Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 25 (1860): 367–404] "very good and well balanced, but not brilliant".

"There is a brilliant review by Huxley" [Westminster Rev. 17 (1860): 541–70].

Asa Gray sends good case of selection producing black pigs in Virginia.

Great blow to CD that CL cannot admit potency of natural selection.

Owen’s review in Edinburgh Review [111 (1860): 487–532] "extremely malignant, clever".

Patrick Matthew has published extract in Gardeners’ Chronicle [7 Apr 1860] from his Naval timber and arboriculture [1831], a complete but not developed anticipation of natural selection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  10 Apr [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.206)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2754

Matches: 3 hits

  • … W.  B.  Carpenter, 6 April [1860] . [T.  H.  Huxley] 1860b. Thomas Henry Huxley maintained …
  • … arise between interbreeding hybrids (T.  H.  Huxley 1860a, p.  198). Asa Gray’s letter is …
  • … 1860). [R.  Owen] 1860a. See letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 9 April [1860] . Patrick Matthew’s …

To Charles Lyell   4 [February 1863]

Summary

Thanks CL for "the great book" [Antiquity of man (1863)].

Richard Owen "ought to be ostracised by every Naturalist in England".

CL’s book will "give the whole subject of change of species an enormous advance".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 [Feb 1863]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.287)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3967

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  10, letter from T.  H. Huxley, 9 October 1862  and n.  4; and this …
  • … Correspondence vol.  9, letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 1 April [1861] , and letter to J.  D.   …

To Charles Lyell   28 [September 1860]

Summary

Discusses extinction of ammonites.

Discusses August Krohn’s cirripede research and Krohn’s correction of his own work.

Discusses origin of dog in connection with origin of man.

Comments on the guinea-pig in South America.

Notes K. E. von Baer’s view of species.

Mentions difficulty of crossing rabbit and hare.

Agrees with Hooker’s views on variation under cultivation and in nature.

Regrets use of term "natural selection", would now use "Natural Preservation".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  28 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.229)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2931

Matches: 4 hits

  • … observations on these points in T.  H. Huxley 1856–7 , 15: 239. See Correspondence vols.   …
  • … Correspondence vol.  5, letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 2 September [1854] , n.  4). Krohn later …
  • … a new species. See letter from T.  H.  Huxley, 6 August 1860 , in which Baer’s initial …
  • H. I. Youssef and B. A. Malek, with an introduction by Jane Maienschein. Washington, D.C. : Al Ahram Center for Scientific Translations for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. Correspondence : The correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt et al. 27 vols to date. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Huxley, …

To Charles Lyell   [25 April 1873]

Summary

Offers condolences on the death of CL’s wife.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [25 Apr 1873]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-8884

Matches: 1 hit

  • … fund for Thomas Henry Huxley (see letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 25 April 1873  and n.  4). …

To Charles Lyell   24 November [1860]

Summary

Comments on CL’s advice not to reply directly to reviews.

Describes work on his Drosera manuscript.

Work delayed on his "larger book" [Variation].

Comments at length on the evolutionary significance of Robert McDonnell’s investigations ["On an organ in the skate", Nat. Hist. Rev. (1861): 57–60].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  24 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.234)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2996

Matches: 2 hits

  • … been found, but see the letters to T.  H.  Huxley, 16 November [1860] and 22 November [ …
  • … had called for. See letters to T.  H.  Huxley, 22 November [1860] , and to John Murray, …

To Charles Lyell   3 October [1860]

Summary

Comments on letter from Jeffries Wyman.

Discusses reprinting reviews by Asa Gray.

Mentions views of W. S. Symonds on the geological record.

Discusses descent of turtles and tortoises.

The universality of variation.

Notes only a few species leave modified descendants.

Discusses Apteryx.

Variation among pigeons.

Comments on fertility among hybrids.

Does not agree that he makes natural selection do too much work.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  3 Oct [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.230)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2935

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to the Royal Institution on 10 February (T.  H.  Huxley 1860a). See Correspondence vol.   …
  • … 7, letters to T.  H.  Huxley, 13 December [1859] and 16 December [1859] . CD hinted to …

To Charles Lyell   4 February [1860]

Summary

Suggests references in Journal of researches 2d ed. in response to a query about the antiquity of man. Perplexed about S. S. Haldeman and Haldeman 1843–4. Glad to hear about A. C. Ramsay. Has received letter from H. G. Bronn.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 Feb [1860]
Classmark:  DAR 146: 229
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2687F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Correspondence vol.  8, letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 2 [February 1860] and n.  2. For CD’s …
  • … vol.  7, letter from Charles Lyell to T.  H.  Huxley, 17 June 1859 , and letter to Charles …

From Charles Lyell to J. D. Hooker   [31 May 1865]

Summary

Emcloses copies of correspondence concerning his dispute with John Lubbock.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [31 May 1865]
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Letters to J. D. Hooker, vol. 14, doc. 323); Edinburgh University Library, Centre for Research Collections (Gen. 113/3650–3, 3813–20, 3821–4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4844F

Matches: 2 hits

  • … as Hooker (letter from Charles Lyell to T.  H.  Huxley, 2 June 1865, Imperial College of …
  • … George Busk (letter from Charles Lyell to T.  H.  Huxley, 5 June 1865, Imperial College of …

To Charles Lyell   23 [September 1860]

Summary

Hopes to get Asa Gray’s review of Origin republished.

Argues for single origin of mammals.

Encloses two phylogenetic diagrams indicating possible descent of mammals.

Comments on rodents, marsupials, and dingo in Australia,

and on a paper on the survival of stumps as a result of root grafting.

Argues that man had a single progenitor and consists of a single species.

Comments on destruction of non-white races.

Discusses introduction of rodents to islands by man.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  23 [Sept 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.227)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2925

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Gray, 10 September [1860] , and to T.  H.  Huxley, 10 September [1860]). François Jules …
  • … on 15 September 1860. See letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 18 September [1860] . The sentence …
  • H.  Harvey, [20–4 September 1860] . [Gray] 1860b, pp.  229–39. Louis Agassiz’s criticism of Origin , taken from proof-sheets of the third volume of Agassiz 1857–62  and first printed in the American Journal of Science and Arts , was reprinted in the August issue of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History ( Agassiz 1860 ). CD had discussed with Asa Gray and with Thomas Henry Huxley
  • H. (who has reprinted Agassiz’s article) in fair play to reprint this; & I would attach A.  Gray’s name to it. From giving so much of Pictet it seems to me very good. I intended to offer to pay for its printing. What think you? The Annals, I fear, has very small circulation. — Etty has stood her journey excellently: she & Emma drove in one carriage all the way here. — —I suppose you have heard of the Huxleys’ …

To Charles Lyell   14 January [1860]

Summary

Review of Origin in Gardeners’ Chronicle [31 Dec 1859].

Criticises views of J. G. Jeffreys on non-migration of shells. Cites case of Galapagos shells.

Mentions Edward Forbes’s theory of submerged continental extensions. Cites Hooker’s [introductory] essay [in Flora Tasmaniae (1860)] for evidence against any recent connection between Australia and New Zealand.

Discusses Huxley’s views of hybrid sterility.

Questions whether Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire believed in species change. Mentions views of Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

The distribution of cave insects.

CD’s study of man.

The problems of locating French and German translators.

Huxley’s criticism of Owen’s views on human classification.

The sale of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  14 Jan [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.192)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2650

Matches: 2 hits

  • … discussed the subject at length in T.  H.  Huxley 1861b. CD had made much the same remark …
  • … Hooker, 5 July [1857]). See letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 11 January [1860] . CD discussed the …

From Charles Lyell   11 March 1863

Summary

Defends position he takes on species [in Antiquity of man]. CD overestimates CL’s capacity to influence public. Will not dogmatise on descent of man; prepared to accept it, but it "takes away much of the charm from my speculations on the past". Cannot go to Huxley’s length with regard to natural selection. Responds to CD’s comments on Antiquity of man.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  11 Mar 1863
Classmark:  K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 362–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4035

Matches: 2 hits

  • … unprogressive to the lowest progressive. T.  H.  Huxley 1863b, pp.  105–8. See also K.  M. …
  • … pp.  455–6. The reference is to T.  H.  Huxley 1863b. Crawfurd discussed Lyell’s Antiquity …

To Charles Lyell   20 November [1860]

Summary

Admires Edward Forbes’s theory of continental extensions, but it will discourage investigation of distribution.

Mentions Oswald Heer’s proposed map of Atlantis.

Discusses extinction of plants caused by the glacial era. Migration of plants and animals during glacial period.

Encourages CL’s work [on Antiquity of man (1863)].

Comments on unfriendly reviews. Asks CL’s opinion about including a reply to reviewers in next edition of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Nov [1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.233)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2989

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 2 (pt 1): 89–99. See letter to T.  H.  Huxley, 16 November [1860] and n.  8. See following …
  • … Review , see especially the letter to T.  H. Huxley, 9 April [1860] . CD refers to R.   …

From Charles Lyell   4 November 1864

Summary

Delighted to hear that CD was awarded Copley Medal. Important because award by chartered institution acts on outsiders and helps increase stock of moral courage.

Author:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Nov 1864
Classmark:  K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 383–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-4658

Matches: 1 hit

  • … See letter from T.  H.  Huxley, 4 November 1864  and nn.  1 and 2. Thomas Henry Huxley. …

To Charles Lyell   21 June [1859]

Summary

Discusses S. S. Haldeman’s paper ["Enumeration of the recent freshwater Mollusca", Boston J. Nat. Hist. 4 (1844): 468–84].

Centres of species origin.

Describes his corrections of Origin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  21 June [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.165)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2470

Matches: 1 hit

  • … See letter from Charles Lyell to T.  H. Huxley, 17 June 1859 . CD had read Haldeman 1843– …

To Charles Lyell   5 [July 1860]

Summary

Glad CL plans trip to Amiens to investigate flints and post-glacial period.

Mentions support by Huxley, Hooker, and Lubbock at Oxford BAAS meeting. Asa Gray also goes on fighting.

Likes article by William Hopkins ["Physical theories and the phenomena of life", Fraser’s Mag. 61 (1860): 739–52; 62 (1860): 74–90].

Comments on hybrids of hare and rabbit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  5 [July 1860]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.221)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2860

Matches: 1 hit

  • … J.  D.  Hooker, [2 July 1860] , to T.  H.  Huxley, 3 July [1860], and to John Lubbock, [4  …

To Charles Lyell   20 October [1859]

Summary

Comments on CL’s letters.

Discusses foreign animals naturalised in Australia and elsewhere.

Affirms man’s capacity to survive in Eocene climate.

Comments on American types.

Denies necessity for "continued intervention of creative power".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  20 Oct [1859]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.173)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2507

Matches: 1 hit

  • … See letter from Charles Lyell to T.  H. Huxley, 17 June 1859 . CD still intended to …
Document type
letter (38)
Author
Correspondent
Lyell, Charles[X]
Darwin, C. R. (36)
Hooker, J. D. (1)
Huxley, T. H. (1)
Date
1856 (1)
1859 (7)
1860 (17)
1862 (1)
1863 (5)
1864 (1)
1865 (3)
1866 (1)
1869 (1)
1873 (1)
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