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From Asa Gray   7 July 1857

Summary

Believes, with CD, that extinction may be an important factor in explaining plant distributions, but sees no reason why the several species of a genus must ever have had a common or continuous area. "Convince me of that, or show me any good grounds for it … and I think you would carry me a good way with you". It is just such people as AG that CD has to satisfy and convince.

Feels that the crossing of individuals is important in repressing variation and perhaps in perpetuating the species, but instances some plants in which it cannot, apparently, take place.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 July 1857
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 381; DAR 165: 98
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2120

Matches: 12 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   7 July 1857 …
  • … DAR 205.9: 381; DAR 165: 98 Asa Gray Cambridge, Mass. 7 July 1857 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … from H.  C. Watson, 10 March 1857 , letter from H.  C. Watson to Asa Gray, 13 March 1857 , …
  • … and letter to Asa Gray, [after 15 March 1857] . A duplicate copy of the …
  • … third part of A.  Gray 1856–7 (see letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] , …
  • … and letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 ). A.   …
  • … Gray 1857a. See letter to Asa Gray, 18 June [1857] . Gray refers to CD’s …
  • … very remarkable. Ever most cordially Yours | Asa Gray 0.3 My Dear … species? 4.5] crossed …
  • … cross-fertilised (see letters to Asa Gray, [after 15 March 1857] and 18 June [1857] ). …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] . J.  D. Hooker and Thomson 1855. Jean Louis …

From Asa Gray   1 June 1857

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Summary

Comments on species with disjoined ranges; does not feel, despite CD’s expectations, that they tend to belong to small families.

Gives the proportion of U. S. trees in which the sexes are separate [see Natural selection, p. 62].

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 June 1857
Classmark:  DAR 8: 47bA
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2098

Matches: 9 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   1 June 1857 …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … DAR 8: 47bA Asa Gray Cambridge, Mass. 1 June 1857 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] . …
  • … See letters to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] and [after 15 March 1857] . Gray refers to his …
  • … United States in A.  Gray 1856–7 , p.  400. See letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] . …
  • … See letter from Asa Gray, [ c . 24 May …
  • … 1857]. See letter to Asa Gray, [after 15 March 1857] , in which CD enclosed some notes and …

From Asa Gray   [August 1857]

Summary

States he has "misgivings about the definiteness of species". Believes there is some inherent tendency for plants to originate varieties. Cross-fertilisation is likely in most cases but sees difficulties with plants like Adlumia.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Aug 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 100, 101
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2129

Matches: 8 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   [August 1857] …
  • … DAR 165: 100, 101 Asa Gray unstated [Aug 1857] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … This letter falls between the letters to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] and 5 September [1857] . …
  • … Gray is responding to CD’s letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] , in which CD revealed his …
  • … See the earlier discussion of this point in the letter to Asa Gray, 18 June [1857] , …
  • … and the letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1857 . …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] . The chapter numbers refer to chapter 3, ‘On the …

To Asa Gray   9 May [1857]

Summary

Thanks for new part of "Statistics".

Interested in disjoined species; do they tend to belong to large or small genera, and are they generally members of small families?

Is glad AG will tackle introduced plants; has noticed that the proportion of a particular family to the whole flora tends to be similar in introduced and indigenous plants.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  9 May [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2089

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   9 May [1857] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9) Charles Robert Darwin Down 9 May [1857] Asa Gray
  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1848. A manual of the botany of the northern …
  • … Monroe and Company. London: John Chapman. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of …
  • … to prepare this paper. See letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . A.  Gray 1848 . These notes …
  • … error Gray made in his note (see letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 ). CD explained why he …
  • … ranges to be found in small genera in letter to Asa Gray, 18 June [1857] . A.  Gray 1856– …
  • … 7 , p.  400. See letter to Asa Gray, [after 15 March …
  • … 1857] , and letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . In the event, Gray was …

To Asa Gray   1 January [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for 2d part of "Statistics [of the flora of the northern U. S.", Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 22 (1856): 204–32; 2d ser. 23 (1857): 62–84, 369–403].

Is glad AG concludes species of large genera are wide-ranging, but is "riled" that he thinks the line of connection of alpine plants is through Greenland. Mentions comparisons of ranges worth investigating.

Believes trees show a tendency toward separation of the sexes and wonders if U. S. species bear this out. Asks which genera are protean in U. S.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  1 Jan [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2034

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   1 January [1857] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (7) Charles Robert Darwin Down 1 Jan [1857] Asa Gray
  • … Paris: Victor Mason. Geneva: J. Kessmann. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of …
  • … about this topic after having first mentioned it in his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] . …
  • … See also letters to Asa Gray, 24 August [1856] and 24  …
  • … November [1856] , and letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 . …
  • … Dated by the relationship to the letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . A.   …
  • … Gray 1856–7 . In his letter to Asa Gray, 2 May [1856] , CD had asked Gray to examine the …
  • … s response to this query, see letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . See letters to J.  D. …
  • … pp.  539–42). See also letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . CD refers to the section …

From Asa Gray   [c. 24 May 1857]

Summary

Discusses difficulties involved in deciding which genera are protean in the light of some comments by H. C. Watson.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 24 May 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 165: 97
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2104

Matches: 8 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   [ c. 24 May 1857] …
  • … DAR 165: 97 Asa Gray unstated [c. 24 May 1857] Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … Bibliography Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the northern United States. …
  • … part of A.  Gray 1856–7 (see letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] ). CD refers to the chapter …
  • … from Gray’s reference in letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 , to having ‘ despatched ’ a …
  • … list of protean genera ( letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 ); he had also sent Hewett …
  • … 10 March 1857  and from H.  C. Watson to Asa Gray, 13 March 1857). See letter from H.  C. …

From H. C. Watson to Asa Gray   13 March 1857

Summary

Describes problems of classifying species in highly variable genera. Lists highly variable genera. Comments on the list of Asa Gray. Says species may be made to appear more or less variable according to whether a genus is divided into few or many species.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  13 Mar 1857
Classmark:  DAR 181: 36
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2065

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Watson, H. C. Gray, Asa
  • … These notes are for Asa Gray (see n.  8, above). …
  • … From H.  C. Watson to Asa Gray    13 March 1857 …
  • … DAR 181: 36 Hewett Cottrell Watson unstated 13 Mar 1857 Asa Gray
  • … variable genera. Comments on the list of Asa Gray. Says species may be made to appear more …
  • … 1762 . Backhouse 1856 . See letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . The underscoring has …
  • … and written remarks refer to a later time when CD forwarded this letter to Asa Gray (see …
  • … letter to Asa Gray, [after 15 March 1857] ). …
  • … with the intention that CD could send it to Asa Gray. The letter provides information on …
  • … in the United States (see letter to Asa Gray, [after 15 March 1857] ). CD’s letter has not …

To Asa Gray   [after 15 March 1857]

Summary

Urges AG to generalise from his observations on the flora of the northern U. S.

Expected to find separation of sexes in trees because he believes all living beings require an occasional cross, and none is perpetually self-fertilising. The multitude of flowers of a tree would be an obstacle to cross-fertilisation unless the sexes tended to be separate.

The Leguminosae are CD’s greatest opposers; he cannot find that garden varieties ever cross. Could AG inquire of intelligent nurserymen on the subject?

Thanks AG for information on protean genera; much wants to know whether their great variability is due to their conditions of existence or is innate in them at all times and places.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  [After 15 Mar 1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (8)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2060

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   [after 15 March 1857] …
  • … Herbarium, Harvard University (8) Charles Robert Darwin Down [After 15 Mar 1857] Asa Gray
  • … from H.  C. Watson, 10 March 1857 . Letter from H.  C. Watson to Asa Gray, 13 March 1857 . …
  • … See letter from Asa Gray, [ c. 24 May 1857]. …
  • … Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the …
  • … Louis Agassiz related in the letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . See letters to George …
  • … March 1857 , and from H.  C. Watson to Asa Gray, 13 March 1857). The letter from Watson to …
  • … D. Hooker, 15 March [1857] . Letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . A.  Gray 1856–7  was …

To Asa Gray   18 June [1857]

Summary

Thanks for AG’s remarks on disjoined species. CD’s notions are based on belief that disjoined species have suffered much extinction, which is the common cause of small genera and disjoined ranges.

Discusses out-crossing in plants.

Has failed to meet with a detailed account of regular and normal impregnation in the bud. Podostemon, Subularia, and underwater Leguminosae are the strongest cases against him.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  18 June [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9a)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2109

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   18 June [1857] …
  • … University (9a) Charles Robert Darwin Moor Park Down letterhead 18 June [1857] Asa Gray
  • … Wissenschaften. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of …
  • … 1857 (see n.  16, below). Letters from Asa Gray, [ c . 24 May 1857] and 1 June 1857. Gray …
  • … of the flora of the northern United States’ (see letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 ). …
  • … In letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1857 , Gray informed CD that he had dispatched the memoir …
  • … or two’ the letters from Hewett Cottrell Watson. See letter to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] , …
  • … and letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . J.  D. …
  • … Hooker 1854. Steudel 1840–1. See letter to Asa Gray, I January [1857], in which CD first …

To Asa Gray   5 September [1857]

Summary

Encloses an abstract of his ideas on natural selection and the principle of divergence; the "means by which nature makes her species".

Discusses varieties and close species in large and small genera, finding some data from AG in conflict with his expectations.

Has been observing the action of bees in fertilising kidney beans and Lobelia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  5 Sept [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (48)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2136

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   5 September [1857] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (48) Charles Robert Darwin Down 5 Sept [1857] Asa Gray
  • … Also reprinted in De Beer ed. 1958. ] Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the …
  • … by the relationship to the letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] , and by the reference to …
  • … in kidney beans (see n.  12, below). See letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] . …
  • … Hugh Falconer. Letter from Asa Gray, [August 1857] . In his chapter on the possibility of …
  • … see Correspondence vol.  5, letters to Asa Gray, 8 June [ 1855] and 24 August [1855] ). …
  • … DAR 16.1: 126 there is a sheet headed ‘Asa Gray. Close Species ’ that appears to indicate …
  • … to the smaller genera. See letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] . A note in DAR 49: 48  …
  • … 18 October [1857]. See letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1857 . A.  Gray 1857a. Gray had …
  • … Gray had told him in the letter from Asa Gray, 4 November 1856 ) that he had not received …
  • … discussed introduced plants (see letters to Asa Gray, 9 May [1857] and 18 June [1857] ). …
  • … See letter from Asa Gray, [August 1857] . CD was able to obtain the seeds from Kew (see …

From Asa Gray   16 February 1857

Summary

Discusses the ranges of alpine species in U. S. and considers the possible migration routes of such species from Europe.

Lists those U. S. genera which he considers protean and describes the U. S. character of some genera which are protean in Europe.

Describes how he distinguishes introduced and aboriginal stocks of the same species.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  16 Feb 1857
Classmark:  DAR 165: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2053

Matches: 9 hits

  • Gray, Asa Darwin, C. R. …
  • … From Asa Gray   16 February 1857 …
  • … Belknap Press of Harvard University. Gray, Asa. 1859. On the coiling of tendrils. American …
  • … DAR 165: 96 Asa Gray Cambridge, Mass. 16 Feb 1857 Charles Robert Darwin …
  • … J. Kessmann. Dupree, Anderson Hunter. 1959. Asa Gray, 1810–1888. Cambridge, Mass. : …
  • … again, if I can help it. Ever Yours | Asa Gray 0.1 Cambridge … warrant— 1.4] crossed …
  • … creation. ’ ( A.  Gray 1859 , pp.  444–5). See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] and n.  6. See letters to J.   …
  • … and 10 December [1856] . See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . Gray’s underscoring …

To Asa Gray   29 November [1857]

Summary

Thanks AG for his criticisms of CD’s views; finds it difficult to avoid using the term "natural selection" as an agent.

Discusses crossing in Fumaria and barnacles.

Has received a naturally crossed kidney bean in which the seed-coat has been affected by the pollen of the fertilising plant.

Finds the rule of large genera having most varieties holds good and regards it as most important for his "principle of divergence".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  29 Nov [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (18)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2176

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   29 November [1857] …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (18) Charles Robert Darwin Down 29 Nov [1857] Asa Gray
  • … by the relationship to the letter to Asa Gray, 5 September [1857] . Gray’s letter has not …
  • … selection, as put forward in letter to Asa Gray, 5 September [1857] . CD included a …
  • … selection , p.  200. See letter from Asa Gray, [August 1857] . Lecoq 1845 , p.  61. See …
  • … a list of ‘close species’ (see Correspondence vol.  5, letter to Asa Gray, 8 June [1855] , …
  • … and letter from Asa Gray, 30 June 1855 ). The manuscript list is in DAR 165: 92/3. …
  • … of Fumaria by bees. See also letter to Asa Gray, 20 July [1857] , in which CD gives other …

To Asa Gray   20 July [1857]

Summary

Believes species have arisen, like domestic varieties, with much extinction, and that there are no such things as independently created species. Explains why he believes species of the same genus generally have a common or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants.

Discusses fertilisation in the bud and the insect pollination of papilionaceous flowers. His theory explains why, despite the risk of injury, cross-fertilisation is usual in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, even in hermaphrodites.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  20 July [1857]
Classmark:  Archives of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9b)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2125

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Darwin, C. R. Gray, Asa
  • … To Asa Gray   20 July [1857] …
  • … bud did occur, it was never normal and regular (see letter to Asa Gray, 18 June [1857] ). …
  • … Gray Herbarium, Harvard University (9b) Charles Robert Darwin Down 20 July [1857] Asa Gray
  • … repeated in the letter. See letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1857 . CD had asked Joseph Dalton …

From H. C. Watson   10 March 1857

Summary

HCW is trying to define what CD means by "variable" genera.

Author:  Hewett Cottrell Watson
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Mar 1857
Classmark:  DAR 181: 35
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2063

Matches: 3 hits

  • … variation) included in the letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . CD discussed protean …
  • … The annotations relate to a later occasion when CD forwarded Watson’s letter to Asa Gray. …
  • … See letter to Asa Gray, [after 15 March 1857] . …

To J. D. Hooker   [after 20 January 1857]

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Summary

CD finds Alphonse de Candolle very useful, though JDH has low opinion.

CD argues for accidental introductions explaining some odd distributions, e.g., New Zealand vs Australian plants.

CD’s method.

Diverging affinities in isolated genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [after 20 Jan 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 190
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2033

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Cambridge University Press. 1985–. Gray, Asa. 1856–7. Statistics of the flora of the …
  • … 1857] . CD refers to a letter from Asa Gray addressed to both William Jackson Hooker and …
  • … Dalton Hooker dated 5 January 1857 (Asa Gray, Kew Correspondence 1839/73 (137/8), Royal …
  • … worker —a very good one in his way. ’ (Asa Gray, Kew Correspondence 1839/73 (137/8)). R.   …
  • … Flinders. A.  Gray 1856–7 . See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . See letter to J.   …

To J. D. Hooker   1 July [1857]

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Summary

George Henslow’s curtness to JDH: "an attack of religion".

Embryonic leaves. Adaptive functions and taxonomic significance of cotyledons.

Asa Gray. Separation of sexes in U. S. trees.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  1 July [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 198
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2116

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and taxonomic significance of cotyledons. Asa Gray. Separation of sexes in U. S. trees. …
  • … in common. I have had another letter from Asa Gray: most kindly he has worked out trees of …
  • … 27] June 1857 may have discussed this point. See letter from Asa Gray, 1 June 1857 . …

To J. D. Hooker   [21 March 1857]

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Summary

Ranges of species in large vs small genera: Asa Gray’s compilation fits CD’s expectation.

CD studies seedling mortality in his weed garden.

JDH’s work on Indian flora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [21 Mar 1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 192a
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2067

Matches: 3 hits

  • … of species in large vs small genera: Asa Gray’s compilation fits CD’s expectation. CD …
  • … 1856 . A.  de Candolle 1855 . See letter to Asa Gray, 1 January [1857] . CD recorded this …
  • … I think this is not the right way. Asa Gray took genera as I asked him & the result was as …

To J. D. Hooker   15 March [1857]

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Summary

Separation of sexes in trees [U. S.].

Do plants offer positive evidence for "continuous land" theory?

Protean genera.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  15 Mar [1857]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 193
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2066

Matches: 3 hits

  • … letters about protean genera (see n.  3, below). Letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . …
  • … CD had sent Watson the last page of Asa Gray’s letter, which contained a list Gray had …
  • … 1857  and letter from H.  C. Watson to Asa Gray, 13 March 1857 . See letter from J.  D. …

To Gardeners’ Chronicle   [before 12 November 1857]

Summary

Asks writer of an article on weeds why he supposes "there is too much reason to believe that foreign seed of an indigenous species is often more prolific than that grown at home?" The point is of interest to CD "in regard to the great battle of life which is perpetually going on all around us". Cites analogous observations by Asa Gray and J. D. Hooker. Does writer know "of any other analogous cases of a weed introduced from another land beating out … a weed previously common in any particular field or farm?"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [before 12 Nov 1857]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 14 November 1857, p. 779
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2169

Matches: 3 hits

  • … us". Cites analogous observations by Asa Gray and J. D. Hooker. Does writer know "of any …
  • … us. The great American botanist, Dr. Asa Gray, believes that in the United States there …
  • … II). The reference is to the letter from Asa Gray, 16 February 1857 . J.  D. Hooker 1853– …

To J. D. Dana   5 April [1857]

Summary

Asks whether Crustacea from temperate parts of the Southern Hemisphere are more strongly analogous to those in same latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than are Arctic to Antarctic Crustacea.

Discusses astonishing finds of mammalian and reptilian remains in Purbeck beds; notes reactions of Lyell.

Has doubts about Richard Owen’s recent classification of mammals [J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 2 (1858): 1–37].

Works away [on Natural selection].

Asa Gray has given valuable assistance.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Dwight Dana
Date:  5 Apr [1857]
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Dana Family Papers (MS 164) Series 1, Box 2, folder 44)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-2072

Matches: 2 hits

  • … 1858): 1–37]. Works away [on Natural selection ]. Asa Gray has given valuable assistance. …
  • … late a good deal of correspondence with Asa Gray, who has been infinitely kind in giving …
Document type
letter (30)
Date
1857
01 (2)
02 (1)
03 (5)
04 (1)
05 (4)
06 (2)
07 (3)
08 (3)
09 (3)
10 (1)
11 (2)
12 (3)
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